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MEDICAL 


PHAPMAHY 


IN  MEMORIAE 
DR.  M.H.  SIMMONS 


MEDICINAL  PLANTS 

OP  THE 

PHILIPPINE  ARCHIPELAGO 


THE 

MEDICINAL  PLANTS 


OF   THE 


PHILIPPINES 


BY 

T.   H.   PAKDO   DE   TAYERA 

DOCTOR  EN  MEDICINA  DE  LA  FACULTAD  DE  PARIS,   COMISIONADO  CIENTIFICO  DE  S.  M.  EN 

LAS    ISLAS   FILIPINAS  Y    DELEGADO    GENERAL   EN   LAS    MISMAS   DE    LA   SOCIETE 

ACADEMIQUE  INDO-CHINOISE  DE  FRANCIA,   MIEMBRO   FUNDADOR  COR- 

RESPONDIENTE  DE  LA  SOCIEDAD  ESPANOLA  DE   HIGIENE,   ETC. 


TRANSLATED  AND  KE VISED  BY 
JEROME   B.   THOMAS,  JR.,  A.B.,  M.D. 

CAPTAIN  AND  ASSISTANT  SURGEON,  U.  S.  V. 


PHILADELPHIA : 
P.    BLAKISTON'S   SON   &   CO. 

1012   WALNUT  STREET. 

1901 


Copyright,  1901,  by 
P.  BLAKISTON'S  SON  &  Co. 


TRANSLATOR'S   PREFACE. 

This  translation  was  undertaken  with  the  especial  object  of 
facilitating  the  study  of  the  native  medicinal  plants  by  the 
numerous  medical  officers  stationed  at  small  posts  throughout 
the  Philippines.  In  order  to  aid  in  the  recognition  of  these 
plants,  the  botanical  descriptions  have  been  revised  to  the  ex- 
tent of  adding,  where  possible,  the  size  and  shape  of  the  plant, 
English  name,  length  of  leaves,  color  of  flowers,  etc.,  in  many 
instances  supplying  the  entire  botanical  description  where  it 
had  been  omitted  on  account  of  general  familiarity  with  the 
plant.  Comparing  the  few  analyses  that  I  have  had  an  oppor- 
tunity to  make  with  corresponding  ones  in  the  native  works 
from  which  Dr.  Tavera  has  taken  his  botanical  descriptions,  I 
am  impressed  with  the  necessity  for  a  revision  of  the  Botany  of 
the  Philippines.  However,  as  the  therapeutic  properties  of  the 
flora  are  of  foremost  interest  to  the  medical  profession  I  have 
not  hesitated  to  publish  the  book  in  its  present  form  as  an  enter- 
ing wedge,  leaving  to  those  better  fitted  the  great  work  of  classi- 
fying the  flora  of  these  islands  in  accordance  with  modern  botan- 
ical science. 

Dr.  Tavera  has  faithfully  described  the  Malay  and  Hindu 
therapeutics  of  the  present  day,  enriching  his  description  by  ob- 
servations founded  on  a  long  practice  in  Paris  and*  in  his  own 
native  Luzon.  From  this  potpourri  of  scientific  therapeutics 
and  ignorant,  superstitious  drugging  the  interested  physician 
will  elicit  not  a  few  useful  data  concerning  the  treatment  of 
disease  in  the  tropics,  and  at  the  same  time  gain  a  more  inti- 
mate knowledge  of  both  the  people  and  plants  of  our  new  Asiatic 
possessions. 

I  take  this  occasion  to  gratefully  acknowledge  my  obliga- 
tions to  Mr.  A.  P.  Tonielli,  stenographer  and  translator  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  Philippines,  for  typewriting  the  manu- 
script of  this  translation. 

JEROME  B.  THOMAS,  JR. 

MANILA,  P.  I. 


PREFACE. 

Commissioned  by  His  Majesty's  Government  to  study  the 
medicinal  plants  of  my  native  country,  I  returned  there  and 
spent  two  years  in  collecting  data  regarding  the  use  that  the 
Filipinos  make  of  their  plants  in  the  treatment  of  disease. 
At  the  same  time  I  collected  and  carefully  preserved  some 
with  the  purpose  of  taking  them  to  Europe,  to  study  their 
chemical  composition  in  the  laboratories  of  Paris  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  eminent  men  who  had  been  my  instructors  in  medicine. 

The  work  I  did  in  the  Philippines  was  preliminary,  a  prepa- 
ration for  the  more  extended  study  of  the  subject  which  I 
wished  to  make  in  Paris,  where  I  went  with  my  notes  and  col- 
lection. Unfortunately,  upon  leaving  Manila,  I  confided  the 
mounting  and  pressing  of  my  plants  to  an  inexperienced  person 
who  stupidly  placed  in  the  midst  of  them  several  succulent 
tubers  which  decomposed  during  the  voyage  and  spoiled  the 
other  plants.  At  the  same  time  I  received  in  Paris  an  im- 
portant collection  of  the  vegetable  drugs  of  the  Philippines, 
sent  by  my  friend  the  pharmacist,  M.  Rosedo  Garcia,  and  des- 
tined for  the  World's  Fair  of  1889.  I  opened  with  great 
pleasure  the  wood  and  zinc  box  in  which  the  collection  came, 
anticipating  that  I  should  be  able  to  carry  out  my  plan  of 
study  and  at  the  same  time  win  for  my  friend,  Garcia,  a  well- 
deserved  premium.  Imagine  my  disappointment  upon  finding 
that,  by  an  unfortunate  coincidence,  his  plants  had  arrived  in 
the  same  condition  as  mine,  having  also  been  packed  with 
tubers  of  ubi,  gabi,  etc.,  and  several  cocoanuts  which  had  de- 
composed. 

Many  times  since  then  I  have  tried  to  obtain  from  Manila, 
through  exchange  or  payment  of  money,  a  similar  collection, 
but  have  been  unable  to  secure  a  single  leaf  of  the  plants  I  so 

vii 


Vlll  PREFACE 

desired.  If  in  the  future  I  have  the  good  fortune  to  procure 
any,  I  shall  make  a  study  of  those  at  hand  and  publish  the 
results. 

I  herewith  publish  the  results  of  my  investigations  and  ex- 
periments in  Manila,  where,  especially  in  the  neighboring  towns 
of  San  Mateo  and  San  Miguel,  I  often  had  opportunities  for 
using,  with  good  results,  the  plants  of  which  this  volume 
treats.  I  may  add  that  in  spite  of  the  limited  means  at  my 
disposal  in  Manila  and  the  short  time  left  me  by  my  regular 
occupations  I  was  able  to  conduct  a  few  laboratory  experi- 
ments owing  to  which  this  work  contains  some  personal  obser- 
vations reinforcing  those  quoted  from  medical  literature. 

The  flora  of  the  Archipelago  is  known  to-day  through  the 
works  of  Fathers  Blanco,  Llanos,  Fernandez  del  Yillar  and 
Naves,  and  of  the  engineers  Jordano,  the  brothers  Vidal  and 
Soler  and  others  who  have  brought  such  honor  to  Spanish 
science,  preparing  the  way  for  the  study  of  the  therapeutic  and 
industrial  applications  of  that  wonderfully  rich  plant  life  with 
which  our  islands  have  been  endowed.  Their  works  help  us 
to  recognize  the  plants  whose  medicinal  virtues  are  herein  de- 
scribed and  it  is  to  them  I  owe  the  botanical  descriptions  in 
this  treatise. 

Father  Blanco,  in  describing  certain  plants,  mentions  their 
medicinal  uses  in  the  Philippines,  but  his  descriptions  are  few 
and  very  deficient  as  one  would  expect  in  a  work  of  the  scope 
of  his  Flora.  A  Jesuit  of  some  reputation,  Father  Clain,  pub- 
lished in  Manila  in  1712  a  book  entitled  "Kemedios  faciles 
para  diferentes  enfermedades  ? "  in  which  he  speaks  of  the 
medicinal  virtues  of  some  of  the  indigenous  plants,  almost  the 
same  ones  that  appear  in  another  work,  a  frank  and  pleasing 
little  treatise  written  by  Father  Santa  Maria.  Father  Mer- 
cado  is  the  only  one  who  has  written  a  special  treatise  on  the 
subject  and  his  manuscript  remained  unedited  until  the  Augus- 
tinian  Fathers  of  Manila  published  it  in  the  last  edition  of 


PREFACE  IX 

Father  Blanco's  " Flora"  ;  but  neither  this  work  nor  those 
of  Clain  or  Santa  Maria  are  useful  to  a  physician,  nor  are  they 
as  accurately  written  as  works  of  a  scientific  character  should 
be.  From  time  to  time  superficial  articles  have  appeared  in 
the  Manila  papers  regarding  the  virtues  of  some  plant  or  other 
and  these  books  and  articles  comprise  the  whole  literature  on 
the  subject  up  to  this  time. 

Some  physicians  regard  with  small  favor  the  therapeutic 
application  of  plants  by  the  Filipino  "herb-doctors"  (curande- 
ros)  as  being  entirely  empirical.  This  disparagement  is  un- 
justified because  in  all  the  most  rational  and  scientific  remedies 
that  we  make  use  of,  the  first  step  towards  the  final  develop- 
ment of  their  relative  position  among  remedies  is  due  to  em- 
piricism which  is  founded  on  daily  experience,  on  observation 
of  results  obtained  in  specific  cases,  facts  that  are  handed  down 
from  father  to  son  for  generations.  The  scientific  explanation 
is  lacking,  but  those  first  ideas  frequently  owing  their  origin  to 
chance,  or,  perhaps,  to  superstition,  have  often  been  based  upon 
the  observation  of  facts  which,  although  fortuitous,  are  none 
the  less  positive. 

Many  of  the  plants  mentioned  in  this  book  are  official  in  the 
Pharmacopoeia  of  India  and  we  see  no  reason  why  their  use 
should  be  proscribed  in  the  Philippines.  Filipino  physicians 
not  only  can  but  should  employ  many  indigenous  plants  in  their 
therapeutics;  in  many  instances  they  would  find  them  more 
useful  than  the  exotics,  which  are  not  always  fresh  and  are 
commonly  reduced  in  strength  by  long  keeping  or  damaged  by 
some  circumstance  of  voyage  or  climate.  The  price  is  another 
argument  in  favor  of  the  use  of  native  drugs.  If  the  pharma- 
cists would  prepare  extracts  and  keep  on  hand  the  crude  drugs 
most  in  demand  the  public  would  gain  a  great  advantage  and 
the  druggists  be  well  repaid  for  their  labor.  Physicians  and 
pharmacists  will  surely  understand  these  advantages  and  when 
finally  one  considers  that  the  patients  generally  prefer  to  be 


X  PREFACE 

treated  with  native  plants,  I  feel  justified  in  the  hope  that  their 
use  will  spread  rapidly  in  the  Philippines. 

To  employ  therapeutically  the  drugs  described  in  this  work 
is  not  to  experiment  "  in  anima  vilis,"  as  some  would  have  us 
believe.  To  experiment  is  to  employ  unknown  remedies  of 
unknown  virtues  and  properties. 

In  this  treatise  I  am  not  attempting  to  fix  the  indications  for 
this  or  that  product,  but  simply  make  known  the  diseases  in 
which  the  Filipinos  and  the  natives  of  other  countries  employ 
the  products.  Any  physician  has  a  perfect  right  to  prescribe 
these  drugs,  as  have  also  the  "  curanderos  "  and  even  the  laity, 
with  this  difference,  however,  that  the  physician  is  capable  of 
observing  results  and  guiding  himself  by  the  physiologic  action 
of  the  drugs.  His  knowledge  of  the  physiologic  and  anatomo- 
pathologic  problems  of  the  human  body,  will  enable  the  phy- 
sician to  make  scientific  inferences  that  would  be  hidden  from 
the  common  "  curandero." 

As  neither  the  Manila  nor  the  provincial  physicians  keep 
these  medicinal  plants  in  stock,  with  the  exception  of  those 
that  are  official  in  the  European  and  American  pharmacopeias, 
it  will  be  necessary  for  the  physician  who  wishes  to  use  them, 
to  busy  himself  with  seeking  them  and  laying  in  a  sufficient 
stock  to  serve  him  when  the  opportunity  presents  itself.  It  is 
necessary  to  preserve  them  by  drying  and  this  is  best  done  by 
exposing  them  several  days  to  the  fresh  air  in  a  dry  place — 
for  example,  the  corridors  of  the  house — being  careful  not  to 
expose  them  to  the  rays  of  the  sun,  in  which  latter  event  the 
fleshy  and  juicy  plants  which  do  not  desiccate  rapidly,  putrefy 
or  ferment. 

A  convenient  way  to  get  them  is  to  visit  the  Binondo  Square 
where  there  has  been  market  for  native  drugs  from  time  im- 
memorial. The  gardeners  from  the  neighboring  towns,  es- 
pecially those  from  Pasay  and  Singalon,  regularly  offer  the 
plants  for  sale  and  will  undertake  to  supply  you  with  any  that 


PREFACE  XI 

may  not  be  on  hand.  Inasmuch  as  the  common  names  of  the 
plants  lead  to  many  mistakes  and  much  confusion,  it  is  indis- 
pensable to  acquaint  one's  self  with  the  description  of  the  plant 
and  be  sure  that  the  actual  product  conforms  in  all  respects  to 
the  description.  For  this  purpose  it  is  well  to  obtain  flowering 
specimens,  and  bearing  this  fact  in  mind  I  have  been  careful  to 
indicate  the  flowering  season  of  each  plant.  By  making  ex- 
cursions to  the  towns  of  San  Mateo  and  Angono  I  have  ob- 
tained an  abundance  of  whatever  I  sought  and  at  the  same  time 
have  learned  by  talking  with  the  mountaineers  and  "  curande- 
ros,"  what  uses  they  make  of  their  plants.  The  "  curanderos  " 
know  a  great  deal  concerning  these  uses,  but  become  very 
reticent  as  soon  as  they  are  questioned  about  them.  Whether 
it  is  dread  of  ridicule  or  selfishness  or  fear  that  silences  them, 
the  fact  remains  that  it  is  no  easy  matter  to  glean  any  useful 
facts  from  them.  And  yet  by  tact  and  friendliness  one  may 
elicit  much  more  information  from  them  than  first  impressions 
would  lead  one  to  hope. 

Leaves  should  be  gathered  when  fully  developed,  rejecting 
the  old,  dried  and  worm-eaten  ones. 

The  best  time  to  gather  bark  is  one  month  before  the  period 
of  inflorescence,  when  it  is  rich  in  sap.  The  flowers  are  best 
gathered  when  about  half  expanded.  The  fruit  is  gathered 
green  or  ripe  according  to  the  active  principle  sought.  The 
seeds  should  always  be  mature. 

Not  all  parts  of  the  plant  are  equally  provided  with  the 
active  principle  which  may  be  localized  in  the  root  or  the 
flower ;  or  distinct  principles  may  exist  in  different  parts  of  the 
same  plant.  Therefore  the  part  indicated,  and  only  that  part, 
should  be  employed. 

In  the  root  the  active  substance  usually  resides  in  the  bark, 
sometimes  in  the  parenchyma  that  envelopes  the  woody  tissue 
and  rarely  in  the  woody  tissue  itself,  as,  for  example,  in  "  rhu- 
barb "  and  "  pareira  brava." 


xil  PREFACE 

The  stem  bark  is  also  a  frequent  seat  of  the  active  principle, 
of  which  the  outer  portion  contains  the  greater  amount,  accord- 
ing to  the  valuable  experiments  of  Howard. 

Some  plants  owe  their  therapeutic  importance  to  their  wood, 
others  to  their  leaves  or  flowers,  and  regarding  the  localization 
of  the  active  principle  in  these  parts  we  have  nothing  especial 
to  indicate.  The  fruit,  however,  may  have  a  pericarp  consist- 
ing of  mucilage,  starch,  sugar  and  gum,  etc.,  while  the  seeds 
contain  fatty  matter,  fixed  or  essential  oils  or  alkaloids,  as  is 
the  case  with  coffee  and  cacao.  In  view  of  these  facts,  we  re- 
peat that  it  is  indispensable  to  use  that  part  of  each  plant  which 
I  have  indicated  as  applicable  to  a  determined  case  or  condi- 
tion. 

I  earnestly  hope  that  the  physicians  and  pharmacists  prac- 
tising in  the  Philippines  may  undertake  investigations  and 
experiments  regarding  the  therapeutic  properties  of  the  plants 
of  my  native  land,  and  that  my  endeavors  may  have  acted  as 
a  stimulus  or  inspiration  to  the  loyal  and  earnest  study  of  the 
subjects  that  are  now  awakening  such  interest,  not  only  in 
Europe  and  America,  but  in  India  and  Japan. 

I  should  be  pleased  to  receive  notes,  plants  or  reports  of 
researches  from  any  one  interested  in  the  subject  matter  of  this 
book,  and  I  shall  consider  it  a  pleasure,  as  well  as  a  duty,  to 
devote  my  forces,  small  as  they  may  be,  to  aiding  any  one  who 
may  do  me  the  honor  to  claim  my  assistance. 

T.  H.  P.  DE  TAVERA. 

PARIS,  April,  1892. 


CONTENTS. 


DICOTYLEDONOUS,  POLYPETALOUS. 

DILLENIACE.E — Tetracera  macrophylla 17-18 

MAGNOLIACE^E — Illicium  anisatum,  Michelia  Champaca 18-20 

ANONACE^E — Artabotrys  odoratissimus,  Anona  squamosa,  A. 

reticulata,  A.  muricata 20-22 

MENISPERMACE^: — Tinospora    crispa,    Anamirta    Cocculus, 

Cissampelos  Pareira 22-27 

NYMPH^EACE^E — Nymphsea  Lotus,  Nelumbium  nucifera 27-28 

P  APAVERACEJE — Argemone  Mexicana 29-30 

CRUCIFER^: — Brassica  juncea,  Raphanus  sativus 30-31 

CAPPARIDACE.E — Cleome  viscosa,  Cratseva  religiosa 31-32 

BIXINE^E — Bixa  Orellana,  Pangium  edule 32-34 

PORTULACACE^E — Portulaca   oleracea 34 

GUTTIFER.E — Garcinia  mangostana,  G.  venulosa,  G.  Cam- 
bogia,  G.  morella,  Ochrocarpus  pentapetalus,  Calophyl- 

lum  Inophyllum,  Mesua  ferrea 35-40 

DIPTEROCARPE^E — Dipterocarpus  turbinatus 40-42 

MALVACEAE — Sida  carpinifolia,  Abutilon  Indicum,  Urena  sin- 
uata,  Hibiscus  Abelmoschus,  H.  tiliaceus,  H.  Rosa-Sinen- 
sis,  Thespesia  populnea,  Gossypium  herbaceum,  Bombax 

malabaricum,  Eriodendron  anfractuosum 42-51 

STERCULIACEJE— Sterculia  foetida,  S.  urens,  Kleinhovia  hos- 
pitata,  Helicteres  Ixora,  Abroma  fastuosa,  Theobroma 

Cacao 51-57 

GERANIACE^E— Oxalis   corniculata,   Biophytum   sensitivum, 

Averrhoa  Bilimbi,  A.  Carambola 58-61 

RTJTACE^E — Ruta  graveolens,  Xanthoxylum  oxyphyllum, 
Murraya  exotica,  M.  Koenigi,  Citrus  acida,  Bigaradia 

decumana,  ^Egle  decandra,  Feronia  elephantum 61-70 

SIMARUBACE^E  — Samadera  Indica 71-72 

BURSERACE.E — Garuga  pinnata,  Canarium  commune 72-75 

MELIACE^E — Melia  Azedarach,  Dysoxylum  Blancoi,  Sandori- 

cum  Indicum,  Carapa  Moluccensis,  Cedrela  Toona 75-80 

CELASTRACE^: — Celastrus  paniculata 80-81 

RHAMNACE^: — Zizyphus  Jujuba,  Rhamnus  Wightii 81-82 

ANACARDIACE^: — Mangifera  Indica,  Anacardium  occidentale, 

Odina  Wodier 82-86 

xiii 


XIV  CONTENTS 


—  Moringa  pterygosperma  ...............................     86-88 

LEGUMINOSJE  (PAPILIONACE^:)  —  Agati  grandiflora,  Abrus  pre- 
catorius,  Mucuna  pruriens,  ErythrinaIndica,Clitoria  ter- 
natea,  Pterocarpus  santalinus,  P.  Indicus,  P.  erinaceus, 
Pongamia  glabra  ..........  ..........................................     88-95 

LEGUMINOS^:   (CuESALPiNE^T-^Qsesalpinia    Bonducella,    C. 
Sappan,  C.  pulcherrima,  Cassia  fistula,  C.  occidentalis,  C. 
alata,  Tamarindus  Indica,  Bauhinia  malabarica  ...........  96-106 

LEGUMINOSJE   (MIMOSEJE)  —  Entada  scandens,  Parkia  Rox- 

burghii,  Acacia  Farnesiana  .......................................  106-109 

CRASSULACE^E  —  Kalanchoe  laciniata  .................................  109-110 

COMBRETACE.E—  Terminalia  Catappa,  T.  Chebula,  Quisqualis 

Indica  ...................................................................  110-113 

MYRTACEVE  —  Psidium  pomiferum,  Eugenia  Jambolana  ........  113-116 

MELASTOMACE^:  —  Melastoma  malabatrichum  .....................  116-117 

LYTHRACE^E  —  Ammannia  vesicatoria,  Lawsonia  alba,  Punica 

Granatum  ..............................................................  117-122 

ONAGRACE^:  —  Jussisea  suffruticosa  ...................................  122-123 

PASSIFLORACE^E  —  Carica  Papaya  ......................................  123-127 

CUCURBITACE^E  —  Trichosanthes  palmata,  T.  anguina,  T.  cu- 
cumerina,  Lagenaria  vulgaris,  var.  Gourda,  var.   cour- 
gourda,    var.    clavata,     LufFa    ^Egyptiaca,    Momordica 
balsamina,  M.  charanta,  Citrullus  Colocynthis  ..............  127-134 

FICOIDE^:  —  Trianthema  monogyna  ...................................         134 

UMBELLIFER^E  —  Hydrocotyle    Asiatica,    Carum     copticum, 

Foeniculum  vulgare,  Coriandrum  sativum  ....................  134-138 

CORNACE^:—  Alangium  Lamarkii  .....................................  138-139 

DICOTYLEDONOUS,  GAMOPETALOUS. 

RuBiACE^as  —  Hymenodictyon  excelsum,  Oldenlandia  corym- 
bosa,  Eandia  dumetorum,  Ixoracoccinea,Coffea  Arabica, 
Morinda  citrifolia  bracteata,  M.  tinctoria,  Psederia  foetida. 

140-149 

COMPOSITE:  —  Eupatorium     Ayapana,    Blumea    balsamifera, 
Sphceraiithus   Indicus,    Spilanthes    Acmella,    Artemisia 
vulgaris,  Carthamus  tinctorius  ..................................  149-155 

PLUMBAGINE^:  —Plumbago  Zeylanica  ..............................  155-156 

SAPOTACE^:  —  Achras  Sapota,  Mhnusops  Elengi  ..................  156-158 

OLE  ACE.E  —  Jasminum  Sambac  .........................................  158-159 

APOCYNACE.E  —  Allamanda    cathartica,     Thevetia   nerifolia, 
Cerbera  Odallam,  Plumeria  acutifolia,  Alstonia  scholaris, 
Kerium  odorum  ......................................................  159-167 

ASCLEPIADACE^E  —  Calotrops  gigantea,  Tylophora  asthniatica.  167-170 
LOGANIACE^:  —  Strychnos  Ignatii  .....................................  171-173 

BORAGINACE^:  —  Ehretia  buxifolia.  .  .  173 


CONTENTS  XV 

CONVOLVTJLACE.E — Ipomoea  hederacea,  I.  pes-caprse,  I.  Tur- 

pethum 174-176 

SOLANACE.E — Solanum  nigrum,  Capsicum  fastigiatum,  Da- 
tura alba,  Nicotiana  Tabacum 176-182 

SCROPHULARIACE^:  — Limnophila  menthastrum 182-183 

BIGNONIACE^E — Oroxylum  Indicum 183-184 

PEDALIACE^: — Sesamum  Indicum 184-185 

ACANTHACE.E — Acanthus  ilicifolius,  Barleria  Prionitis,  Jus- 
ticia  Gendarussa,  Adhatoda  vasica,  Khinacanthus  com- 

munis 185-190 

VERBENACE^E — Lippia  nodiflora,  Tectona  grandis,  Vitex  tri- 

folia,  Y.  Negundo,  Clerodendron  infortunatum 190-194 

LABIATE — Ocimum  basilicum,  O.  gratissimum,  O.  sanctum, 
Coleus  aromaticus,  Rosmarinus  officinalis,  Anisomeles 

ovata,  Leucas  aspera 195-199 

PLANTAGINACE.E — Plantago  erosa 199 

NYCTAGINACE^:  — Mirabilis  Jalapa 199-200 

AMARANTHACEAE — Amaranthus  spinosus,  Achyranthes  ob- 

tusifolia 200-202 

CHENOPODIACE M — Chenopodium  ambrosioides 202-203 

ARISTOLOCHIACE^E — Aristolochia  Indica 203-204 

PIPERACE^— Piper  Betle,  P.  nigrum 204-207 

CHLOR ANTH ACE^E — Chloranthus  officinalis 207-208 

LAURACE^E — Cinnamomum  pauciflorum,  C.  tamala,  Cassytha 

filiformis 208-210 

EUPHORBIACE^E — Euphorbia  pilulifera,  E.  neriifolia,  E.  Tiru- 
calli,  Phyllanthus  reticulatus,  P.  Niruri,  P.  urinaria,  Ja- 
tropha  Curcas,  Aleurites  Moluccana,  Croton  Tiglium, 
Acalypha  Indica,  Echimus  Philippensis,  Ricinus  com- 

munis  210-223 

URTICACE^: — Artocarpus   integrifolia,  Laportea  gaudichau- 

diana 223-225 

CASUARINE^E — Casuarina  Sumatrana 225-226 

MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

MUSACE^: — Musa  paradisiaca,  M.  sapieutum 227-228 

ZINGIBERACE.E — Zingiber  officinale,  Curcuma  longa,  Eletta- 

ria  Cardamomum 228—231 

AM AR YLLIDACE^E — Crinum  Asiaticum 231-232 

LILIACEJE — Aloes  Barbadensis,  Allium  sativum,  A.  Cepa 232-234 

PALM^: — Areca  Catechu,  Cocos  nucifera,  Nipa  fruticans 234-238 

CYPERACE.E — Cyperus  rotundus 239 

GRAMINE^E — Zea  Mays,  Andropogon  Schoenanthes,  Saccha- 

rum  officinarum,  Oriza 240-243 

BAMBUSE^  ..  243-244 


EXPLANATION. 

For  the  common  words  of  the  different  Filipino  dialects  I 
have  adopted  the  orthography  which  in  my  various  treatises  on 
those  dialects  I  have  demonstrated  to  be  the  easiest,  most 
rational  and  convenient.  I  should  be  inconsistent  as  to  my 
own  theories  and  convictions  if  I  continued  to  follow  the  old 
form  of  spelling.  For  the  benefit  of  those  who  are  not  familiar 
with  the  matter  I  will  state  that  the  consonants  are  pronounced 
as  follows  : 

g  always  as  in  get. 

h  gutturalized  aspirate. 

k  as  in  English. 

w  always  as  initial  w  in  English,  win,  wan. 

g  as  ng  in  sing,  hung,  etc. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

Bic. — Bicol.  Pan. — Pangasinan. 

Eng. — English.  Sp. — Spanish. 

Hoc. — Ilocan.  Sp.-Fil. — Spanish-Filipino. 

Indo-Eng. — Indo-English.  Tag. — Tagalog. 

Pam. — Pampango.  Vis. — Yiscayan. 


XVI 


MEDICINAL  PLANTS  OF  THE  PHILIPPINES 


DICOTYLEDONOUS,  POLYPETALOUS. 


DILLENIACEJE. 

Tetracera  macrophylla,  Vail.     (T.  monocarpa,  T. 
sarmentosa,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Malakatmon,  Tag. 

USES. — The  wood  of  malakatmon  is  one  of  the  best  known 
and  popular  drugs  of  the  Binondo  *  market  place.  It  is  used 
as  an  infusion  internally  in  the  haemoptysis  of  consumptives, 
and  externally  in  the  treatment  of  sore  throat,  its  action  being 
due  to  the  large  amount  of  tannin  it  contains.  It  is  also  em- 
ployed in  Malabar  in  the  form  of  an  infusion  of  the  leaves  of 
the  species,  T.  Rheedi,  to  treat  sore  throat,  mixing  it  with  a 
decoction  of  rice  called  cange. 

The  Filipinos  do  not  distinguish  this  species  from  the  T.  Assa. 

Both  are  called  malakatmon,  and  are  employed  indiscrimi- 
nately to  accomplish  the  same  results.  The  silicious  concretion 
obtained  from  the  leaves  is  used  as  a  polish  in  the  form  of 
polish  paper. 

DOSE. — In  infusion  for  internal  use,  4  grams  of  wood  to  1 
liter  of  water;  as  a  gargle,  10  to  15  grams  to  the  liter. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  with  leaves  alternate, 

oval,  serrate,  finely  dentate  with  very  short  and  stiff  hairs. 

Flowers  of  a  strong,  rather  agreeable  odor,  axillary,  in  panicles. 

Calyx,  4  sepals.     Corolla,  4  petals.     Stamens  indefinite,  ex- 

1 A  ward  or  Barrio  of  Manila. 


18  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

panding  at  the  upper  end  and   bearing  2  anthers.     Carpels  3, 
with  ovules  indefinite  in  two  series.     Seeds  with  red  arils. 
HABITAT. — In  the  vicinity  of  Manila.     Blooms  in  July. 

MAGNOLIACEJE. 

Magnolia  Family. 
Illicium  anisatum,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Anis  estrellado,  Badiana,  Sp.;  Sagki,  Tag. ; 
Star  Anise,  Eng. 

USES. — Although  this  plant  does  not  grow  in  the  Philippines, 
the  use  of  its  fruit  is  so  common  there  that  it  demands  a  place 
in  this  work.  It  is  employed  chiefly  as  a  condiment  in  the 
preparation  of  food,  and  its  essential  oil  is  used  to  prepare  the 
native  "  anise  cordial "  by  mixing  it  with  alcohol  obtained 
from  the  palm  or  from  sugar  cane. 

The  decoction  of  the  fruit  is  given  after  meals  as  a  tea-like 
beverage,  to  aid  digestion  or  for  its  carminative  effect  in  flatu- 
lent colic. 

Star  anise  has  an  aromatic  taste,  slightly  bitter  and  acrid,  and 
a  very  marked  perfume  of  anise  which  with  its  star-like  form 
gives  the  plant  one  of  its  names.  It  is  a  very  useful  stimulant, 
tonic,  stomachic  and  carminative. 

It  is  official  in  all  Pharmacopoeias  and  the  pericarp  is  the 
part  employed. 

The  dose  is  from  1  to  2  grains  to  100  of  water  in  infusion, 
to  be  taken  in  one  draught. 

According  to  Schlegel  it  contains  the  following  substances  : 
An  essential  oil  4.675  ;  a  green  waxy  material  which  melts  at 
51°,  a  resin,  a  gum  and  saponin.  The  essential  oil  is  (almost) 
identical  with  that  of  anise  from  which  it  is  impossible  to  dis- 
tinguish it  chemically.  The  only  difference  is  that  the  former 
has  a  blander  odor  and  solidifies  at  1°.25  instead  of  10°,  as 
does  the  oil  of  anise. 


MICHELIA    CHAMPACA  19 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  plant  grows  in  the  moun- 
tains of  Yunnan,  China,  and  in  Tonquin.  The  part  used  in 
the  Philippines  is  the  fruit,  being  indeed  the  only  part  known 
here.  This  is  composed  of  8  woody  follicles  arranged  about  a 
central  column  in  the  form  of  a  star.  These  follicles  open  at 
maturity  and  reveal  the  seeds,  which  are  shining,  smooth,  ovoid, 
hard,  of  a  pretty  chestnut-red  color.  In  the  Philippines  they 
are  sold  even  in  the  smallest  food- vending  shops. 

Michelia  Champaca,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Tsampaka,  Sampaka,  Tag.;  Champaca,  Fil.- 
Span. 

USES. — The  bark  of  the  trunk  is  well  known  as  a  febrifuge 
and  emmenagogue  in  India.  It  is  slightly  bitter  and  aromatic. 
Dr.  H.  Folliat  has  used  it  with  success  in  the  Island  of  Mauri- 
tius in  the  treatment  of  the  common  intermittent  fevers ;  he 
administered  the  infusion  (bark  30  grams,  water  600  cc.) — or 
the  decoction  (bark  30  grams,  water  1,200  cc.) ;  boil  till  reduced 
to  600  cc. — giving  a  wine-glassful  every  hour  just  before  and 
after  the  paroxysm. 

An  astringent  decoction  made  from  the  leaves  is  used  as  a 
gargle  in  sore  throat.  The  root  is  emmenagogue  and  the  seeds 
are  used  in  the  treatment  of  anal  fissure. 

Dr.  Hooper  has  found  the  following  substances  in  the  bark 
of  the  Champana :  a  volatile  oil  with  a  pine-like  odor ;  a  fixed 
oil,  insoluble  in  alcohol,  melting  at  15°  and  forming  soap  with 
soda ;  a  resin  extremely  bitter,  acrid,  brown  in  color ;  tannin ; 
sugar ;  a  bitter  principle,  albuminoids,  coloring  matters,  muci- 
lage and  starch. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  15-18°  high;  leaves  al- 
ternate, 6  x  2',  stipulate,  simple.  Flowers  fragrant,  saifron- 
colored,  hermaphrodite,  solitary  and  axillary.  The  receptacle, 
conical  at  its  base,  becomes  narrow,  lengthens  and  then  enlarges, 
forming  a  column  which  is  bare  at  its  narrow  part.  At  its  base 


20  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

is  inserted  the  perianth  composed  of  6  overlapping  leaflets  ar- 
ranged in  two  series.  Stamens  indefinite,  fixed  in  the  base  of 
the  column  of  the  receptacle  on  the  superior  portion  of  which 
are  inserted  the  ovaries  which  contain  many  ovules  arranged  in 
two  vertical  series. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  (of  the  islands). 

ANONACEJE. 

Custard-Apple  Family. 

Artabotrys  odoratissimus,  R.  Br.     (A.  hamatus,  BL;  Uvaria 
Sinensis  and  Unona uncinata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Ilag-ilag  de  China,  Sp.-Fil.;  Alag-ilag  Son- 
son,  Tag. 

USES. — A  decoction  of  the  leaves  of  this  species  is  used  to 
treat  cholera  in  some  of  the  islands  of  the  Malay  group  ;  in 
the  island  of  Java  they  use  for  the  same  purpose  a  decoction  of 
the  leaves  of  the  species  A.  suaveolens,  BL,  which  is  commonly 
called  Susog  Damulog  in  the  Pampanga  dialect.  The  active 
principles  of  these  plants  are  so  powerful  that  one  must  beware 
of  giving  a  large  dose,  as  hemorrhages,  nervous  phenomena  and 
abortion  may  follow. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  15-18°  high  with  leaves 
alternate,  lanceolate,  glabrous,  and  petioles  very  short.  Flowers 
very  sweet,  axillary,  solitary.  Petals  6,  fleshy,  concave  at  the 
base.  Stamens  indefinite,  closely  packed,  overlapping.  Pe- 
duncle curved  like  a  crook. 

HABITAT. — Cultivated  in  gardens. 

Anona  squamosa,  L.     (A.  tuber  osa,  Rumph.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Ates,  Tag.;  Custard  Apple,  Eng. 
USES. — The  fruit  of  the  mature  ates  is  edible  and  is  one  of 
the  most  delicious  that  grows  in  the  Philippines  ;  its  white  and 


ANONA    RETICULATA  21 

delicately  perfumed  pulp  has  a  delicious  flavor.  The  unripe 
fruit  is  exceedingly  astringent.  The  fermented  juice  of  the 
ripe  pulp  is  used  in  certain  parts  of  America  to  prepare  a  pop- 
ular drink.  The  powdered  seeds  make  a  useful  parasiticide 
especially  when  used  on  the  scalp,  but  it  is  necessary  to  avoid 
getting  any  of  the  drug  in  the  eyes  on  account  of  its  irrritant 
effect. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Tree  8  or  9°  high  with  leaves 
alternate,  oblong,  the  edges  pubescent.  Flowers  greenish-yel- 
low, axillary,  solitary  ;  peduncle  not  curved.  Petals  6,  conver- 
gent. Stamens  crowded,  indefinite.  Fruit  fleshy,  covered  with 
scales  or  rather  rounded  tubercles  ;  beneath  is  the  white  and 
fragment  pulp,  covering  the  long-oval  seeds. 

A.  reticulata,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Anonas,  Sp.-Fil. 

USES. — The  fruit  of  this  species  is  neither  as  much  prized 
nor  as  abundant  in  the  Philippines  as  that  of  the  ates.  When 
unripe  it  possesses  the  same  properties  as  the  latter.  The 
large  proportion  of  tannin  which  both  species  contain  in  their 
unripe  state,  makes  them  very  useful  in  treating  diarrhoea  and 
dysentery.  They  are  administered  in  the  form  of  a  decoction, 
by  enema.  The  sap  of  the  trunk  is  very  irritating.  The  roots 
are  used  by  the  American  Indians  to  treat  epilepsy.  Lemon 
juice  is  the  antidote  for  the  sap  of  this  species. 

I  wish  to  call  attention  to  the  similarity  of  the  common 
name  of  this  plant  to  another  entirely  distinct  species  commonly 
used  in  the  Tagalo  therapeutics  ;  namely,  the  anonag  (Cordia), 
with  which  it  must  not  be  confused. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Tree  10°  high  with  leaves 
lanceolate,  pubescent.  Flowers  in  a  sort  of  umbel.  Corolla 
like  that  of  A.  squamosa.  Fruit  without  the  plainly  visible 
tubercles  of  the  foregoing  species,  their  presence  being  merely 
suggested  by  a  sort  of  net  traced  on  the  surface. 


22  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

A.  muricata,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. —  Guandbano,  GoyabanOj  Sp.-Fil. 

USES. — The  ripe  fruit  possesses  antiscorbutic  properties ; 
the  unripe  fruit  is  used  in  treating  dysentery.  It  is  said  that 
the  ripe  fruit  is  used  in  diseases  of  the  liver. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Tree  with  leaves  oval,  alternate 
and  glabrous.  Flower  solitary,  terminal,  whitish.  The  fruit 
is  much  larger  than  that  of  the  other  species,  is  covered  with 
scales  that  end  in  a  soft  point  or  thorn  and  has  a  very  pro- 
nounced acid  taste. 

HABITAT. — All  three  species  are  common  in  all  parts  of  the 
Archipelago. 

MENISPERMACE^. 
Moonseed  Family. 

Tinospora  crispa,  Miers.     (Menispermum  crispum,  L.;  M. 
rimosum,  Blanco  ;  Cocculus  crispus,  DC.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Makabuhay,  Tag. 

USES. — Makabuhay  is  one  of  the  most  widely  known  and 
used  plants  in  the  Philippines ;  a  sort  of  panacea  applied  to  all 
bodily  afflictions.  Its  Tagalo  name  means  literally  "  you  may 
live."  A  shoot  deprived  of  roots  and  dropped  in  some  moist 
place  is  soon  covered  with  bright  green  leaves  and  adventi- 
tious roots.  This  peculiarity  of  the  plant  made  it  possible  for 
me  to  take  a  large  number  of  sprouts  from  Manila  to  Paris 
where  they  arrived  perfectly  fresh  after  a  voyage  of  forty  days, 
during  which  they  lay  almost  forgotten  in  the  ship  and  the  cars. 

The  stem  is  the  part  employed  in  medicine.  A  decoction  is 
given  internally  in  the  various  forms  of  malarial  fever  and  of 
dyspepsia.  Externally  it  is  most  useful  as  a  wash  for  ulcers 
of  all  kinds,  rapidly  improving  their  appearance. 

In  India  the  species  T.  cordifolia  is  used ;  it  differs  but  little 


TINOSPORA    CRISPA  23 

from  T.  crispa.  It  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  and  has 
been  introduced  into  Europe.  T.  cordifolia  has  given  excellent 
results  iii  the  mild  forms  of  intermittent  fever  ;  in  general  de- 
bility following  long  and  severe  cases  of  illness ;  in  chronic 
rheumatism,  and  in  the  second  stage  of  syphilis.  As  the  two 
species  are  so  much  alike  we  shall  add  the  preparations  and 
dose  of  T.  cordifolia  which  we  have  used  on  several  occasions 
with  good  results. 

TINCTURE  OF  T.  CORDIFOLIA. — Sterns  of  the  dried  plant, 
100  grams.  Alcohol  21°  (Cartier),  500  cc.  Macerate  seven 
days  in  a  closed  vessel  stirring  from  time  to  time.  After 
decanting  add  enough  alcohol  (21°)  to  bring  the  quantity  up 
to  500  cc.,  and  filter. 

DOSE. — 4-8  grams. 

MACERATION. — Fresh  stems  cut  in  small  pieces,  30  grams, 
water  300  grams.  Macerate  for  two  hours  and  filter. 

DOSE. — 30-90  cc.  a  day. 

EXTRACT. — Dry  makabuhay  in  small  pieces  500  grams. 
Water  2|  liters.  Macerate  for  twelve  hours,  filter  the  liquid 
and  express  the  macerated  drug  which  is  then  macerated  a  sec- 
ond time  in  2J  liters  of  water.  Express  again,  unite  the  two 
liquids  and  filter.  Evaporate  in  a  water-bath  to  the  consistency 
of  a  pill  mass. 

DOSE. — J-1J  grams  a  day  in  fractional  doses. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  vine  whose  runners  entwine 
themselves  among  the  tops  of  the  highest  trees,  giving  oif 
many  adventitious  roots  which  seek  the  earth.  The  stem  is  cov- 
ered with  projecting  tubercles.  Leaves  heart-shaped,  pointed, 
entire  with  five  well-marked  nerves.  Flowers  yellowish -green, 
dioecious,  growing  in  axillary  racemes.  The  male  flowers  have 
a  corolla  of  six  petals,  the  three  smaller  ones  arranged  alter- 
nately. In  the  female  flower  the  stamens  are  represented  by 
three  glands  situated  at  the  base  of  the  petals.  Fruit,  an  ellip- 
tical drupe. 


24  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Anamirta  Cocculus,  Wight  &  Arn.     (Menispermum  Cocculw, 

(L.)  Blanco  ;  M.  lacunosum,  Famk  ;   Cocculus  lacunosus, 

C.  suberosus,  DC.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Laktay,  Liktay,  Suma,  Lanta,  Lintay  bagiii, 
Tuba,  Balasin,  Bayati,  Tag.,  Vis.,  Pam. 

USES. — One  of  the  uses  to  which  the  India  berries  (Cocas  de 
Levante)  are  put  in  the  Philippines,  is  to  throw  them  into  small 
sluggish  streams  or  into  lakes  with  the  object  of  intoxicating 
the  fish  which  soon  come  to  the  surface  and  float  there  as  if 
dead.  This  custom  is  very  extensive  in  Malaysia,  in  India  and 
even  in  Europe,  where,  in  order  to  avoid  the  cases  of  poisoning 
which  this  practice  has  occasioned  in  the  consumers  of  fish  taken 
in  this  way,  it  has  been  found  necessary  to  forbid  the  sale  of 
the  berries  except  in  the  pharmacies.  These  restrictions  are 
practiced  in  France. 

In  the  Binondo  market  in  Manila  the  root  of  this  plant  may 
be  found  in  abundance ;  it  is  yellow  and  very  bitter.  The 
natives  use  the  infusion  (5—10  grams  to  300  cc.  of  water)  in 
fevers,  dyspepsia  and  menstrual  derangements.  In  India  also 
the  root  is  used  in  the  same  complaints. 

The  fruit  contains  the  highly  toxic  principle  pierotoxin,  and 
others  as  follows : 

Menispermin  (C18H24N2O2)  is  an  alkaloid  which  crystallizes  in 
pyramidal  prisms,  is  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether  and  insoluble 
in  water.  Hot  nitric  acid  converts  it  into  oxalic  acid  and  a 
yellow  substance  of  a  resinous  appearance. 

Picrotoxin  (C30H24O13)  is  not  an  alkaloid  as  may  be  seen  from 
its  formula.  Its  properties  are  not  well  known  at  the  present 
time.  It  crystallizes  in  small  quadrilateral  prisms,  white  and 
transparent,  or  in  needles  grouped  in  stars.  No  odor,  taste 
bitter,  insoluble  in  water,  partly  soluble  in  alcohol  and  in  ether, 
freely  soluble  in  acids  and  alkalies.  A  solution  in  concentrated 
sulphuric  acid  has  a  saffron-yellow  color.  Nitric  acid  trans- 
forms it  into  oxalic  acid. 


ANAMIRTA    COCCULUS  25 

Picrotoxinin  exists  in  picrotoxin  in  the  proportion  of  32  to 
100,  and  may  be  separated  by  boiling  in  benzine.  It  is  bitter, 
poisonous,  reduced  by  Fehling's  solution  and  nitrate  of  silver. 
Sixty-six  per  cent,  of  picrotoxin  consists  of  another  bitter  sub- 
stance, non-poisonous — picrotin,  which  is  insoluble  in  benzine 
and  is  reduced  by  Fehling's  solution  and  nitrate  of  silver. 
Lastly,  anamirtin  is  found  in  the  mother  water  of  picrotoxin ; 
it  is  not  bitter,  not  poisonous,  and  not  reducible  by  the  afore- 
mentioned reagents. 

The  fruit  of  the  anamirta,  the  "coca  de  Levante"  is  an 
acrid,  narcotic  poison,  which  may  not  be  employed  internally  ; 
its  uses  are  limited  to  external  medication.  In  the  Pharma- 
copoeia of  India  is  given  the  formula  for  a  parasiticide  oint- 
ment, highly  recommended  in  the  treatment  of  pediculi : 

Unguentum  anamirtce : 

4  grams  Cocculus  berries,  powdered, 
30      «      Vaseline. 
M.     Fiat  unguentum. 

In  applying  this  ointment  it  is  necessary  to  make  sure  that 
there  is  no  wound  or  abrasion  of  the  skin  through  which  ab- 
sorption might  take  place. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  vine  with  leaves  alternate, 
entire,  glabrous,  broadly  oval,  pointed,  with  5  nerves  which 
unite  at  the  base,  long  petioles.  Flowers  dioecious,  in  com- 
pound racemes.  Male  flowers  consist  of  a  perianth  without 
corolla,  the  sepals  arranged  by  threes  in  two  or  three  whorls. 
The  end  of  the  receptacle  expanded  like  a  bead,  bears  a  large 
number  of  stamens  in  6  vertical  series,  with  anthers  sessile 
and  4-lobed.  Female  flowers  analogous  as  regards  the  peri- 
anth, with  6-9  sterile  stamens.  Carpels  formed  of  5  ovaries, 
free,  unilocular,  containing  one  ovule  each.  Fruit,  a  drupe  of 
a  purple  color,  the  size  of  a  filbert,  kidney-shaped,  the  albumen 
horny. 


26  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES. 

Cissampelos  Pareira,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Sansawsansawan,  Tag.;  Chinchaochinchauan, 
Sp.-Fil. 

USES. — Although  this  plant  formerly  bore  the  Portuguese 
name  of  Pareira  brava,  the  U.  S.  P.  and  B.  P.  recognize  now 
under  this  title  only  the  root  of  Chondrodendron  tomentosum.  It 
is  diuretic  and  tonic  and  apparently  exercises  an  astringent 
and  sedative  action  upon  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  genito- 
urinary organs.  The  root  is  used  in  acute  and  chronic  cys- 
titis. 

In  Brazil  it  is  used  as  a  diaphoretic  and  as  such  is  employed 
in  cases  of  venomous  snake  bites.  It  is  also  used  there  as  an 
emmenagogue  and  diuretic,  in  intermittent  fevers,  dropsy  and 
suppression  of  the  lochia  in  women  recently  confined. 

It  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India. 

DECOCTION. — Root  of  cissampelos,  small  pieces,    50  grams. 

Water 600       " 

DOSE. — 30-100  grams. 

Boil  15  minutes;  filter  and  add  enough  water  to  bring  the 
total  bulk  up  to  600  cc. 

EXTRACT. — Root  of  cissampelos  in  powder  ....  500  grams. 

Water 5  liters. 

DOSE. — .5-1  gram. 

Digest  the  powder  for  24  hours  in  500  cc.  water,  pour  the 
mixture  into  a  filter  and  add  water  gradually  until  the  percolate 
amounts  to  5  liters.  Evaporate  the  percolate  in  a  water-bath 
to  the  consistency  of  a  pill  mass. 

FLUID  EXTRACT. — This  is  prepared  in  the  same  manner  as 
the  extract  and  is  allowed  to  remain  in  the  bath  until  reduced 
in  bulk  to  400  grams.  It  is  then  removed  and  100  grams  of 
alcohol  (36°)  are  added. 

DOSE. — 1.75-7  cc. 


NYMPH.EA    LOTUS  27 

CHEMICAL  COMPOSITION. — Fliickiger  has  isolated  a  bitter 
principle  analogous  to  berberin  ;  also  buxine  and  paracine,  which 
latter  received  the  name  pelosine  from  Wiggers  in  1839.  The 
former  chemist  proposed  the  name  buxine  for  all  these  analogous 
principles.  Pelosine  or  buxine  is  precipitated  by  a  concentrated 
solution  of  HC1,  by  sal  ammoniac,  by  potassium  nitrate  and 
potassium  iodide.  He  also  discovered  a  neutral  substance, 
deyamitin,  which  crystallizes  in  microscopic  tablets ;  sulphuric 
acid  added  to  these  gives  a  pretty  dark  blue  color  which  changes 
to  green. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  climbing  shrub  with  cylin- 
drical woody  stem,  with  leaves  simple,  alternate,  entire,  petio- 
late,  ovoid,  broad  at  the  base.  The  inferior  surface  of  the  leaf 
is  pubescent,  especially  in  the  intervals  between  the  ribs. 
Flowers  dioecious,  small,  racemose.  Calyx  of  12  sepals  ar- 
ranged in  3  whorls,  the  inner  ones  broad  and  petaloid.  Corolla 
of  6  petals  arranged  in  2  whorls.  Stamens  sterile  or  rudi- 
mentary in  the  pistillate  flower,  the  staminate  flower  bearing 
6  ;  anthers  innate,  2-celled.  Drupes  oval,  2  or  3  cm.  long, 
black,  closely  resembling  a  grape  seed. 

NYMPILEACEJE. 

Water-Lily  Family. 
Nymphsea  Lotus,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Lawas,  Talaylo,  Tunas,  Gaway-gaway,  Tag., 
Vis.,  Pam.;  Water  Lily,  Eng. 

USES. — The  anaphrodisiac  virtues  attributed  to  this  plant 
and  to  all  the  water-lily  family  are  purely  imaginary.  Its  juice 
being  slightly  bitter  and  astringent  is  used  in  decoction  as  an 
injection  in  gonorrhoea.  It  possesses  mild  narcotic  properties, 
for  which  some  use  the  juice  of  the  whole  plant,  rubbing  the 
forehead  and  temples  with  it  to  produce  sleep. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — An  aquatic  plant,  with  leaves 


28  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

solitary,  terminal,  floating  on  the  water,  dentate,  glabrous,  broad, 
deeply  cleft  at  the  base,  with  a  very  long  petiole.  Flowers 
solitary,  persistent  in  the  ripe  fruit,  oval.  Stamens  indefinite 
in  fine  whorls  or  verticils. 

HABITAT. — Common  on  the  shores  of  the  Laguna  de  Bay. 

Nelumbium  nucifera,  Gaertn.    (N.  speciosum,  Willd.;  N.  Asi- 
aticum,  Rich. ;  Cyamus  Nelumbo,  Sm.  ;   C.  mysticus,  Salis.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Bayno,  Tag. ;  Sukaw,  Hoc. ;  Sacred  Lotus, 
Eng. 

USES. — An  infusion  of  the  flowers  is  used  internally  in 
dysentery.  In  India  they  use,  for  diarrhoea  and  vomiting,  the 
viscid  juice  obtained  from  the  petioles  and  the  peduncles  of  the 
flowers.  The  rootstock  contains  a  large  quantity  of  starch 
which  has  been  utilized  for  food  in  the  periods  of  famine  which 
have  desolated  India  and  Egypt.  This  flower  was  the  Sacred 
Lotus  of  the  Egyptians  and  the  people  of  India  have  dedicated 
it  to  Lakshmi,  the  goddess  of  health  and  prosperity. 

INFUSION. — Petals,  dried 5   grams. 

Water 250       « 

Sig.     To  be  taken  during  24  hours. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — An  aquatic  plant  with  fleshy 
rootstock  which  creeps  along  the  muddy  bottoms ;  from  its 
nodes  spring  the  stalks  of  the  leaves  and  flowers.  Its  leaves 
are  alternate,  polymorphous,  some  above  and  some  below  the 
surface  of  the  water,  concave  in  the  center  whence  ribs  separate, 
shield-shaped.  Petioles  very  long,  bearing  soft,  short  spines. 
The  flowers  white  or  pink,  solitary ;  peduncle  long  and,  like 
the  petioles,  covered  with  soft,  short  spines.  Calyx  of  4-5 
unequal  sepals,  imbricated.  Corolla  with  an  indefinite  num- 
ber of  unequal  petals,  the  inner  ones  shorter.  Stamens  indefi- 
nite, inserted  in  the  base  of  the  receptacle.  Receptacle  expanded 
above  the  androccium,  in  the  form  of  an  inverted  cone,  con- 
taining a  large  number  of  alveoli  with  circular  openings. 


ARGEMONE    MEXICANA  29 

PAPAVERACEJE. 

Poppy  Family. 
Argemone  Mexicana,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Kasubhag-aso,  Hoc. 

USES. — Padre  Blanco  says  that  the  yellow  juice  of  this  plant 
' '  is  used  by  the  natives  (Filipinos)  to  treat  fissures  of  the  cor- 
ners of  the  eyes." 

The  negros  of  Senegal  use  the  decoction  of  the  root  to  cure 
gonorrhoea.  The  milky  juice  to  which  Blanco  refers  is  used 
in  different  countries  to  treat  various  skin  diseases,  including 
the  cutaneous  manifestations  of  syphilis  and  leprosy  ;  to  re- 
move warts,  and  as  an  eye  wash  in  catarrhal  conjunctivitis. 

The  English  physicians  of  India  state  that  it  is  dangerous  to 
use  the  milky  juice  as  an  application  to  the  eye,  although  Dy- 
mock  claims  the  contrary. 

The  flowers  are  narcotic  by  virtue  of  a  principle  resembling 
morphine,  perhaps  identical  with  that  alkaloid. 

The  seeds  yield  a  fixed  oil  on  expression,  which  is  laxative 
and  relieves  the  pains  of  colic,  probably  by  virtue  of  its  nar- 
cotic properties.  Physicians  in  India  praise  this  oil  highly  ; 
not  only  is  it  a  sure  and  painless  purgative,  but  it  is  free  from 
the  viscidity  and  disgusting  taste  of  castor-oil ;  besides  it  has 
the  advantage  of  operating  in  small  doses,  2-4  grams.  Its  ac- 
tivity is  proportionate  to  its  freshness.  Dr.  W.  O'Shaughnessy 
does  not  value  this  oil  highly,  but  the  experience  of  many  dis- 
tinguished physicians  of  India  has  proved  the  purgative  and 
other  properties  that  have  just  been  mentioned.  Possibly  the 
differences  of  opinion  may  arise  from  the  fact  that  oils  from 
different  plants  were  used  in  the  trials. 

The  seeds  yield  a  fixed  oil,  yellow,  clear,  of  sweet  taste,  den- 
sity 0.919  at  15°  ;  it  remains  liquid  at  —  5°  ;  is  soluble  in  an 
equal  volume  of  alcohol  at  90°  ;  characterized  by  an  orange-red 
color  on  adding  nitric  acid.  From  its  soap  Frolicher  has  ob- 


30  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

tained  acetic,  valerianic,  butyric  and  benzoic  acids.  Charbon- 
nier  claims  to  have  found  morphine  in  its  leaves  and  capsules. 
Dragendorf  has  isolated  from  the  seeds  an  alkaloid  which  pre- 
sents the  principal  characters  of  morphine.  It  is,  then,  prob- 
able that  morphine  is  the  narcotic  principle  possessed  by  this 
plant,  which  is  not  hard  to  believe  when  one  considers  the 
family  to  which  it  belongs. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  of  American  origin 
nowadays  acclimated  in  almost  all  warm  countries.  Its  stem  is 
green,  pubescent,  30-40  centimeters  high.  Leaves  alternate, 
thin,  sessile,  lanceolate,  covered  with  rigid  green  thorns. 
Flowers  hermaphrodite,  terminal,  yellow.  Calyx,  3  sepals 
with  conical  points.  Corolla,  6  rounded  petals.  Stamens  in- 
definite, free,  hypogynous.  Ovary  free,  triangular,  Capsule 
expanded,  oblong,  angular,  thickly  set  with  prickles  :  it  opens 
inferiority  by  5  valves. 

CRUCIFERJE. 

Mustard  Family. 
Brassica  juncea,  Hook.  &  Thorn.     (Sinapis  juncea,  L.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Mostaza,  Sp.;  Mustard,  Eng. 

USES. — The  seeds  are  used  in  the  same  way  as  those  of  white 
or  black  mustard  (Sinapis  alba  and  S.  nigra,  L.). 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Plant  with  a  glabrous  stem, 
leaves  sessile,  glabrous,  lanceolate,  the  upper  ones  serrate,  the 
lower  ones  almost  entire.  Flowers  in  racemes.  Calyx,  4  sepals. 
Corolla,  4  rounded,  unguiculate  petals.  Stamens  6,  two  of 
them  short  and  the  other  four  longer  and  united  in  pairs. 
Ovary  flattened.  Seed  vessel  quadrangular,  nodular,  glabrous, 
containing  many  oval  seeds. 

Raphanus  sativus,  L. 
NOM.  VULG. — Rdbano,  Sp.;  Radish,  Eng. 
USES. — Used  principally  as  food ;  it  possesses  the  antiscor- 
butic properties  common  to  the  greater  part  of  the  CruciferaB. 


CLEOME    VISCOSA  31 

It  is  an  herbaceous  plant,  the  root  of  which  is  so  commonly 
known  that  its  description  would  be  useless. 

CAPPARIDACEJE. 

Caper  Family. 

Cleome  viscosa,  L.     (C.  icosandra,  L.;  Polanisia 
viscosa,  DC.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Balabalanoyan,  Apoyapoyan,  Tag.;  Wild 
Mustard,  Eng. 

USES. — The  seeds  possess  the  same  properties  as  those  of 
mustard  and  are  used  in  place  of  the  latter  in  Manila.  In 
America  the  leaves  are  used  as  a  poultice  in  otitis.  their  action 
being  rubefacient.  In  India  the  seeds  are  given  internally  for 
their  anthelmintic  and  carminative  effect ;  the  dose  is  one  tea- 
spoonful  twice  a  day.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  mixed  with 
cocoanut  oil  is  used  in  the  form  of  eardrops  in  suppurative 
otitis. 

The  natives  give  the  same  common  name  to  the  Gynan- 
dropsis  pentaphylla,  DC.  (Cleome  pentaphytta,  L.;  C.  altiacea 
or  C.  alliodora,  Blanco),  which  is  distinguished  from  the  former 
by  its  six  stamens  inserted  on  the  pistil  and  its  violet-colored 
stem.  Its  therapeutic  properties  are  identical  with  those  of  the 
Cleome  viscosa.  Dr.  Sir  W.  Jones  believes  that  the  plant  pos- 
sesses antispasmodic  properties,  basing  his  belief  on  its  odor, 
which  resembles  asafetida,  though  not  so  disagreeable.  In 
India  the  juice  of  the  leaves  is  a  popular  remedy  for  earache. 
It  is  also  used  there  as  a  rubefacient. 

BOTANICAL,  DESCRIPTION. — An  annual,  the  stem  channeled 
and  bearing  glandular  hairs.  Leaves  compound,  alternate ; 
leaflets  lanceolate  with  glandular  hairs.  Calyx,  4  sepals.  Co- 
rolla, 4  petals,  yellow.  Stamens  14-16,  encircling  the  pistil. 
Seed  vessels  cylindrical,  with  channels  and  glandular  hairs. 
The  whole  plant  is  sticky  and  emits  a  garlicky  odor. 


32  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Cratseva  religiosa,  Forst. 

NOM.  VULG. — Saligbobog,  Tag.;  Balay-namuk,  Hoc. 

USES. — It  is  in  common  use  in  India  as  a  tonic  and  stom- 
achic. It  seems  also  to  possess  laxative  and  diuretic  proper- 
ties. In  Concan  the  juice  of  the  leaves  mixed  with  cocoanut 
oil  is  used  as  a  liniment  in  rheumatism. 

INFUSION. — Leaves,  fresh 50  grams. 

Water 500      " 

DOSE. — 50—100  grams  a  day  as  a  tonic  or  stomachic. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  15-20°  high  with  com- 
pound trifoliate  leaves  with  long  petioles ;  leaflets  lanceolate, 
acuminate,  smooth,  dark  green.  Calyx  of  4  imbricated  sepals. 
Corolla  of  4  unguiculate  petals,  between  white  and  straw  color, 
V  long.  Stamens  indefinite,  violet-colored.  Ovary  unilocular, 
many-ovuled.  Berry  spherical  with  many  seeds  buried  in  pulp. 

HABITAT. — Blanco  has  seen  the  plant  growing  in  Ilocos  and 
Imus. 

BIXINEJE. 

Bixa  Orellana,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Atsuiti,  Achuiti,  Tag.;  Achiote,  Achuete,  Sp.- 
Fil.;  Annatto,  Eng. 

USES. — The  principal  use  of  the  seeds  is  in  cookery  and 
everybody  knows  the  yellow  color  which  Filipino  cooks  im- 
part to  almost  all  their  dishes.  In  medicine  the  fine  powder 
that  covers  the  seeds  is  used  as  a  haemostatic  and  internally  as 
a  stomachic.  On  account  of  the  astringent  qualities  of  the 
coloring  matter  it  is  used  in  some  countries  to  treat  dysentery, 
a  fact  which  suggests  its  possible  therapeutic  or  rather  hygienic 
usefulness  as  a  condiment.  It  seems  to  effect  a  cure  in  dysen- 
tery in  the  same  manner  as  ipecac. 

In  India,  Brazil  and  the  Antilles  the  natives  make  a  sort  of 
paste  of  achuete  known  under  the  name  of  roeu.  There  is  a 


PANGIUM    EDULE  33 

hard,  odorless  form  of  rocu  and  another  soft,  unctuous,  of  a  deli- 
cate red  color  and  an  odor  rendered  highly  disagreeable  by  the 
urine  added  to  it  to  keep  it  soft.  Hocu  is  the  preparation  of 
achuete  that  has  been  subjected  to  chemical  analysis.  Its  com- 
position is  as  follows  :  Two  coloring  matters,  bixin  (C28H34O5), 
of  a  red  color,  resinous,  soluble  in  alcohol,  ether,  alkaline  solu- 
tions and  benzine,  crystallizing  in  microscopic  laminae,  quad- 
rangular, red,  of  a  metallic  violet  lustre ;  orettin,  yellow  in 
color,  soluble  in  alcohol  and  in  water. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  well-known  tree  growing  to  a 
height  of  5-7  meters,  with  leaves  alternate,  simple,  oval,  heart- 
shaped  at  the  base,  sharply  pointed,  glabrous,  short  petioles. 
Flowers  in  panicles.  Calyx,  5  rounded  sepals,  tuberculate  at  the 
base,  imbricated,  caducous.  Corolla  of  5  rose-colored  petals. 
Stamens  very  numerous,  free,  inserted  on  the  receptacle.  Cap- 
sule round,  dark  red,  bristling  with  stout  hairs  of  the  same 
color.  The  seeds  are  covered  with  a  fine,  yellowish-red  powder. 

Pangium  edule,  Reinw.     (Hydonocarpus  polyandra,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Pangi,  Tag. 

USES. — All  parts  of  this  tree  are  anthelmintic.  The  seeds, 
fruit,  leaves  and  bark  all  possess  narcotic  properties  dangerous 
to  man  and  the  symptoms  following  an  excessive  dose  are 
sleepiness,  headache,  a  sort  of  intoxication  or  an  attack  of  de- 
lirium that  may  end  in  death.  These  narcotic  properties  have 
been  utilized  in  Java  to  stupefy  the  fish  in  the  rivers  by  throw- 
ing the  bark  in  the  pools  and  quiet  portions  of  the  stream.  The 
juice  of  the  leaves  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  chronic  skin 
diseases.  In  Amboina  the  natives  eat  the  seeds,  the  toxic 
quality  of  which  is  removed  by  brushing  and  macerating  in 
pure  water  for  a  certain  time.  After  such  treatment  they  may 
be  eaten  with  impunity  and  an  oil  may  be  extracted  from  them 
which  is  useful  as  a  food. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  with  leaves  5'  long,  al- 


34  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

ternate,  ovate,  broad,  entire,  glabrous,  palmately  nerved.  Pet- 
iole long  with  2  persistent  lateral  stipules.  Flowers  dioecious, 
the  male  ones  in  panicles,  the  female  solitary.  Calyx 
gamosepalous,  dividing  unequally  when  the  flower  opens.  The 
male  flower  has  a  corolla  of  5-7  petals,  violet-colored,  concave, 
half  oval,  with  pubescent  borders ;  at  its  base  a  flat  scale. 
Stamens  free,  numerous,  thick  filaments,  anthers  bilocular.  In 
the  female  flower  the  perianth  is  the  same  as  in  the  former,  the 
stamens  sterile.  Ovary  unilocular,  with  2-4  parietal  placentse 
with  many  ovules.  Fruit  as  large  as  a  man's  head,  with  thin 
woody  pericarp  and  many  seeds  embedded  within  its  pulp. 

PORTULACACEJE. 

Purslane   Family. 
Portulaca  oleracea,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. —  Verdolagas,  Sp.;  Olasiman,  Kolasiman,  Tag.; 
Purslane,  Eng. 

USES. — The  entire  plant  is  edible,  in  the  form  of  a  salad  or 
as  a  condiment  with  meat  or  fish.  The  leaves  are  succulent 
and  acid,  and  the  juice  expressed  from  them  is  used  as  an  eye- 
wash to  remove  corneal  opacities ;  it  is  also  used  in  superficial 
erysipelas  and  other  skin  affections.  The  bruised  leaves  are 
used  as  a  poultice  for  abscesses,  contusions  and  on  the  temples 
for  headache.  The  juice  is  given  internally  to  check  hemoptysis 
and  in  diseases  of  the  lungs  and  bladder ;  the  seeds  also  are 
used  in  these  complaints. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  with  prostrate  stem. 
Leaves  fleshy,  wedge-shaped.  Flowers  small,  sessile,  terminal, 
pale  yellow.  Calyx  of  2  large  teeth,  deciduous.  Corolla,  4-5 
petals  with  a  notch  at  the  end.  Stamens  9-14.  Style  of 
equal  length  with  the  stamens.  Stigma  in  4—6  divisions.  The 
seed  vessel,  which  dehisces  horizontally,  contains  many  small, 
heart-shaped  seeds. 

HABITAT. — It  grows  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 


GARCINIA    MANGOSTANA  35 

GUTTIFER-E. 

Gamboge  Family. 
Garcinia  mangostana,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Mangostdn,  Sp.;  Mangosteen,  Eng. 

USES. — The  seed  of  the  fruit  is  astringent  and  is  given  inter- 
nally as  an  infusion  in  dysentery  and  chronic  diarrhoea.  The 
decoction  is  very  useful  as  an  injection  in  leucorrhcea. 

The  following  potion  has  given  excellent  results  to  Dr.  Ed. 
J.  Waring  in  chronic  dysentery  and  the  diarrhoeas  of  tropical 
countries  : 

Dried  peel  of  mangosteen 60  grams. 

Cumin  seed 5       " 

Coriander 5       u 

Water 1,200       « 

Boil  till  reduced  to  600  grams.  Take  120  grams  twice  a 
day.  Tincture  of  opium  may  be  added. 

An  analysis  of  mangosteen  peel  by  W.  Schmidt  demonstrated 
a  large  quantity  of  tannin,  a  resin  and  a  crystallizable  principle 
named  mangostin  (C20H22O5)  which  exists  in  the  form  of  fine, 
golden  yellow  laminae,  tasteless,  soluble  in  alcohol,  ether  and 
the  alkalies,  insoluble  in  water.  With  the  perchloride  of  iron 
it  gives  a  blackish-green  color,  and  sulphuric  acid  colors  it  red. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  mangosteen  grows  only  in 
the  southern  islands  of  the  Archipelago  and  its  delicious  fruit 
is  the  part  of  the  plant  known  in  Manila.  The  peel  is  at  the 
present  time  almost  universally  employed  in  medicine.  The 
fruit  is  about  the  size  of  a  small  Manila  orange,  the  pericarp  a 
dark  red  or  chocolate  color,  tough  and  thick,  crowned  with  the 
remains  of  the  calyx.  On  breaking  it  open  the  edible  portion 
of  the  fruit  is  seen,  consisting  of  6-18  seeds  covered  by  a  white, 
sweet  pulp,  cottony  in  appearance,  of  a  delicious  slightly  acrid 
flavor. 


36  THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

1.  Garcinia  venulosa,  Choisy.     (Cambogia  venulosa,  Blanco.) 
2.  G.  Cambogia,  Desrouss.     (Cambogia  binucao,  Blanco.) 
NOM.  VULG. — Binukaw,  Tag.,  applied  to  both  trees,  though 
the  first  is  also  called  Gatasan  puld  in  Tagalo  and  Taklag-onak 
in  Pampango. 

USES. — The  fruit  of  the  second  species,  the  true  name  of 
which  is  binucaw,  is  acid  and  edible.  The  fruit  and  the  trunk 
of  both  species,  when  cut,  exude  a  gum-resin  very  much  like 
gamboge  which  is  obtained  from  the  G.  morella  or  G.  pedicel- 
lota,  Desr.  These  gum-resins,  however,  seem  to  be  much 
inferior  to  gamboge ;  they  contain  an  essential  oil  which  does 
not  exist  in  the  latter  and  their  color  is  paler. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  G.  venulosa  is  a  tree  with 
leaves  opposite,  lanceolate,  acute,  entire  and  glabrous,  the  in- 
ferior surface  covered  with  nervelets  which  converge  at  the 
apex.  Petioles  short  and  flattened.  Flowers  tetramerous. 
Calyx,  4  persistent  sepals.  Corolla,  4  petals,  overlapping, 
fleshy,  ovate,  of  the  same  color  as  the  calyx.  Stamens  numer- 
ous ;  no  filaments  ;  anthers  round  and  very  small.  Style  very 
short  and  thick,  stigma  peltate,  divided  into  10  parts.  Fruit 
globose,  depressed,  no  well-marked  ridges  when  ripe. 

G.  Cambogia  differs  from  the  foregoing  in  the  leaves  which 
present  no  nervelets  on  the  lower  surface  and  the  fruit  which 
presents  8  angles  or  rounded  ridges. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  throughout  the  islands,  abound- 
ing in  the  mountains  of  San  Mateo  and  Morong.  Blooms  in 
August. 

Garcinia  morella,  Desr. 

NOM.  YULG. — I  do  not  know  the  name  given  by  the  Fili- 
pinos to  this  tree,  which  Yidal  and  Soler  have  seen  in  Montal- 
van,  Tiwi  (Albay)  and  San  Mateo  (Province  of  Manila)  ;  but 
it  is  highly  important  in  medicine  as  the  true  gamboge  is  ob- 
tained from  it.  Gamboge  Tree,  Eng. 

The  Gamboge  of  the  U.  S.  P.  and   B.  P.  is  obtained  from 


GARCINIA    MORELLA  37 

6r.  Hanbuni  which  differs  somewhat  botanically  from  G. 
morella. 

USES. — All  parts  of  the  plant  contain  a  thick,  yellow,  milky 
juice  which  constitutes  the  gamboge.  In  Malabar,  Ceylon, 
Canara  and  Singapore  the  following  method  of  extraction  is 
followed  :  At  the  beginning  of  the  rainy  season  a  spiral  inci- 
sion is  made  around  the  bark  of  about  half  the  tree  trunk,  and 
a  piece  of  bamboo  is  fixed  in  place  to  collect  the  juice  which 
slowly  exudes  from  the  cut  for  several  months,  soon  becoming 
viscid  and  then  solid  after  contact  with  the  air.  One  tree,  as 
a  rule,  yields  enough  sap  to  fill  three  internodal  segments  of 
bamboo,  each  50  cm.  long  by  3-5  cm.  in  diameter. 

Gamboge  is  a  laxative  in  doses  of  10-15  cgm.,  produces 
abundant  evacuations  with  violent  colicky  pains  in  doses  of 
30-50  cgm.,  and  is  an  irritant  poison  in  large  doses.  In  other 
words  it  is  a  highly  energetic  hydragogue  cathartic,  especially 
indicated  when  we  wish  to  drain  off  the  fluid  element  of  the 
blood,  as  in  dropsy,  asthma,  pulmonary  and  cerebral  congestion. 
It  is  also  used  as  a  vermifuge. 

It  is  rarely  given  alone,  but  is  combined  with  calomel,  aloes, 
jalap,  rhubarb,  etc. 

It  is  official  in  all  pharmacopoeias. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  10-20  meters  high,  with 
leaves  opposite,  elliptical,  lanceolate,  narrowed  at  both  extremi- 
ties, acuminate,  entire,  coriaceous,  glabrous,  10—12  cm.  long 
by  3-4  cm.  broad,  with  short  petioles.  Flowers  dioecious. 
Male  flower  axillary,  solitary  or  in  groups  of  3— 6,  pedunculate 
with  small  bracts.  Calyx,  4  sepals.  Corolla,  4  petals,  orbicu- 
lar, thick,  fleshy.  Stamens  30-40,  sessile,  adherent  at  the  base. 
Anthers  unilocular.  Female  flower  sessile,  solitary,  axillary, 
larger  than  the  male ;  calyx  and  corolla  equal ;  staminodia 
20-30,  jointed  at  the  base,  forming  a  membranous  corolla  from 
the  upper  edge  of  which  spring  a  few  short  filaments  which 
support  each  a  suboval  sterile  anther.  The  ovary  is  superior 


38  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

and  almost  spherical,  with  4  cells  each  containing  1  ovule.  The 
fruit,  almost  spherical,  is  2J  cm.  in  diameter,  corticate,  bearing 
at  its  base  the  persistent  calyx  ;  each  of  its  4  cells  contains  a  seed. 

Ochrocarpus  pentapetalous,  Blanco.     (Tovomita  pentapetala, 

Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Namakpakan,  Tagudin,  Hoc.  (?). 

USES. — An  oil  expressed  from  the  fruit  is  used  in  Ilocos  for 
illuminating  purposes.  The  flowers  are  astringent  and  are  used 
in  infusion  in  cases  of  diarrhoea.  The  oil  of  the  fruit  is  also 
used  locally  in  rheumatism,  tumefactions  and  other  painful  con- 
ditions. In  some  countries  of  Malaysia  the  oil  is  used  in  the 
same  way  especially  in  beriberi  and  the  periarticular  inflamma- 
tions incident  to  puerperium. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Straight  trunk  about  8'  in  diam- 
eter, with  milky  sap.  Leaves  1  \'  long,  sessile,  opposite,  ovate, 
expanded,  minutely  notched  and  glabrous,  with  a  small  downy 
swelling  at  the  base,  superior  and  glued  to  the  branch.  Flowers 
terminal,  in  racemes,  with  opposite  pedicels.  Calyx  white,  of 
2  rounded  leaflets  bent  downwards.  Corolla  white,  5  petals 
(not  4),  oval,  concave,  twice  as  long  as  the  calyx.  Stamens 
numerous,  joined  to  the  receptacle.  Filaments  slightly  longer 
than  the  corolla.  Anthers  oval,  2-celled.  Ovary  superior, 
oval.  Style  longer  than  the  stamens.  Stigma  peltate,  some- 
times bilobed,  sometimes  4-lobed.  Fruit  about  the  size  of  an 
acorn,  oval,  fleshy,  containing  a  milky  juice ;  it  is  2-celled  and 
each  cell  contains  a  solitary,  hard  seed ;  of  these  one  aborts. 

HABITAT. — It  grows  near  the  sea.     Blooms  in  December. 

Calophyllum  Inophyllum,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Palo  Maria,  Sp.-Fil.;  Bitanhol,  Tamawian, 
Dankalan,  Dinkalin,  Tag.;  Dankalan  Bitaoy,  Vis.,  Pam.,  Bik. 

USES. — From  the  seeds  of  the  fruit  there  exudes  a  yellowish- 
green  oil,  bitter  and  aromatic.  It  is  used  in  some  districts  for 


MESUA   FERREA  39 

illuminating  purposes.  Its  density  i&  0.942  and  its  point  of 
solidification  5°  above  zero.  In  India  it  is  used  by  inunction 
in  rheumatism  and  in  the  Philippines  locally  over  the  stomach 
in  indigestion  and  colic.  The  bark  of  the  tree  when  incised 
exudes  a  green  resin  of  a  very  agreeable  odor,  which  is  used  as 
an  application  to  wounds  and  old  sores.  In  India  it  is  used  in 
the  same  way.  This  resin  is  fusible  and  dissolves  completely 
in  alcohol.  It  has  been  mistaken  for  the  tacamahaca  of  India, 
which,  however,  is  a  product  of  the  C.  calaba,  L.  Mixed  with 
equal  parts  of  pitch  and  wax  it  is  applied  to  the  chest  as  a 
plaster  in  bronchitis.  A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  for 
purulent  ophthalmia  in  some  parts  of  India  and  Mauritius. 
The  pounded  bark  is  applied  locally  in  orchitis  and  epididymitis. 
We  have  had  occasion  to  use  a  mixture  of  equal  parts  of  the 
resin  with  white  vaseline  spread  on  linen  and  applied  between 
the  shoulder  blades ;  in  the  persistent  cough  of  senile  bron- 
chitis the  relief  was  marked. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree  with  beautiful,  dark 
green  leaves  4-5'  long,  opposite,  entire,  large,  oval  with  nerves 
numerous,  fine  and  perpendicular  to  the  midrib.  Petioles  very 
short.  Flowers  large,  white,  sweet-scented,  axillary,  in  racemes 
of  7-9.  Calyx  white,  of  4  sepals.  Corolla  white,  of  4  petals. 
Stamens  numerous,  polyadelphous.  Ovary  rudimentary  in  the 
male  flower ;  unilocular  and  uniovulate  in  the  female.  Style 
single  and  large.  Drupe  superior,  with  a  hard,  bony  pit,  con- 
taining a  thicker,  softer  substance  which  envelopes  a  seed  of  like 
consistency. 

HABITAT. — It  is  found  in  central  Luzon  and  in  the  Prov- 
inces of  Tayabas,  La  Union  and  Ilocos.  Blooms  in  November. 

Mesua  ferrea,  L.     (Calophyllum  apetalum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VuLG.—Malabukbuk  (?),  Tag. 

USES. — We  do  not  know  to  what  use  the  Filipinos  put  this 
plant,  but  in  India  the  sweet  flowers  are  dried  and  sold  in  the 


40  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

bazars  under  the  name  of  Nag-Kasar  or  Nagesur,  which  is  used 
as  a  mild  stimulant,  but  especially  as  a  perfume. 

A  dark  oil  is  expressed  from  the  seeds,  its  density  0.954  and 
its  solidifying  point  5°  above  zero.  In  northern  Canara  it  is 
used  locally  in  rheumatism.  The  incised  root  bark  exudes  a 
resinous  sap  which  is  a  good  bitter  tonic.  The  infusion  of  the 
wood  is  equally  good.  The  dried  flowers,  finely  powdered  and 
mixed  with  oil  or  lard  make  a  useful  ointment  for  acute  hemor- 
rhoids. The  fruit  is  acrid  and  purgative. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  with  leaves  long-petioled, 
oblong,  lanceolate,  acuminate,  rounded  at  the  base,  thick,  coria- 
ceous, upper  surface  lustrous,  lower  surface  greenish  or  covered 
with  a  waxy,  ash-colored  powder.  Flowers  terminal  or  axil- 
lary, solitary,  yellowish.  Calyx  4  imbricated  sepals,  orbicu- 
late,  slightly  pubescent.  Corolla  4  persistent  petals,  wedge- 
shaped,  short,  with  rounded  points.  Stamens  indefinite,  free, 
in  5—6  series.  Ovary  free,  2-celled,  each  cell  containing  2 
ovules.  Style  bilobed.  Fruit  nearly  unilocular,  ovate,  acumi- 
nate, encompassed  at  its  base  by  the  sepals,  the  lower  part  of 
the  petals,  and  crowned  by  the  style.  Pericarp  woody,  dehis- 
cent at  the  tip  by  2-4  valves  ;  contains  1-4  seeds,  slightly  or- 
biculate,  coriaceous. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  the  forests. 

DIPTEROCARPEJE. 

Dipterocarpus  turbinatus,  Gaertn.     (D.  Indicus,  Bedd.;  D. 
MayapiSj  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Mdyapis,  Tag.;   Gurjvn,  Kanym,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — This  tree  yields  an  oleo  resin,  used  in  medicine  and 
known  under  the  name  of  bdlsamo  de  gurjun.  Other  species 
of  Dipterocarpus  (D.  alatus,  Roxb.;  D.  incanus,  Roxb.;  D. 
trinervis,  Bl.,  etc.,  etc.)  produce  the  same  substance.  Balsam 
of  Gurjun  is  a  stimulant  of  the  mucous  membranes,  especially 


DIPTEROCARPUS    TURBINATUS  41 

those  of  the  geni to-urinary  tract,  and  is  diuretic.  It  is  also  in- 
dicated in  bronchial  catarrh  and  as  a  local  application  in  ulcer. 
The  first  to  recommend  the  use  of  gurjun  as  a  substitute  for 
copaiba  was  Sir  W.  O'Shaughnessy  in  1838,  and  in  1852  this 
property  was  confirmed  by  Waring  with  highly  satisfactory  re- 
sults. Dr.  Enderson  of  Glasgow  employed  it  in  cases  that  re- 
ceived no  benefit  from  copaiba,  giving  a  teaspoonful  t.  i.  d.  in 
emulsion.  Dr.  Rean  also  classed  it  as  equal  to  copaiba  in  effi- 
ciency. 

The  daily  dose  ranges  from  5—20  grams,  in  liquid  or  pill. 

The  following  is  an  excellent  formula  for  an  emulsion  : 

Cinnamon  water 125  grams. 

Sodium  carbonate,  crystals 2       " 

Balsam  of  gurjun 25        " 

Syrup  of  gum 25       " 

Sulphuric  ether 2        " 

Mix  and  shake. 

DOSE. — 6-12  large  spoonfuls  each  day,  for  the  declining 
stage  of  gonorrhoea. 

In  Burmah  they  extract  the  balsam  by  the  following  method  : 
A  large  hole  is  cut  in  the  trunk  of  the  tree  and  a  fire  is  built 
in  this  cavity  and  kept  up  till  the  wood  of  the  trunk  begins  to 
burn,  by  which  time  the  oleo  resin  has  collected  in  abundance 
in  the  segments  of  bamboo  placed  to  receive  it.  When  the 
exudate  diminishes,  fire  is  again  placed  in  the  cavity  and  one 
tree  may  tolerate  2,  3  or  even  4  of  these  cavities.  The  exu- 
date on  standing  separates  into  2  parts  ;  a  solid  called  "  guad  " 
which  forms  the  lower  layer,  and  a  supernatant  liquid  which 
is  the  balsam.  It  is  dense,  viscid  and  very  fluorescent ;  opaque 
and  gray-green  by  reflected  light.  It  has  an  odor  similar  to 
that  of  copaiba,  is  bitter  and  aromatic.  Its  density  is  0.964. 
It  is  soluble  in  benzine,  in  bisulphuret  of  carbon,  chloroform, 
the  essential  oils  and  less  so  in  ether  and  acetic  acid.  It  be- 
4 


42  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

comes  turbid  and  coagulates  if  it  be  kept  at  100°  for  some 
time  and  it  solidifies  at  200 °,  while  copaiba  remains  liquid  at 
this  temperature. 

A  specimen  of  the  balsam  examined  by  Fluckiger  con- 
sisted of  54.44  parts  semifluid  resin  and  45.56  volatile  ma- 
terial. Upon  distillation  it  yields  an  essential  oil,  of  slight 
odor,  straw-colored ;  formula  C20H32  (Werner).  If  purified  its 
density  is  0.915.  It  is  soluble  in  amylic  alcohol,  scarcely  so  in 
absolute  alcohol.  Hydrochloric  acid  colors  it  a  beautiful  blue. 
The  resin  remaining  after  distillation,  dissolved  in  alcohol 
0.838  with  the  addition  of  ammonia,  yields  as  a  precipitate  a 
crystalline  acid  (gurjunic  acid),  C44H64Og,  soluble  in  alcohol  0.838, 
in  ether,  in  benzol  and  bisulphide  of  carbon.  It  melts  at  220° 
(Werner),  solidifies  at  180°  and  is  decomposed  at  260°. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  very  large,  handsome  tree 
with  leaves  about  5r  in  length,  alternate,  ovate,  broad  and  lanceo- 
late, entire,  glabrous  and  membranaceous.  Petioles  very  short. 
Flowers  terminal,  paniculate,  handsome,  fragrant.  Calyx  free, 
5  lanceolate  sepals,  of  which  2  are  slightly  longer  than  the 
others.  Corolla,  5  yellow  oblong  petals  longer  than  the  sepals. 
Stamens  numerous,  attached  to  the  receptacle.  Filaments  very 
short.  Anthers  of  2  divisions  each  ending  in  a  long  beard. 
Ovary  half  buried  in  the  receptable.  A  single  thick  style. 
Three  simple  stigmas.  Seed  vessel  of  3  cells,  seeds  in  pairs. 

HABITAT. — In  Luzon  in  the  mountains  of  Tala,  Angat  and 
San  Mateo ;  in  Mindanao,  Paragua,  Balabac  and  Negros. 
Blooms  in  June. 

MALVACE.2E. 

Mallow  Family. 

Sida  carpinifolia,  L.     (S.  acuta,  Burm.;  S.  stipulata, 
Cav.;  S.  frutescens,  Blanco.) 

VULG. —  Wawalisan,  Eskobayhaba,    Pamalis,    Hic/ot- 
amalis,  Tag.,  Vis.,  Pam. 


ABUTILON    INDICUM  43 

USES. — The  root  is  emollient  and  bitter.  The  decoction  is 
used  as  a  lotion  for  ulcers,  and  internally  as  a  sudorific  and 
tonic-astringent.  The  physicians  of  India  prescribe  the  pow- 
dered root  with  milk  for  fevers  and  for  nervous  and  urinary 
diseases.  The  leaves  are  used  locally  in  ophthalmia. 

The  juice  of  the  root  is  employed  as  a  wash  for  all  kinds  of 
sores  and  ulcers  and  the  juice  of  the  entire  plant  is  given  for 
spermatorrhoea.  After  experimenting  with  the  root,  the  com- 
pilers of  the  Bengal  Dispensatory  announced  their  uncertainty 
as  to  whether  or  not  it  possessed  antipyretic  properties ;  how- 
ever, they  pronounce  it  diaphoretic,  an  exciter  of  the  appetite 
and  an  excellent  bitter  tonic.  In  Goa  the  Portuguese  consider 
it  diuretic  and  use  it  especially  in  rheumatic  affections. 

The  root  of  S.  carpinifolia  gives  a  blue  color  with  the  salts 
of  iron.  It  does  not  precipitate  gelatin  and  contains  asparagin. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  2-4°  high  with  woody, 
branching  stem,  leaves  alternate,  oblong,  pointed,  serrate,  un- 
der surface  neither  hoary  nor  tomentose  as  in  some  other  species 
of  Sida.  Petioles  very  short,  curved  near  the  leaf,  2  stipules 
near  the  base.  Flowers  axillary,  solitary.  Calyx  simple,  in  5 
parts.  Corolla,  5  petals  notched  obliquely.  Stamens  nu- 
merous, inserted  on  the  end  of  a  column.  Anthers  globose. 
Styles  5,  mingled  with  the  stamens.  Stigmas  globose.  Cells 
of  the  same  number  as  the  styles,  verticillate,  with  solitary 
seeds. 

• 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon,  Panay,  Mindanao,  Paragua, 
Cebu  and  Balabac. 

Abutilon  Indicum,  Don.     (Sida  Indica,  L.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kuakuakohan,  Gilig-giligan,  Tag.;  labig, 
Mails,  Dulupag,  Pilis,  Vis.;  Malvas  de  Castilla,  Sp.-Fil. 

USES. — The  trunk  bark  is  slightly  bitter,  and  in  decoction 
is  used  as  a  diuretic.  An  infusion  of  the  leaves  and  flowers  is 
used  as  an  emollient  in  place  of  mallows.  The  infusion  of  the 


44  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

root  it  used  for  the  same  effect,  as  a  lotion  or  injection.  I 
have  often  had  occasion  to  employ  this  plant  and  would  never 
use  the  Philippine  mallow  in  place  of  it. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  3-4°  high,  all  its  parts 
covered  with  hairs,  simple  and  tomentose.  Leaves  heart- 
shaped,  angular,  obtuse,  unequally  serrate,  smooth,  soft,  the 
lower  surface  hoary  and  bearing  9  well-marked  nerves.  Pet- 
ioles longer  than  the  leaves,  with  2  stipules  at  the  base. 
Flowers  yellow,  axillary,  solitary.  Peduncles  long,  with  a 
node  near  the  end.  Calyx,  5  sepals,  as  in  all  the  Malvaceae. 
Corolla,  5  petals  with  a  small  notch  at  the  end.  Stamens  very 
numerous  as  well  as  the  styles.  Both  arise  from  the  summit  of 
a  very  short  column  and  twist  in  all  directions  forming  a  tassel 
or  tuft.  Fruit  much  higher  than  the  calyx,  of  10-20  cells  or 
carpels  which  are  broad,  compressed,  hairy,  the  walls  united 
toward  the  center,  each  containing  2—3  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon,  Panay,  Mindanao  and  other 
islands.  Blooms  in  September. 

Urena  sinuata,  L.     ( U.  morifolia  and  muricata,  DC.;    U.  multi- 
fida,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Kulutan,  Kulutkulutan,  Molopolo,  Tag.,  Vis., 
Pam. 

USES. — The  infusion  of  the  root  is  used  internally  as  an 
emollient  and  refrigerant ;  externally  in  skin  diseases  accom- 
panied by  smarting  and  inflammation.  The  boiled  and  pounded 
leaves  are  used  as  a  poultice  in  inflammation  of  the  intestines 
and  bladder. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  spreading  plant  4-6°  high, 
with  straight  stem,  leaves  cleft  at  the  base,  serrate  and  hairy; 
the  larger  ones  have  5-6  lobules  which  subdivide  into  smaller 
ones  and  bear  a  small  gland  in  the  inferior  surface  of  the  mid- 
rib. Petioles  short.  Flowers  terminal  and  racemose.  Calyx 
double,  composed  of  5  narrow  sepals  externally,  and  5  colored 


HIBISCUS    ABELMOSCHUS  45 

sepals  internally  alternating  with  the  outer  ones.  Corolla,  5 
petals.  Stamens  numerous,  inserted  about  a  small  column. 
Styles  10,  on  the  end  of  the  column.  Stigmas  thick,  covered 
with  little  spheres.  Five  united  carpels,  kidney-shaped,  brist- 
ling with  short  stiff  hairs,  containing  solitary  seeds. 
HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  Archipelago. 

Hibiscus  Abelmoschus,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — KasMi,  Kastio,  Kastiogan,  Dalupan,  Tag.; 
Marikum,  Dukum,  Marukum,  Marapoto,  Vis.;  !  Marsh  Mallow, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  bruised  seeds  emit  an  odor  of  musk,  and  for 
this  reason  the  plant  has  received  the  name  Kastuli,  signifying 
musk  in  Sanscrit.  They  possess  antispasmodic  and  stimulant 
properties,  and  the  infusion  is  diuretic.  Bonastre2  analyzed 
Kastuli  seeds  as  follows  : 

Water  and  parenchyma 52.00 

Gum 36.00 

Albumin 5.60 

Fixed  oil,  resin,  crystals  and  odorous  principles  6.40 

Total 100.00 

The  fixed  oil  is  greenish-yellow,  fluid,  but  gradually  solidi- 
fying in  the  air.  The  crystalline  material  is  white,  of  an 
agreeable  odor,  soluble  in  ether,  where  it  crystallizes  in  rays, 
fusible  at  35°.  The  odorous  principle  is  a  bright  green,  non- 
volatile liquid  of  the  odor  of  musk. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  5-6°  high,  the  stem 
hairy  and  with  few  branches.  Leaves  heart-shaped,  cleft  at  the 
base,  with  5  large  pointed  lobes,  serrate,  pubescent.  Petioles 
long  with  two  awl-shaped  stipules  at  the  base,  and  a  large  vio- 

1  In  the  U.  S.  P.  and  P.  G.  Marsh  Mallow  is  a  synonym  for  Althcea  offi- 
cinalis,  the  root  being  the  part  of  the  plant  which  is  used. 

2  Journal  de  Phar.  et  de  Chim.,  XX.,  p.  3811. 


46  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

let  spot  in  the  axil.  Calyx  double ;  the  outer  sepals  8-9  iii 
number,  awl-shaped ;  the  inner  ones  are  larger  and  separate 
unequally  when  the  flower  expands.  Both  sets  are  deciduous. 
Corolla  very  large,  yellow.  Stamens  very  numerous,  inserted 
around  a  column.  One  pistil.  Five  stigmas.  Ovary  very 
large,  downy,  ovoid,  5-angled,  with  5  compartments,  each  con- 
taining many  kidney-shaped  seeds  with  numerous  grooves  con- 
centric at  the  hilum. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 

Hibiscus  tiliaceus,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — BalibagOj  Tag.,  Pam.;  Malabago,  Vis. 

USES. — An  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  used  as  a  wash  for  ulcers 
and  indolent  sores.  The  flowers  boiled  in  milk  are  used  to  .re- 
lieve the  pain  of  earache  (Blanco),  the  warm  milk  being  dropped 
into  the  external  canal.  The  powdered  bark  in  dose  of  3  grams 
is  emetic  (?)  (Blanco). 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  6-12°  high  with 
leaves  4-6'  long,  alternate,  7-nerved,  cleft  at  the  base,  abruptly 
acute,  scalloped,  pubescent.  Petioles  long.  Flowers  axillary, 
in  panicles  of  very  small  flowerets.  Calyx  double,  the  outer 
portion  divided  into  8-9  teeth,  the  inner  into  5  longer  parts. 
Stamens  numerous,  inserted  about  a  column.  Style  1.  Stigmas 
5.  Ovary  of  5  cells,  each  containing  2  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Abounds  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 

Hibiscus  Rosa-Sinensis,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Takumgan,  Aroganan,  Kayaya,  Tcipulaga, 
Gumamila,  Tag.,  Vis.,  Pam.;  Rose  of  China,  Eng. 

USES. — The  flowers  are  emollient  and  are  widely  used  by  the 
Filipinos  as  a  domestic  remedy  ;  they  are  bruised  and  applied 
to  boils,  tumors  and  all  sorts  of  inflammations.  The  decoction 
is  much  used  internally  in  bronchial  catarrh  for  its  sudorific 
effect. 


THESPESIA    POPULNEA  47 

The  Chinese  use  the  trunk  bark  as  an  emmenagogue,  calling 
it  Fu-yong-pi. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  about  7°  high  com- 
monly called  Gumamda  in  Manila ;  the  leaves  are  ovate,  acute, 
with  about  5  nerves,  serrate  from  the  middle  to  the  apex,  hairs 
growing  sparsely  on  both  surfaces,  with  a  small  group  of  dark- 
colored,  deciduous  hairs  growing  on  the  lower  part  of  the  mid- 
rib. Petioles  short  with  2  stipules  at  the  base.  Calyx  double, 
the  outer  part  divided  almost  to  the  base  into  6-8  parts ;  the 
inner  cylindrical,  divided  in  5.  Corolla  large,  splendid  scarlet- 
red,  often  double,  on  slender  peduncles.  Styles  numerous. 
Fruit  identical  with  that  of  the  Hibiscus  tiliaceus. 

HABITAT. — Universally  common  in  the  Philippines. 

Thespesia  populnea,  Corr. 

NOM.  VULG. — Babuy  or  Bobuy  gubat,  Tag.  ;  Bulakan,  Vis. 

USES. — The  fruit  yields  a  yellow  juice  which  is  used  locally 
in  the  itch  and  other  cutaneous  troubles,  after  first  washing  the 
affected  part  with  a  decoction  of  the  roots  and  leaves.  The 
bark  is  astringent  and  is  used  as  a  decoction  in  the  treatment 
of  dysentery  and  hemorrhoids. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  of  the  second  order  with 
leaves  4-5'  long,  sparse,  5-nerved,  heart-shaped,  broad,  acute, 
entire,  glabrous,  6  small  glands  on  the  lower  face  of  the  base. 
Petioles  of  equal  length  with  the  leaves.  Flowers  large,  axil- 
lary, solitary.  Calyx  double,  the  outer  portion  deciduous,  con- 
sisting of  3  small,  acute  leaflets  inserted  on  the  base  of  the 
inner  calyx  ;  the  inner  is  bell-shaped,  larger  than  the  outer, 
with  5  inconspicuous,  persistent  teeth.  Corolla  four  times 
longer  than  the  calyx,  of  5  fleshy,  fluted  petals,  their  borders 
overlapping,  much  broader  above.  Stamens  very  numerous, 
arranged  around  and  along  a  column.  Filaments  long.  An- 
thers of  half-moon  shape.  Style  1,  very  thick.  Stigma  cleft 
in  5  parts,  which  are  twisted  in  spiral  form.  Seed  vessels 


48  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

about  the  size  of  a  filbert,  5-sided,  with  5  apartments  each  con- 
taining 5  ovoid  seeds  attached  by  separate  seed  stalks  to  the 
central  axis  of  the  ovary.     Seeds  not  woolly. 
HABITAT. — Mandaloya  Tayabas,  Iloilo. 


Gossypium  herbaceum,  L.     (G.  Indicum,  Lam.;  G. 
Capas,  Rumph.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Algodon,  Sp.;  Bulak,  Tag.;   Cotton,  Eng. 

USES. — The  root  bark  is  antiasthmatic,  emmenagogue,  and 
according  to  Daruty l  is  a  substitute  for  ergot  in  uterine  hemor- 
rhage. The  leaves  are  used  in  bronchial  troubles  and  the  seeds 
are  sudorific.  The  negroes  in  the  United  States  use  the  root 
bark  in  large  doses  as  an  abortifacient ;  but  a  dose  of  60  grams 
to  1,200  of  water  in  decoction  is  proper  and  useful  in  treating 
dysmenorrhoea. 

For  a  long  time  the  seeds  went  to  waste  but  industry  has 
learned  to  obtain  from  them  a  brownish-red  oil  which  is  used 
as  a  substitute  for  olive  oil,  from  which  it  is  hard  to  distinguish 
it,  if  the  latter  is  adulterated  by  mixing  the  two  ;  for  both  have 
the  same  density  and  a  very  similar  odor  and  taste.  For  this 
reason  the  production  of  cottonseed  oil  is  very  considerable 
nowadays.  It  is  cheap  and  excellent  for  domestic,  industrial 
and  pharmaceutic  use. 

The  seeds  are  used  in  North  America  in  dysentery  and  as  a 
galactagogue,  and  the  juice  of  the  leaves  as  an  emollient  in 
diarrhoea  and  mild  dysentery.  The  pulp  of  the  seeds,  after 
the  oil  is  extracted,  yields  a  sweet  material  called  gossypose, 
which  is  dextrogyrous  and  has  the  formula  C18H32O16  -f-  5H2O. 

The  cotton  itself,  the  part  used  in  commerce  as  a  textile,  is 
also  the  portion  of  the  plant  most  widely  employed  in  therapeu- 
tics ;  not  only  the  fiber  from  this  species  is  used,  but  also  that 
of  others  that  grow  in  the  Philippines,  the  G.  Barbadense,  L. 

1  Daruty,  loc.  cit.,  p.  xxvi. 


GOSSYPIUM    HERBACEUM  49 

(nom.  vulg.  Pernambuko,  Tag.),  and  the  G.  arboreum,  L.  (Bulak 
na  bundok,  Bulak  net  totoo,  Tag.). 

Cotton  is  used  extensively  in  bacteriological  laboratories  as  a 
filter  of  liquids  and  gases.  This  property  possessed  by  cotton, 
of  retaining  in  its  fibers  the  germs  of  the  air  was  utilized  by 
the  famous  French  surgeon  Guerin  in  the  treatment  that  bears 
his  name.  The  denuded  surfaces  exposed  to  infection  by  air- 
borne bacteria  are  completely  protected  against  them  when,  ac- 
cording to  the  Guerin  treatment,  they  are  enveloped  in  large 
masses  of  fresh,  raw  cotton,  presumably  free  from  microorgan- 
isms. To  avoid  the  possibility  of  infection  by  the  cotton  itself, 
it  is  now  the  practice  to  sterilize  it  either  by  means  of  chemicals 
such  as  carbolic  acid,  iodoform,  etc.,  or  by  physical  means  such 
as  high  temperatures. 

Raw  cotton  is  used  in  compounding  gun  cotton  or  explosive 
cotton,  also  named  pyroxylin,  and  this  is  used  to  make  collodion, 
so  extensively  employed  in  medicine. 

Pyroxylin  is  made  by  treating  cotton  with  equal  parts  of 
nitric  and  sulphuric  acids,  then  washing  with  water  till  the 
latter  ceases  to  give  a  precipitate  with  chloride  of  baryta ;  then 
dry  in  the  air. 

Collodion  is  made  by  dissolving  5  grams  of  pyroxylin  in  the 
following  mixture  : 

Sulphuric  ether,  rectified 75  grams. 

Alcohol  at  95° 20      " 

Filter. 

Elastic  collodion  : 

Canada  Balsam 1.50  grams. 

Castor  oil 50       « 

Collodion 30.00        « 

Mix. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  2-3°  high,  of  herba- 
ceous stem,  branches  sparsely  covered  with  small,  black  points ; 


50  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPIXKS 

leaves  cleft  at  their  base,  with  5  lobules  and  a  small  gland  on 
the  midrib.  Petiole  long  with  2  stipules  at  the  base.  Flowers 
axillary,  solitary.  Calyx  double  ;  the  outer  portion  divided  in 
3  parts,  heart-shaped,  and  each  with  5—9  long,  acute  teeth. 
Corolla  bell-shaped,  of  5  petals,  pale  yellow  or  turning  rose 
color,  purple  at  the  base.  Stamens  many,  inserted  on  a  column. 
Stigma  in  4-5  parts.  Ovary  of  3-5  compartments.  Seeds  en- 
veloped in  the  fiber. 

HABITAT. — Batangas,  Ilocos. 

Bombax  malabaricum,  DC.     (B.  Ceiba,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Taglinaw,  Bobuy  gubat,  Tag.  ;   Talutu,  Vis. 

USES. — In  India  the  roots  are  used  to  obtain  an  astringent 
and  alterative  effect  and  form  part  of  a  well-known  aphrodisiac 
mixture  called  Musla-Samul.  If  the  trunk  is  incised,  an  astrin- 
gent gum  exudes  and  this  they  use  in  diarrhoea,  dysentery  and 
menorrhagia.  Dose  of  the  gum  2J-3  grams. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree  covered  with  sharp, 
conical  and  tough  spines.  Leaves  alternate,  compound,  digi- 
tate, caducous ;  leaflets  5—7  with  long  common  petiole.  Flow- 
ers solitary  or  in  axillary  cymes,  hermaphrodite,  regular. 
Calyx  gamosepalous,  cup-shaped,  with  5  acute  lobules.  Cor- 
olla violet,  with  5  deep  clefts  ;  aestivation  convolute.  Stamens 
numerous,  united  at  the  base  in  5  bundles,  free  above,  bearing 
unilocular  anthers.  Ovary  of  5  many-ovulate  compartments, 
with  a  style  ending  in  5  short  branches.  Capsule  woody,  ovoid, 
loculicidal,  with  5  valves.  Seeds  numerous,  black,  covered 
with  cottony  fibers. 

HABITAT. — Angat,  Iloilo.     Blooms  in  February. 

Eriodendron  anfractuosum,  DC.     (Bombax  pentandrumy  L.) 
NOM.  VULG. — Boboy]  Tag. ;  Doldol,  Vis. ;  Buldk  kastila, 

Pam. 

USES. — The  principal  use  made  of  this  plant  in  the  Philip- 


STERCULIA    FCETIDA  51 

pines  is  to  stuff  the  pillows  with  the  cotton  that  it  yields.  The 
leaves,  pounded  with  a  little  water,  yield  a  mucilaginous  juice 
highly  prized  by  the  natives  as  a  wash  for  the  hair,  mixing  it 
with  gogo.  The  root  bark  is  emetic  in  dose  of  1.25  grm.  The 
cotton  yielded  by  this  tree  should  be  used  for  the  same  thera- 
peutic purposes  as  that  of  gossypium,  and  being  of  an  exceed- 
ingly fine  fiber  it  would  give  better  results.  The  Filipinos 
use  it  to  treat  burns  and  sores.  I  have  often  used  it,  being 
careful  always  to  impregnate  it  thoroughly  with  some  antiseptic 
solution.  In  the  treatment  of  burns  it  has  been  my  custom  to 
envelope  the  part  in  a  thick  layer  of  this  cotton,  after  bathing 
it  with  a  tepid  1-2,000  solution  of  corrosive  sublimate  and 
dusting  with  a  very  fine  powder  of  boracic  acid. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  40-50°  high.  Trunk 
somewhat  thorny,  the  branches  horizontal,  arranged  in  stars  of 
3-4.  Leaves  compound  with  7  leaflets,  lanceolate,  entire, 
glabrous.  Flowers  in  umbels  of  8  or  more  flowerets.  No 
common  peduncle,  the  individual  ones  long.  Calyx,  5  obtuse 
sepals,  slightly  notched.  Corolla,  5  fleshy  petals,  obtusely  lan- 
ceolate and  bent  downwards.  Stamens  5.  Anthers  of  irreg- 
ular shape,  peltate,  with  the  borders  deeply  undulate.  Stigma 
in  5  parts.  Pod  4-6'  long,  spindle-shaped.  Seeds  enveloped 
in  very  fine  cotton  fiber. 

HABITAT. — Exceedingly  common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 
Blooms  in  December. 


STERCULIACEJE. 

Sterculia  Family. 

Sterculia  foetida,  L.     (S.  polypliilla,  R.  Br.;  Clompanus 

major,  Rumph.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kalumpay,  Tag.;  Bagar,  Hoc. 
USES. — A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  as  a  wash  in  sup- 
purative  cutaneous  eruptions.     The  fruit  is  astringent  and  is 


52  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

used  in  Java  as  an  injection  for  gonorrhoea.  In  western 
India  and  in  the  Philippines  it  is  an  article  of  diet.  The 
seeds  yield  an  oil  that  is  used  for  illumination  and  as  a  co- 
mestible. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree  of  the  first  order 
with  digitate  leaves  of  6-8  leaflets,  broad,  oval,  very  acute, 
tough,  glabrous,  growing  on  a  long  common  petiole.  No  pet- 
iole proper.  Flowers  of  a  foetid  or  feculent  odor,  herma- 
phrodite, in  compound  racemes.  Calyx  fleshy,  soft  pubescent 
internally,  bell-shaped,  in  5  parts.  Corolla  none.  Nectary  5- 
toothed,  on  the  end  of  a  small  column.  Stamens  15,  inserted 
on  the  border  of  the  nectary  by  threes,  forming  a  triangle. 
Filament  almost  entirely  wanting.  In  the  midst  of  the  sta- 
mens is  visible  a  small,  hairy  body  of  5  lobules  which  are  the 
rudiments  of  the  ovaries.  The  style  protrudes  and  twists 
downwards.  Stigma  thick,  compressed,  of  5  lobules.  Fruit, 
five  woody  pods,  semicircular,  joined  to  a  common  center, 
each  enclosing  many  oval  seeds  inserted  in  the  superior 
suture. 

HABITAT. — Luzon,  Mindanao,  Cebu,  Iloilo.  Blooms  in 
March. 

Sterculia  urens,  Roxb.     (8.  cordifolia,  Blanco  ;  Cavattium 
urenSj  Schott.  &  Endl.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Banilad,  Tag. 

USES. — The  root  bark  is  pounded  up  and  applied  locally  in 
orchitis  and  in  severe  contusions  with  supposed  fracture  of  the 
bones  ;  native  charlatans  pretend  to  cure  the  latter  condition  by 
this  treatment. 

The  trunk  exudes  a  sort  of  gum,  which  with  water  forms  a 
sort  of  colorless,  odorless  gelatin  which  dissolves  at  the  boiling 
point.  I  do  not  know  to  what  use  this  gum  is  applied  in  ther- 
apeutics, but  it  is  often  found  mixed  with  the  Senegambian 
gum  acacia. 


KLEINHOVIA    HOSPITATA  53 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  with  leaves  bunched,  7- 
9- veined,  heart-shaped,  ovate,  broad  and  entire,  glabrous  upper 
surface,  short  white  down  on  lower  surface.  Petioles  of  same 
length  as  the  leaves.  Flowers  small,  yellow,  numerous,  polyg- 
amous, growing  in  large,  terminal  panicles  covered  with  a  fine, 
sticky  down.  Calyx  bell-shaped,  5  acute  papyraceous  divi- 
sions, each  bearing  a  small  gland  near  its  base.  No  corolla. 
Stamens  10,  united  in  a  column,  the  upper  ends  free.  Five 
pods  joined  at  one  point,  half-moon  shaped,  with  woody  shell, 
glabrous  within  and  with  a  short  down  on  the  outer  surface. 
Three  or  four  kidney-shaped  seeds,  the  testa  thin  and  crusta- 
ceous. 

HABITAT. — Cebu,  Iloilo. 


Kleinhovia  hospitata,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Tanag,  Tag.,  Vis.;  Hamttanago,  Vis.;  Pan- 
ampat,  Pam.;  Bttnog,  Hoc. 

USES. — The  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used,  according  to  P. 
Blanco,  to  cure  the  itch.  It  is  also  used  locally  in  all  forms  of 
dermatitis,  and  the  tender  leaves  and  sprouts  are  cooked  and 
eaten. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Tree  25°  high  or  more,  with 
leaves  alternate,  heart-shaped,  pubescent,  almost  entire.  Petioles 
long  with  2  stipules  at  the  base.  Flowers  red,  axillary,  in  large 
panicles.  Calyx,  5  sepals,  almost  linear.  Corolla  the  same 
size  as  the  calyx,  5  linear  petals,  the  lower  shorter  and  curved. 
Nectary  bell-shaped,  of  5  parts,  each  3-toothed ;  set  on  a  col- 
umn ;  at  its  base  a  wavy  fringe  with  dentate  edge.  Stamens 
15.  No  filaments.  Anthers  seated  on  the  15  teeth  of  the  nec- 
tary. Ovary  within  the  nectary,  5-angled,  5  apartments  each 
containing  an  almost  spherical  seed. 

HABITAT. — Luzon,  Mindanao,  Panay,  Cebti,  Jolo.  Flowers 
in  March  and  September. 


54  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Helicteres  Ixora,  L.  (H.  chrysocalyx,  Miq.;  H.  Roxburghii, 

G.  Don.) 

NOM.  YULG. — (?);  Indian  Screw  Tree,  Eng. 

USES. — I  am  ignorant  of  the  use  that  the  Filipinos  make  of 
this  plant,  though  it  is  very  possible  that  they  do  not  employ  it 
at  all  in  medicine,  which  is  usually  the  case  with  those  plants 
to  which  they  have  given  no  name.  In  India  the  peculiar 
spiral  form  of  the  fruit  has  suggested  its  application,  according 
to  the  theories  of  the  doctrine  of  symbolism.  Ainslie  says  that 
the  Hindoos  use  it  to  treat  diseases  of  the  external  auditory 
canal.  On  account  of  its  emollient  properties  and  probably  on 
account  of  its  twisted  form,  it  is  used  internally  as  a  decoction, 
in  flatulence  and  the  intestinal  colic  of  children.  It  is  indis- 
pensable in  the  marriage  ceremonies  of  the  caste  of  Vaisya, 
among  whom  it  is  customary  for  the  groom  to  wear  on  his 
wrists  in  the  form  of  bracelets,  strings  of  this  fruit  combined 
with  that  of  Randia  dumetorum. 

The  root  yields  a  juice  which  is  employed  in  skin  diseases, 
in  abscess,  and  in  cardialgia.  In  Jamaica  the  juice  of  the 
leaves  is  sometimes  used  for  constipation. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  with  leaves  alter- 
nate, simple,  entire,  irregularly  nerved  or  veined  at  the  base, 
petiolate.  Flowers  of  a  handsome  red  color,  hermaphrodite, 
regular,  axillary.  Calyx  gamosepalous,  tubular,  of  5  parts. 
Corolla,  5  free  petals  slightly  dentate  at  the  point.  Stamens 
numerous,  united  on  a  free  column  on  the  cusp.  Compound 
nectary  of  5  unilocular,  many-ovuled  ovaries.  Styles  5,  joined 
at  the  base.  Fruit  of  5  carpels,  thin,  twisted  on  themselves  in 
spirals,  forming  a  cone,  pubescent,  of  a  greenish-brown  color, 
each  containing  a  single  row  of  angular  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Luzon,  Pan  ay. 


THEOBROMA    CACAO  55 

Abroma  fastuosa,  R.  Br.  (A.  angulata,  Lam.;  A.  communis, 
•  Blanco  ;  A.  augusta,  L.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Anibog,  Tag.;  Anabo,  Vis.;  Perennial  Indian 
Hemp,  Eng. 

USES. — The  root  bark  is  used  in  India  as  an  emmenagogue 
in  the  congestive  and  neuralgic  forms  of  amenorrhoea.  It  seems 
to  act  as  a  uterine  tonic.  The  dose  is  2  grams  of  the  juice  of 
the  fresh  root  mixed  with  pepper  which  also  acts  as  a  carmina- 
tive and  stomachic. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  3-4  meters  high  with 
hairy  branches.  Leaves  opposite,  oval,  oblong,  serrate,  tomen- 
tose.  Flowers  purple,  solitary,  terminal.  Calyx,  5  sepals. 
Corolla,  5  petals.  Stamens  5,  united  in  the  form  of  a  tube. 
Ovary  sessile,  with  5  many-ovuled  compartments.  Styles  5, 
united  in  the  form  of  a  tube  which  divides  into  5  stigma-bearing 
branches.  Capsule  membranous,  5-angled,  truncate,  dehiscent 
at  apex.  Seeds  albuminous,  covered  with  filaments  of  cotton. 

HABITAT. — San  Mateo,  La  Laguna,  Batangas,  Iloilo. 

Theobroma  Cacao,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Cacao. 

USES. — The  roasted  bean  ground  with  sugar  constitutes 
chocolate,  one  of  the  most  generally  used  foods  of  the  Philip- 
pines. 

It  is  very  nutritious  by  virtue  of  the  fat  and  sugar  it  con- 
tains, but  all  stomachs  do  not  bear  it  well  and  its  use  is  the 
unsuspected  cause  of  much  dyspepsia.  The  custom  of  drink- 
ing it  very  hot  and  following  with  a  large  quantity  of  cold 
water  is  a  very  common  cause  of  dilatation  of  the  stomach 
in  the  Philippines.  The  seed  of  the  cacao  contains  several 
substances  :  cacao  butter,  albumin,  theobromine,  starch,  glucose, 
gum,  tartaric  acid,  free  or  combined,  tannin,  and  mineral  sub- 
stances. Of  these  the  butter  and  theobromine  are  the  most  im- 
portant. 


56  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS'  OP    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Theobromine  (C7H8N4O2)  is  a  weak  alkaloid,  crystalline, 
slightly  bitter,  slightly  soluble  in  cold  water,  more  soluble  in 
hot  water,  less  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether ;  stable  in  the  air 
up  to  100°  ;  sublimes  without  decomposition  at  290°  in  micro- 
scopic crystals  of  the  form  of  rhomboid  prisms  ending  in  an 
octohedric  point  (Keller). 

This  alkaloid  is  very  little  used  in  therapeutics  and  its 
physiological  action  is  said  to  be  analogous  to  that  of  caffeine 
but  weaker.  It  is  better  to  use  the  salt  of  the  alkaloid,  and 
that  most  frequently  employed  is  the  salicylate  of  soda  and 
theobromine  in  doses  of  from  2  to  6  grams  daily  in  solution  or 
pill.  Lately,  however,  Dr.  Gram  has  maintained  that  theo- 
bromine is  a  powerful  diuretic  operating  when  other  diuretics 
fail  and  further  that  this  effect  is  produced  without  injuring  the 
heart.  The  double  salt  is  non-toxic,  though  sometimes  in  ex- 
ceedingly weak  patients  it  produces  vertigo.  Dr.  Gram  ad- 
ministers 6  grams  a  day  in  one-gram  doses. 

Cacao  butter  is  a  white  substance,  slightly  yellowish,  unctu- 
ous to  the  touch,  brittle  ;  with  the  agreeable  odor  peculiar  to 
cacao,  and  a  sweet  and  pleasant  taste.  Its  density  is  0.961,  it 
melts  at  30°-33°,  and  solidifies  at  25°.  It  dissolves  in  20 
parts  of  boiling  alcohol,  in  100  parts  of  cold  alcohol  and  in 
twice  its  weight  of  benzin.  Cacao  butter  is  obtained  by  grind- 
ing or  mashing  the  roasted  seeds  in  a  hot  apparatus  and  mix- 
ing the  mass  Avith  a  fifth  or  tenth  of  its  weight  of  boiling  water. 
It  is  then  pressed  between  two  hot  iron  plates  and  the  butter 
thus  obtained  is  refined  by  boiling  water.  It  is  then  put  aside 
in  earthen  pans,  or  still  better,  in  moulds,  where  it  solidifies. 
It  does  not  easily  become  rancid  and,  for  this  reason,  enters 
into  the  composition  of  many  ointments  and  pomades,  or  is 
used  alone.  It  serves  as  the  base  for  suppositories  and  is, 
finally,  a  highly  valued  cosmetic.  A  common  substitute  is 
made  by  mixing  oil  of  almonds,  wax  and  animal  fat. 

Before    going   further   let   us   describe   the    composition   of 


THEOBROMA    CACAO  57 

Spanish   chocolate    according   to  the    French    chemist   Bous- 
singault : 

Cane  sugar 41.40  grams. 

Cacao  butter 29.24       " 

Starch,  glucose 1.48       " 

Theobromine 1.93       " 

Asparagin a  trace 

Albumin 6.25       " 

Gum 1.42       " 

Tartaric  acid 1.98       " 

Tannin  and  coloring  matter 0.022     " 

Soluble  cellulose 6.21       « 

Ash 2.34       « 

Water 4.36       " 

Undetermined  material 3.27        " 

100.00 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  about  10°  high, 
with  leaves  broad,  6-12'  long,  hanging  or  drooping,  lanceolate, 
entire,  and  somewhat  pubescent  on  both  surfaces.  Petioles 
very  short  with  2  deciduous  stipules  at  the  base.  Flowers  in 
clusters  on  the  roots,  trunk  and  branches.  Peduncle  very  long. 
Nectary  divided  in  5  parts,  straight,  awl-shaped  and  2-nerved. 
Calyx,  5  sepals.  Corolla,  5  petals  curved  upward  in  the  form 
of  a  bow  as  far  as  the  middle,  where  they  form  a  hollow  with 
two  little  horns ;  then  curving  downwards,  then  upwards, 
widening  at  the  end,  the  edge  finely  dentate.  Stamens  5,  in- 
serted on  the  nectary,  and  alternating  with  the  lobes  of  the  lat- 
ter. Anthers  2  on  each  filament,  concealed  in  the  hollows  of 
the  petals.  Ovary  globose.  Style  awl-shaped.  Stigma  cleft 
almost  to  the  middle,  5-parted.  Fruit  broad,  spindle-shaped, 
4'  or  more  long,  dark  reddish,  warty,  10-ribbed,  with  5  com- 
partments each  containing  many  compressed,  ovoid  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  orchards  and  gardens   throughout 
the  islands. 
5 


58  THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS   OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

GERANIACEJE. 

Geranium  Family. 
Oxalis  corniculata,  L.     (0.  Acetosella,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Taigan  dogd,  Susokayoli,  Tag.;  Darasig,  Vis.; 
Malabalugbug  dagis,  Ayo,  Kongi,  Yayo,  Para.;  Indian  Sor- 
rel, Eng. 

USES. — The  part  of  the  plant  used  in  medicine  is  the  leaf 
which  is  acid  by  virtue  of  the  potassium  oxalate  which  it  con- 
tains. The  decoction  is  used  internally  as  an  antipyretic  in 
fevers  and  in  dysentery.  Mistaking  the  properties  of  the  plant 
it  is  given  for  vesical  calculus  which,  if  composed  of  oxalates, 
would  be  increased  instead  of  diminished  by  the  treatment. 
In  fact  the  salt  of  sorrel  in  the  leaves  contains  a  large  quan- 
tity of  oxalic  acid  mixed  with  potassium  oxalate.  In  China, 
India  and  the  Philippines  the  entire  plant  is  used  as  an  anti- 
scorbutic. 

The  cold  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  given  internally  in  doses 
of  from  30  to  60  grams,  but  it  is  not  a  medicine  to  be  given  in- 
discriminately, because  in  addition  to  its  power  of  adding  to 
the  bulk  of  calculi  of  the  oxalates,  the  contained  potassium 
oxalate  is  poisonous  in  doses  of  25  to  30  grams.  If  a  concen- 
trated solution  is  taken,  it  operates  as  a  corrosive  poison,  produc- 
ing violent  pains  in  the  stomach,  vomiting,  faintness  and  great 
weakness.  If  the  solution  is  dilute  its  absorption  is  rapid  and 
it  operates  very  energetically.  When  a  patient  is  poisoned  by  a 
concentrated  solution,  the  stomach-pump  is  contraindicated,  be- 
cause the  mucous  membrane  of  the  organ  is  corroded  and  ulcer- 
ated ;  if  by  a  dilute  solution,  use  the  pump  to  remove  as  much 
of  the  poison  as  possible.  The  best  antidote  is  a  watery  solu- 
tion of  a  soluble  salt  of  lime,  i.  e.,  the  saccharate,  which  forms 
an  insoluble  salt  with  oxalic  acid. 

The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  an  antidote  for  the  Datura  (Stra- 
monium). In  India  they  make  a  decoction  of  the  plant,  mix 


BTOPHYTUM   SENSITIVTJM  59 

it  with  onion  juice  and  apply  it  to  the  head  as  a  fomentation  in 
hemicrania. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  1°  high,  with  a  creep- 
ing, glabrous  stem,  leaves  horizontal,  ternate  with  common 
long  petiole.  Leaflets  sessile,  obcordate,  with  downy  borders. 
Flowers  axillary  or  terminal,  from  1  to  3  in  number  on  a  com- 
mon long  peduncle.  The  pedicel  is  also  long.  Calyx  common 
to  the  family.  Corolla,  5  petals  ending  in  small  claws.  Sta- 
mens 10,  monadelphous,  the  5  shorter  ones  bearing  each  a  small 
gland  on  the  outer  surface  of  the  base.  Ovary  large,  fluted. 
Styles  5,  short.  Stigmas  hemispherical.  Seed  vessel  pyram- 
idal, containing  many  seeds  enveloped  in  an  elastic  aril  by 
which  they  are  ejected  when  the  fruit  opens. 

HABITAT. — Abundant  in  Luzon,  Panay  and  Cebu. 

Biophytum  sensitivum,  DC.  (B.  cumiagianum,,  Turcz. ;  Ox- 
alis  sensitivum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Makahiya,  Damoghiya,  Tag. ;  Mahihiin,  Hoc. 

USES. — A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  internally  as  an 
expectorant.  The  bruised  leaves  are  used  as  an  application  to 
wounds  and  contusions.  In  Java  the  decoction  is  used  inter- 
nally in  asthma,  phthisis  and  snake  bites. 

The  peculiar  property  which  this  plant  possesses  of  closing 
its  leaves  when  touched,  has  caused  the  natives  of  India  to 
attribute  to  it  mysterious  virtues.  Symbolism  has  determined 
its  therapeutic  application  and  the  Hindoos  pretend  that  it  en- 
dows with  delicacy  and  modesty  women  who  lack  these  virtues 
and  that  it  restores  virginity. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  about  7'  high.  Stem 
straight,  nodose  and  without  branches.  Leaves  abruptly  pin- 
nate, the  place  of  the  odd  leaflet  taken  by  a  stylet.  The  leaf- 
lets nearly  linear  with  a  small  point  at  the  apex,  11—13  pairs, 
2  stipules  to  each  pair.  Common  petioles  long,  cleft  at  the 
base  and  disposed  in  whorls  around  and  on  the  end  of  the  stem. 


60  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Flowers  sessile,  verticillate,  on  the  ends  of  several  very  long 
peduncles  which  rise  from  the  midst  of  the  petioles.  Calyx,  5 
sepals.  Corolla,  5  petals,  clawed,  rounded  at  the  end  and 
slightly  notched,  forming  a  tube.  Stamens  10,  free.  A  small 
gland  on  the  outer  surface  of  the  base  of  each  short  stamen. 
Styles  5.  Seed  vessels  ovate,  5-angled,  containing  many  seeds. 
HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 

Averrhoa  Bilimbi,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — KamiaSj  Kalamias,  Tag.;  Kilingiwa,  Vis.: 
PiaSj  Hoc. 

USES. — The  small  fruit  of  the  camia  springing  from  the 
branches  and  trunks  of  the  trees  is  widely  known  in  the  Phil- 
ippines, where  they  eat  it  green,  pickled,  and  in  salad;  and 
when  ripe  fresh  and  preserved.  Its  qualities  and  therapeutic 
applications  are  the  same  as  those  of  the  following  species. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  4-5  meters  high  with 
odd- pinnate  leaves.  Leaflets  12  pairs,  ovate,  linear,  acute,  soft 
and  downy.  Flowers  small,  pinkish  or  purplish,  on  trunk  and 
branches.  Stamens  10,  five  alternately  longer.  Pistils  diver- 
gent. Fruit  oblong,  obtuse  at  the  end,  with  five  broad  ribs. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  throughout  the  islands. 

Averrhoa  Carambola,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Bilimbin,  BalimMn,  Tag. 

USES. — The  common  name  of  this  tree,  whose  fruit  is  so 
common,  causes  it  to  be  confused  with  the  name  which  Lin- 
naeus gives  to  the  former  species.  Balimbin  is  a  fruit  of  an  acid 
taste,  agreeable  when  ripe,  serving  the  same  uses  for  food  as  the 
camia.  Its  acidity  is  due  to  the  presence  of  oxalic  acid,  which 
makes  the  green  fruit  useful  for  removing  ink  and  rust  stains 
from  clothes.  The  juice  of  the  fruit  is  refreshing  and  is  given 
internally  mixed  with  water  and  sugar  as  a  refreshing  drink  in 


RUTA    GRAVEOLENS  61 

fevers  and  as  an  antiscorbutic.  For  the  latter  the  ripe  fruit  is 
eaten  uncooked. 

In  Mauritius  the  juice  is  used  to  treat  dysentery  and  hepa- 
titis. Padre  Blanco  says  that  the  natives  use  a  decoction  of 
camias  and  unthreshed  rice  in  diarrhcea  and  bilious  colic.  In 
connection  with  the  subject  of  camias  and  balimbins  we  should 
mention  the  fruit  treatment  of  the  bilious  diarrhcea  of  the 
tropics,  spoken  of  by  the  French  physicians  of  Cochin  China. 
Dr.  Van  der  Burg  of  the  Dutch  Indies  also  strongly  recom- 
mends the  treatment  of  diarrhcea  by  fruits  ;  in  temperate  regions 
using  fruits  like  peaches,  pears,  etc.,  and  in  the  tropics,  lychies, 
mangosteens,  etc.  In  regard  to  the  mangosteens  we  must  not 
forget  that,  while  the  bark  is  given  because  of  the  amount  of 
tannin  it  contains,  the  composition  of  the  pulp  is  very  different. 
The  fruit  acids  seem  to  exercise  great  influence  in  the  cure  of 
this  obstinate  disease  and  I  do  not  hesitate  to  recommend  for 
this  purpose  the  camia  and  the  ripe  balimbin. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  much  like  the  former. 
Leaves  odd-pinnate.  Leaflets,  3-4  pairs,  obliquely  ovate,  acute, 
the  terminal  leaflet  nearly  lanceolate.  Flowers  on  the  trunk, 
branches  and  in  the  axils  of  the  leaves.  Fruit  oblong,  with  5 
very  prominent  acute-angled  ribs. 

HABITAT. — It  grows,  like  the  former  plant,  in  all  parts  of 
the  islands. 

RUTACEJE. 

Eue  Family. 

Ruta  graveolens,  L.     (L.  angmtifolia,  Pers.) 
NOM.  VULG. — Rudu,  Sp.;  Rue,  Eng. 

USES. — The  rue  of  the  European,  American  and  Indian 
pharmacopoeias  is  emmenagogue,  antispasmodic,  anthelmintic, 
excitant,  diaphoretic,  antiseptic  and  abortive.  It  contains  an 
essential  oil,  and  rutinic  acid  (C2.H28O15,  Borntrager),  starch, 
gum,  etc.  The  essential  oil  is  greenish-yellow,  thick,  acrid  and 


62  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

bitter;  specific  gravity  0.911.  It  boils  at  228°,  is  slightly 
soluble  in  water,  and  soluble  in  absolute  alcohol.  It  is 
promptly  oxidized  by  nitric  acid,  and  is  converted  into  pelar- 
gonic  acid  and  other  fatty  acids. 

Rutin  (or  rutinic  acid),  according  to  Weiss,  is  a  glucoside 
which  exists  in  the  form  of  fine  needles,  bright  yellow  in  color. 
It  is  slightly  soluble  in  cold  water  and  more  so  in  boiling 
water.  It  melts  at  190°,  and  solidifies  at  freezing  point, 
forming  a  resinous  mass.  Its  physiological  properties  are  as 
yet  unknown.  The  part  of  the  plant  employed  is  the  leaves, 
which  owe  their  property,  apparently,  to  the  essential  oil  they 
contain,  from  which  they  also  derive  their  strong  and  disagree- 
able odor  and  their  bitter,  acrid  and  nauseous  taste. 

It  is  used  principally  as  a  uterine  stimulant  or  emmena- 
gogue,  for  which  purpose  it  is  given  in  doses  of  0.10—0.15  cen- 
tigrams of  the  freshly  powdered  leaf  and  0.05-0.10  centigrams 
of  the  fresh  leaves  infused  in  a  liter  of  water.  The  dry  pow- 
der of  the  leaf  should  not  be  used  because  the  essential  oil  vol- 
atilizes and  a  large  proportion  of  it  is  lost,  which  is  the  most 
active  principle  of  the  drug.  It  is  an  agent  which  should  be  pre- 
scribed with  the  greatest  prudence  for  large  doses  are  poison- 
ous even  to  the  point  of  causing  death.  The  symptoms  following 
such  doses  are  colic,  vomiting,  bloody  diarrhoea  and  tenesmus. 

It  is  also  used  as  an  antihemorrhagic  after  childbirth,  but  its 
action  is  slow,  not  being  felt  for  several  hours  after  the  admin- 
istration of  the  drug ;  for  this  reason  it  cannot  take  the  place  of 
ergot,  though  it  seems  to  be  superior  to  the  latter  in  passive 
hemorrhages.  The  essential  oil  is  given  internally  in  doses  of 
2-6  drops  on  a  piece  of  sugar.  It  is  sometimes  used  as  an  an- 
tispasmodic  in  hysteria,  epilepsy  and  chorea. 

The  Chinese  make  extensive  use  of  this  drug  and  it  is  one  of 
their  principal  abortives.  In  Hindostan  the  dried  leaves  are 
burnt  and  the  smoke  inhaled  as  a  cure  for  catarrh  in  children. 
They  are  careful  not  to  administer  it  to  pregnant  women. 


XANTHOXYLUM  OXYPHYLLUM  63 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant,  1  meter  high,  with 
leaves  alternate,  compound,  the  inferior  ones  2— 3-cleft ;  leaflets 
narrow,  oblong,  slightly  fleshy.  Flowers  greenish-yellow, 
hermaphrodite,  arranged  in  corymbose  terminal  cymes.  Co- 
rolla, 4-5  free,  concave  petals.  Calyx  deeply  divided,  persist- 
ent. Stamens  8-10,  free,  in  two  whorls,  inserted  beneath  a 
thick  disc.  Ovaries  5,  unilocular,  many-ovuled.  Styles  5, 
first  free,  then  united,  forming  a  column  terminating  in  a  small 
stigma.  Follicles  5,  united  at  the  base,  1  centimeter  long,  free 
superiorly,  hard,  rounded,  rugose,  opening  on  top.  Seeds 
ovoid,  angular,  blackish,  albuminous. 

HABITAT. — Common  everywhere  in  the  Philippines. 

Xanthoxylum   oxyphyllum,  Edgew.     (X.  violaceum,  Wall.; 
Fagara  piperita,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kayutana,;  Tag.;  Salay,  Saladay,  Vis. 

USES. — The  trunk  bark  is  stimulant  and  is  used  as  a  sudor- 
ific in  the  treatment  of  fevers.  The  fresh  bark  is  quite  irritat- 
ing, for  which  reason  it  is  best  to  use  bark  taken  from  the  more 
mature  parts  of  the  trunk,  powdered  and  desiccated.  The 
dose  is  J-2  grams  2-3  times  a  day.  Its  stimulating  properties 
render  it  useful  in  colic  and  in  India  it  is  used  as  a  sto- 
machic and  digestive.  Is  seems  also  to  possess  diuretic  prop- 
erties. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  30-35°  high,  with  trunk 
thickly  set  with  large  spines.  Leaves  odd-pinnate.  Leaflets 
ovate,  acute,  obtusely  serrate,  small  transparent  vesicles  on  the 
surface,  spines  on  the  midrib  and  common  petiole.  Calyx  very 
small,  monophyllous.  Corolla  twice  as  large  as  the  calyx,  4 
petals.  Stamens  4,  inserted  on  the  receptacle,  the  same  length 
as  the  petals.  Ovary  superior,  4-angled.  No  style.  Stig- 
mas 2. 

HABITAT. — Batangas,  Morong,  Manila. 


64  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Murraya  exotica,  L.     (M.  paniculata,  Jack.;   Connarus  foe- 
tens,  and  C.  santaloides,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kamunig,  Tag. 

USES. — The  leaves  are  stimulant  and  astringent,  and  are 
used  in  infusion  (15  grams,  to  water  one  liter)  to  treat  diarrhea 
and  dysentery.  The  root  and  trunk  barks  are  used  for  the  same 
treatment  and  they  as  well  as  the  leaves  owe  their  properties 
to  an  essential  oil  and  a  bitter  principle  present  in  all  parts 
of  the  plant.  Vry  has  demonstrated  the  presence  of  a  glucoside 
which  he  has  named  murrayin  (C18H22O10)  ;  it  crystallizes  in 
small,  white  needles,  is  slightly  bitter,  soluble  in  hot  water  and 
alcohol,  insoluble  in  ether,  slightly  soluble  in  cold  water.  It 
melts  at  170°,  and  dissolves  in  alkaline  solutions  coloring  them 
green.  Boiled  in  dilute  acids  it  splits  into  murrayetin  and  glu- 
cose. Murraydin  (C12H12O10)  crystallizes  in  white  needles,  in- 
odorous, tasteless,  slightly  soluble  in  cold  water  and  in  ether, 
soluble  in  hot  water  and  alcohol.  Heat  destroys  its  green  color 
in  solutions  ;  alkalies,  in  the  presence  of  cold,  increase  it.  The 
leaves  and  the  bark  of  the  plant  contain  an  essential  oil. 

The  foregoing  description  of  this  species  applies  equally  well 
to  the  following  species. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  12°  high  with 
leaves  alternate,  odd-pinnate.  Leaflets  lanceolate,  almost  en- 
tire, rigid  with  small  dots  on  each  surface.  Flowers  in  axil- 
lary, very  short,  compound  racemes.  Calyx  very  small,  mon- 
ophyllous,  5  lanceolate  lobules.  Corolla  much  longer  than 
the  calyx,  5  lanceolate  petals.  Stamens  10,  joined,  but  not 
entirely  united  at  the  base  ;  5  alternate  stamens  longer  than  the 
others.  Anthers  sessile,  regular.  Ovary  superior,  compressed 
and  borne  on  a  disc.  Style  1,  same  length  as  the  stamens. 
Stigma  thick,  depressed,  apparently  4-angled.  Fruit  fleshy, 
ovoid,  acute  and  somewhat  curved  at  the  end  enclosing  a  seed 
with  coriaceous,  downy  testa. 


CITRUS    ACIDA  65 

Murraya  Koenigi,  Spreng.     (Bergera  Koenigi,  L.;  Connarus 

sp.,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG.— (?) 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION.— Leaves  alternate,  odd-pinnate. 
Leaflets  obliquely  ovate,  acute,  entire  and  glabrous.  The 
testa  of  the  seed  bears  no  down,  and  may  be  divided  into  two 
parts.  The  decoction  of  the  leaves  of  this  species  as  well  as  the 
former  is  used  to  allay  toothache. 

Citrus  acida,  F.     (C.  notissima,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Limon,  Sp.;  Dayap,  Tag.:,  Lemon,  Eng. 

USES. — The  essence  (essential  oil)  and  juice  of  the  fruit  are  the 
parts  of  the  plant  used  in  therapeutics.  The  essence  extracted 
from  the  rind  is  yellow,  fragrant,  slightly  bitter  ;  density,  0.856  ; 
boiling  point  165°.  The  juice  which  is  turbid  and  pale  yellow 
in  color  contains  9^  citric  acid,  3— 5J&  gum  and  sugar  and  ^-f^^o 
inorganic  salts.  The  essence  is  used  to  flavor  certain  pharma- 
ceutical preparations,  and  is  a  diffusible  stimulant  which  may 
be  given  internally  in  doses  of  3—6  drops  on  a  little  sugar. 
The  bitter  rind  is  occasionally  used  in  infusion  as  a  stomachic 
and  stimulant.  The  juice  is  most  commonly  used  in  lemonade, 
a  cooling  drink  which,  used  intemperately  in  the  Philippines, 
is  apt  to  cause  gastro-intestinal  trouble,  so  commonly  attributed 
to  "  irritation,"  but  really  the  result  of  a  general  atony  of  the  di- 
gestive organs.  Lemon  juice  is  also  used  with  very  good  re- 
sults as  a  local  cleansing  application  for  sore  throat,  as  well  as 
externally  on  fetid  ulcers.  In  some  forms  of  malarial  fever  it 
seems  to  have  given  satisfactory  results,  administered  internally. 

In  many  navies  lemon  juice  forms  a  part  of  the  sea  ration 
as  a  preventive  of  scurvy,  upon  which  it  exercises  a  real  and 
noteworthy  action.  The  Danish  navy  adopted  it  for  this  pur- 
pose in  1770,  the  English  navy  followed,  then  the  French  and 
possibly  others.  The  English  call  it  lime-juice,  and  its  pre- 


66  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

ventive  dose  is  30—40  grams  a  day.  Its  curative  dose  is  100— 
150  grams  a  day.  To  preserve  the  lime-juice  it  was  bottled 
with  a  layer  of  oil,  which,  floating  on  the  surface  kept  it  from 
contact  with  the  air ;  but  this  process  gave  it  a  bad  taste  as  did 
also  the  addition  of  sulphate  of  calcium,  and  at  present  the 
English  add,  to  each  liter  of  juice,  60  grams  of  alcohol,  which 
preserves  it  perfectly.  Fonssagrives  says  that  the  antiscorbutic 
action  of  lemon  juice  is  due  rather  to  the  vegetable  juice  itself 
than  to  the  citric  acid  which  it  contains. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  most  familiar  tree  11°  or 
more  high,  trunk  with  solitary  thorns.  Leaves  ovate,  obtuse, 
acute-toothed,  the  petiole  bearing  serrate  wings.  Calyx  4-6- 
toothed.  Corolla,  4  thick  petals.  Filaments  10-25  on  the 
receptacle,  some  joined  and  bearing  2-3  anthers.  Fruit  thin- 
skinned,  globular,  about  1'  in  diameter;  the  rind  adheres 
closely  to  the  pulp. 

(This  fruit  closely  resembles,  if  it  is  not  identical  with  the 
lime  fruit,  C.  Limetta,  or  C.  Bergamia,  Risso,  though  Gray 
states  that  the  leaf  of  the  latter  has  a  wingless  petiole. — J.  B.  T.) 

HABITAT. — Common  to  all  parts  of  the  islands. 

Citrus  Bigaradia,  Hook.  f.  (C.mUgaris,R,i8SQ;  C.aurantium, 

Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Naranjas  del  pais,  Sp.;  Kahd-,  Kahil,  Tag.; 
Native  Orangey  Eng. 

USES. — The  rind  of  the  cagel  is  the  so-called  bitter  orange 
peel,  the  best  of  which  comes  from  Cura9ao  and  Barbadoes. 
It  is  tonic  and  is  used  in  decoction  and  in  syrup.  The  infusion 
of  the  leaves,  5-10  grams  to  the  liter,  is  useful  as  a  sedative 
and  diaphoretic  in  hysterical  and  nervous  attacks ;  the  infusion 
of  the  flowers  is  similarly  used.  When  distilled  the  flowers 
yield  a  very  sweet  essential  oil  called  neroli,  which  is  used  as  a 
perfume  only. 

BOTANICAL    DESCRIPTION. — A   tree    15-20°    high,    trunk 


DECANDRA  67 

bearing  solitary  spines.  Leaves  medium  lanceolate,  serrate, 
the  apex  notched,  petioles  winged.  Flowers  usually  solitary. 
Calyx  4-5-toothed.  Corolla  4-5  petals.  Filaments  joined  or 
separate.  Anthers  about  20.  The  fruit,  a  small  orange  2'  or 
more  in  diameter,  the  peel  closely  adherent. 

The  C.  aurantium  verum  or  C.  reticulata  (Blanco)  has  a  yel- 
low pulp  and  the  rind  is  readily  separated  from  it,  a  thin  net 
of  fibers  intervening. 

Citrus  decumana,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Suha,  Lukban,  Tag.;  Toronjas  Penins.;  Na- 
ranjaSj  Sp.-Fil. 

USES. — The  fruit,  which  is  handsome  and  large,  and  the 
leaves  and  flowers,  are  used  for  the  same  purposes  as  those  of 
C.  bigaradia. 

HABITAT. — The  above  species  are  cultivated  in  all  parts  of 
the  islands,  and,  like  the  variety  C.  aurantium  venim,  H.  f.  (C. 
reticulata,  Blanco),  commonly  called  naranjita,  are  among  the 
most  abundant  of  native  fruits. 

-ffigle  decandra,  Naves.     (Feronia  ternata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YIJLG. — Malahabuyaw,  Tag.;  Tabog,  Pam.,  Tag.  (A 
species  of  Bael-Frnit  Tree.) 

USES. — We  do  not  know  the  medicinal  use  of  this  plant  in 
the  Philippines.  Probably  it  has  none,  but  we  may  give  those 
of  the  species.  R.  marmelos,  Cor.,  the  fruit  of  which  is  almost 
identical  with  that  of  our  species  and  is  called  Bela  or  Bael  in 
India.  The  fruit  of  the  Malakabuyaw  is  ovoid  and  full  of  a 
mucilaginous  pulp,  aromatic  and  acid,  the  same  as  that  of  the 
Bael.  The  uses  of  the  latter  are  the  following :  The  pulp  acts 
as  an  astringent,  but  it  would  be  more  correctly  called  a  tonic 
of  the  intestinal  mucosa,  for  it  has  been  experimentally  proved 
that,  although  it  checks  diarrhrea,  it  also  acts  as  a  laxative  in 


68  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

chronic  constipation.  In  both  conditions  it  seems  to  operate 
by  toning  and  regulating  the  functions  of  the  intestine. 

Martin,  an  English  physician,  was  the  first  to  call  attention 
to  the  properties  of  Bael,  and  according  to  Dr.  Green  one  dose 
of  the  pulp  of  the  ripe  fruit,  prepared  with  sugar  and  given 
every  morning,  is  an  efficient  remedy  in  the  treatment  of  the 
dyspepsia  of  Europeans  in  India,  especially  in  the  form  charac- 
terized by  constipation  and  flatulence.  The  green  fruit  is  a 
powerful  astringent  used  by  the  Hindoos  for  diarrhoea.  In 
cholera  epidemics  Dr.  Bose  advises  the  daily  use  of  an  ice  made 
from  the  pulp  of  the  ripe  fruit,  the  object  being  the  regulation 
of  the  functions  of  the  intestine. 

The  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  contains  the  following  prepara- 
tions : 

Mixture. — Pulp  of  the  ripe  fruit 60  grams. 

Water 120       " 

Sugar 60      " 

Mix,  and  if  desired  add  chopped  ice.  This  forms  a  very 
agreeable  drink  which  has  the  aroma  of  the  fruit  itself,  and 
may  be  repeated  2-3  times  a  day.  When  the  fruit  is  ripe,  this 
preparation  is  not  only  astringent  in  cases  of  diarrhoea,  but 
possesses  the  additional  property  of  increasing  the  appetite.  If 
the  patient's  stomach  is  very  weak,  the  preparation  may  pro- 
duce vomiting  in  which  event  it  is  necessary  to  give  it  in  small 
doses  or  to  employ  the  extract. 

Extract  of  Bad. — Pulp  of  the  ripe  fruit  is  placed  in  a  vessel 
and  sufficient  water  added  to  cover  it.  It  is  then  heated  and 
evaporated  to  the  consistency  of  a  soft  extract.  The  dose  is 
2-4  grams,  2,  3  or  4  times  a  day. 

Fluid  Extract  of  Bad.— 

Pulp  of  Bael 500  grams. 

Water 3  liters. 

Rectified  alcohol 60  grams. 


FERONIA    ELEPHANTUM  69 

The  Bael  is  macerated  in  a  third  of  the  water  and  at  the  end  of 
12  hours  the  liquid  is  decanted  and  another  third  of  water  is 
added  ;  the  maceration  is  repeated  and  the  same  process  followed 
till  the  last  third  of  water  is  used.  Express  the  residuum,  put 
all  the  liquid  into  one  vessel,  filter  and  evaporate  till  reduced  to 
800  grams,  then  cool  and  add  the  alcohol.  Dose,  4—8  grams. 

The  fluid  extract  is  less  active  than  the  freshly  prepared  solid 
extract. 

According  to  Dr.  G.  Bidie,  the  fruit  of  the  Feronia  elephan- 
tum,  Correa  (the  species  that  grows  in  the  Philippines),  possesses 
the  same  properties  as  Bael.  Its  leaves  are  astringent,  aro- 
matic and  carminative,  and  the  gum  with  which  the  trunk  of 
the  tree  is  covered  is  a  good  substitute  for  gum  arabic. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  7-8  meters  high,  the 
trunk  covered  with  large,  solitary  spines.  Leaves  alternate, 
ternate.  Leaflets  lanceolate,  scalloped  and  glabrous,  the  middle 
one  larger  than  the  others.  Calyx  5-toothed.  Corolla,  5  thick 
petals,  linear,  much  longer  than  the  calyx.  Stamens  10.  Ovary 
cylindrical.  Style  and  stigma  thick.  Fruit  oblong,  more  than 
3r  long  and  2'  thick,  with  a  surface  irregular  with  prominences 
and  grooves  ;  10  or  more  compartments,  each  containing  several 
ovoid,  compressed  seeds,  ending  with  a  woolly  tuft. 

HABITAT. — San  Mateo,  Montalban  (Manila) ;  Arayat  (La 
Pampanga). 

Feronia  elephantum,  Correa.     (Murraya  odorata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Panoan,  Pamunoan,  Vis. ;  Wood-apple,  Eng. 

USES. — The  pulp  of  the  ripe  fruit  has  an  agreeable  odor  and 

is  edible.     In  India  the  green  fruit  is  used  as  an  astringent  in 

diarrhoea  and  dysentery ;  the  ripe  fruit  is  given  in  diseases  of 

the  gums  and  as  a  gargle.     Mir  Muhammad  Husain  states  that 

the  ripe  fruit  is  a  refrigerant,  astringent,  cardiac  and  general 

tonic,  and  is  very  efficacious  in  the  treatment  of  salivation  and 

ulcers  of  the  throat,  strengthening  the  gums  and  operating  as 


70  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

an  astringent.  A  sorbet  made  of  the  ripe  fruit  whets  the  appe- 
tite and  the  pulp  is  used  locally  for  bites  of  venomous  animals. 
In  the  latter  case  the  pulverized  bark  may  be  used  if  the  fruit 
cannot  be  obtained. 

The  fruit  of  Ferona  is  a  substitute  for  Bael  (JEgle  Marme- 
los),  and  is  used  as  such  by  the  English  physicians  in  the  hos- 
pitals of  India.  The  tender  leaves  have  an  agreeable  aroma 
similar  to  that  of  anise  and  are  used  internally  in  decoction  as 
a  stomachic  and  carminative. 

The  incised  trunk  exudes  a  gum  which  is  used  in  India  as  a 
substitute  for  gum  arabic  and  there  is  an  active  trade  in  this 
gum  in  the  bazars  of  Bombay  and  Calcutta.  According  to 
Pereira,  it  was  at  one  time  imported  into  England  from  the 
east  of  India  under  the  name  of  gum  arabic.  It  exists  in  the 
form  of  irregular,  semitransparent  pieces,  of  a  brownish-red 
color.  With  water  it  forms  a  mucilage  as  adhesive  as  gum 
arabic,  and  this  solution  reddens  litmus  paper.  It  is  dextro- 
gyrous  and  is  precipitated  by  the  neutral  acetate  of  lead  and 
by  caustic  baryta. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Tree  3-4  meters  high.  Leaves 
fragrant,  opposite,  odd-pinnate.  Leaflets,  2  pairs,  lanceolate, 
entire,  and  glabrous.  Common  petiole  flattened  above.  Flow- 
ers terminal,  white,  racemose,  with  2  flattened  peduncles. 
Calyx  inferior,  with  5-6  divisions.  Corolla,  5-6  petals.  An- 
thers oval.  Ovary  oblong,  5-lobuled.  Style  short,  caducous. 
Stigma  spindle-shaped.  Ovules  numerous,  compressed,  in  sev- 
eral series.  Fruit  pulpy,  globose,  with  woody  rind,  one  com- 
partment and  many  compressed,  oblong  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Mountains  of  Augat.  Woods  of  Catugan  (Iloilo). 


SAMADERA    INDICA  71 

SIMARUBAGE^. 

Quassia  Family. 

Samadera  Indica,  Gaertn.     (Niota  tetrapela,  DC.  &  Blanco ; 
Manungala  pendula,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Manungaly  Tag.,  Pam.,  Bicol.;  Manunagl, 
Linatoganak,  Palagarium,  Daraput,  Vis. 

USES. — The  wood  and  seeds  contain  an  intensely  bitter  prin- 
ciple. The  Filipinos  make  cups  and  vases  of  the  wood  and 
allow  water  to  stand  in  them  6-12  hours,  thus  preparing  a  solu- 
tion of  the  bitter  principle  of  the  plant  which  they  use  in  various 
stomach  disorders. 

Vrij  has  extracted  from  the  seeds  a  33  ^  oil  of  a  bright  yellow 
color,  composed,  according  to  Oudermans,  of  84  parts  olein  to 
16  of  palmitin  and  stearin. 

The  bitter  principle  contained  in  the  root,  wood  and  bark 
was  discovered  by  Blunse  who  named  it  samaderin ;  it  is  a 
white,  crystalline,  foliaceous  sub&tance,  more  soluble  in  water 
than  in  alcohol,  fusible.  Nitric  and  hydrochloric  acids  color  it 
yellow.  Sulphuric  acid  immediately  forms  a  violet  red  color 
which  disappears  as  iridescent,  feathery  crystals  are  precipi- 
tated. (D.  Beaumentz  et  Egasse.) 

The  Filipino  "  herb-doctors  "  concoct  an  oil  of  manungal  that 
in  reality  contains  none  of  the  ingredients  of  the  seeds ;  it  is 
simply  cocoaimt  oil  in  which  chips  of  the  wood  have  been 
soaked.  They  use  it  in  doses  of  30-60  grams  as  a  purgative, 
externally  as  an  application  to  the  abdomen  in  colic  or  indi- 
gestion and  with  friction  in  rheumatism  or  contusions.  In 
India  the  oil  extracted  from  the  seeds  is  used  locally  with  fric- 
tion in  rheumatism. 

The  decoction  of  the  wood  and  the  powdered  wood  are  given 
in  fevers,  in  dyspepsia  and  as  a  general  tonic. 

IXFUSIOX. — Chips  of  the  wood 20  grams. 

Water .  500       " 


72  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

A  wineglassful  several  times  a  day  in  cholera,  fevers,  diar- 
rhoea, etc. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree,  trunk  straight,  the 
wood  white  and  very  light  in  weight.  Leaves  4—5'  long,  alter- 
nate, acute,  oval,  entire,  glabrous,  coriaceous,  veined.  Petioles 
very  short,  no  stipules.  Flowers  in  terminal  umbels,  each  com- 
posed of  4-6  flowerets  with  moderately  long  pedicels.  Common 
peduncle,  very  slender,  very  long,  drooping.  Calyx  of  same 
color  as  corolla,  inferior,  very  small,  4-lobuled.  Corolla  pur- 
plish, very  long,  4  straight,  linear  petals.  Stamens  8,  inserted 
on  the  receptacle.  Filaments  of  equal  length  with  the  petals, 
with  1-2  appendices  at  the  base.  Anthers  spiral.  Ovary  5- 
lobuled,  borne  on  small  stalk.  One  style  of  equal  length  with 
the  stamens,  situated  above  the  center  of  the  5  lobules  of  the 
ovary  which  develop  into  5  future  pods.  Stigma  simple.  Fruit 
5  woody  pods,  short,  united  centrally  above  a  small  base,  semi- 
lunar  in  form,  medianly  expanded,  venate,  containing  a  small 
wrinkled,  kidney-shaped  seed  attached  by  a  seed-stalk  to  the 
superior  suture. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  and  well  known  everywhere  in 
the  Philippines.  Blooms  in  February. 

BURSERACEJE. 

Myrrh  Family. 
Garuga  pinnata,  Eoxb.     (G.  Madagascar ensis,  DC.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Bugo,  Tag. 

USES. — The  fruit  is  slightly  acid  and  edible.  The  trunk 
exudes  an  abundant  gum,  of  the  odor  of  turpentine,  translucent, 
greenish-yellow,  forming  small  masses  slightly  soluble  in  alco- 
hol, soluble  in  water,  with  which  a  mucilage  is  formed.  The 
juice  of  the  leaves  is  used  for  asthma.  The  sap  is  used  in 
Bombay  to  remove  opacities  of  the  cornea.  There  is  another 
species  in  the  Philippines,  G.  floribunda,  Decsne  (Idea  Abilo, 


CANARIUM    COMMUNE  73 

Blanco),  abilo,  Tag.,  the  root  of  which  furnishes  a  decoction 
used  for  phthisis.  This  species  also  produces  a  gum-resin 
similar  to  that  of  the  bugo. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  with  leaves  alternate, 
odd-pinnate,  without  stipules,  bunched  on  the  ends  of  the 
branches,  with  opposite,  serrate  leaflets.  Flowers  yellowish- 
white  in  panicles,  compound,  polygamous.  Calyx  bell-shaped, 
5-toothed.  Corolla,  5  petals.  Stamens  10,  free,  in  2  series. 
Ovary  inferior,  5-lobuled.  Fruit,  a  globose,  greenish-yellow 
drupe  with  numerous  bony  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Everywhere  in  Luzon,  Panay  and  Balabac. 

Canarium  commune,  L.    (C.  album  and  C.  Luzonicum,  Blanco.) 
NOM.  VULG. — Piliy  Tag.;    Java  Almond  Tree,  East  Indian 
Elerrdy  Eng. 

USES. — The  ripe  pili  nut  is  edible  and  sold  in  confectioneries. 
It  yields  a  fixed  oil,  an  excellent  sample  of  which  was  sent  by 
the  Manila  pharmacist  D.  A.  del  Rosario  to  the  Paris  Exposi- 
tion of  1889.  "It  is  an  oil  very  similar  to  oil  of  almond  and 
owing  to  its  physical  properties  may  be  used  as  a  substitute  for 
the  latter  for  all  the  requirements  of  pharmacy.  The  only 
inconvenience  connected  with  its  use  is  the  slight  one  that  it 
solidifies  at  3°  C.  It  could  furthermore  be  very  advantageously 
used  in  the  manufacture  of  fine  grades  of  soap."  (D.  A.  del 
Rosario.) 

The  incised  trunk  exudes  a  gum-resin  called  brea  blanca  (white 
pitch)  in  the  Philippines  and  elemi  in  Europe.  Until  recently 
it  was  not  known  in  Europe  what  tree  yielded  the  gum  elemi, 
some  authors  stating  that  according  to  Blanco  it  was  the  resin 
of  the  Idea  abilo,  Blanco  ( Garuga  floribunda,  Decsne) ;  it  is 
not  true,  however,  that  Padre  Blanco  ever  attributed  such 
origin  to  that  product  or  named  his  Icica  the  "  pitch-tree." 
On  the  contrary  in  speaking  of  the  Canarium,  Blanco  states 
that  it  yields  a  resin  called  "  pili-pitch."  I  do  not  know  the 


74  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

reason  for  this  confusion  of  terms,  but  presume  it  to  be  due  to 
imperfect  knowledge  of  Spanish  on  the  part  of  those  who  thus 
quote  Blanco. 

Pili-pitch,  or  elemi,  as  they  call  it  in  Manila,  is  a  substance 
existing  in  soft  masses,  slightly  yellowish  or  gray,  resembling 
old  honey  in  appearance.  Its  odor  is  strong  and  agreeable, 
somewhat  like  that  of  lemon  and  turpentine.  Its  taste  is  acrid 
and  bitter. 

The  French  pharmacist  Meaujean  demonstrated  in  1820  that 
elemi  contains  two  resins,  one  soluble  in  the  cold,  and  the  other 
in  hot  spirits  of  wine.  Other  chemists,  among  them  Baup, 
Fliickiger  and  Hanbury,  have  found  elemi  to  be  composed  of  a 
resinous  substance  and  a  colorless  essential  oil ;  the  proportion 
of  the  latter  Fliickiger  gives  as  10J&  and  further  states  that  it 
is  dextrogyrous.  Sainte-Claire  Deville  found  the  essential  oil 
levogyrous,  a  fact  that  emphasizes  the  probability  of  there  be- 
ing different  products  in  the  market  bearing  the  name  of  elemi. 

Baup  obtained  several  principles  from  it :  (1)  A  resin,  brein, 
fusible  at  187°,  soluble  in  cold  alcohol,  crystallizablein  oblique 
rhombic  prisms ;  (2)  another  crystalline  substance,  bryoidin, 
soluble  in  360  parts  water  at  10°,  and  melting  at  13°;  (3)  a 
small  amount  of  brMin,  a  body  soluble  in  260  parts  water  and 
melting  at  100°-j-  ;  (4)  another  resin  soluble  in  boiling  alcohol, 
called  amyrin. 

White  pitch  is  used  in  the  Philippines  to  make  plasters 
which  they  apply  to  the  back  and  breast  of  patients  suffering 
from  bronchial  or  pulmonary  complaints  ;  it  is  also  applied  to 
indolent  ulcers.  We  believe  that  elemi  possesses  the  same 
properties  as  copaiba,  and  that  its  indications  for  internal  use 
are  the  same. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  30-40  meters  high,  with 
leaves  alternate,  odd-pinnate ;  leaflets  opposite,  coriaceous.  Flow- 
ers yellowish-white  in  axillary,  compound  panicles,  hermaphro- 
dite. Calyx  3-toothed.  Corolla,  3  oblong,  concave  petals.  Sta- 


MELIA    AZEDARACH  75 

mens  6,  inserted  on  the  base  of  the  disc.  Ovary  free,  of  3  lobules 
each  containing  2  ovules.  Style  simple.  Stigma,  3  lobules. 
Drupe  oblong,  size  of  large  prune,  fleshy,  containing  a  hard, 
3-sided  pit. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  all  Philippine  woods  especially 
in  Camarines. 

MELIACE^E. 

Melia  Family. 

Melia  Azedarach,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Paraiso  (Paradise),  Sp.-Fil.;  Pride  of  India, 
China  Tree,  Eng. 

USES. — The  root  was  official  in  the  U.  S.  P.,  1880,  as  an 
anthelmintic ;  it  is  administered  in  the  following  form  : 

Fresh  root  bark 120  grams. 

Water 1  liter. 

Boil  till  reduced  one  half. 

DOSE. — For  a  child  1  soup-spoonful  every  15  minutes  till 
nausea  is  produced. 

In  view  of  the  narcotic  effects  produced  by  this  drug,  the 
foregoing  method  of  administration  seems  to  us  imprudent ;  we 
prefer  to  give  30-70  grams  of  the  decoction  and  follow  with  a 
purgative  such  as  castor  oil. 

This  drug  is  also  tonic,  febrifuge  and  astringent,  and  a  de- 
coction of  its  leaves  and  flowers  is  used  as  a  wash  for  ulcers. 
Some  believe  that  the  leaves  and  fruit  contain  toxic  principles, 
which  may  well  be  true  considering  the  effects  of  large  doses  of 
their  preparations.  It  has  also  been  observed  that  the  bark 
collected  in  March  and  April  may  cause  dilatation  of  the  pupil, 
stupor,  etc.;  this  may  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  at  this  sea- 
son the  sap  is  rising  in  the  tree  and  the  bark  contains  an  in- 
creased amount  of  active  ingredients. 

The  fruit  yields  a  fixed  oil,  and  by  fermentation  and  distil- 
lation produces  alcohol. 


76  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

The  root  bark  referred  to  is  bitter  and  nauseous,  if  taken 
from  the  superficial  roots — the  part  usually  employed ;  the 
bark  of  the  deeper  parts  is  astringent  by  virtue  of  the  con- 
tained tannin. 

Jacobs  analyzed  the  bark  and  isolated  an  amorphous  resin  of 
yellowish  color  and  very  bitter  taste.  It  is  soluble  in  alcohol, 
ether  and  chloroform,  slightly  soluble  in  sulphuret  of  carbon, 
insoluble  in  turpentine  or  benzin.  He  believes  that  it  is  the 
active  principle  of  the  root,  and  produces  the  anthelmintic  ac- 
tion already  mentioned ;  the  proper  dose  is  0.20  centigrams  to 
a  child  of  4  years,  followed  by  a  purge  of  calomel. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  30-40°  high,  with  leaves 
alternate,  compound,  odd-pinnate ;  leaflets  opposite,  ovate, 
pointed,  dentate.  Flowers  in  large  axillary  compound  panicles. 
Calyx,  5  sepals.  Corolla,  5  petals,  rose-colored  within,  lilac- 
colored  without.  Stamens  10,  united  into  a  cylindrical  tube, 
expanded  at  both  ends,  the  mouth  15-toothed.  Anthers  in- 
serted near  the  apex  of  the  tube,  short,  fleshy,  bilocular.  Ovary 
free,  of  5  biovuled  cells.  Style  of  equal  length  with  the  tube. 
Stigma  button-shaped.  Fruit  a  drupe,  about  the  size  of  a  small 
olive,  yellow  when  ripe,  with  a  dark  brown  pit  of  5  one-seeded 
cells. 

HABITAT. — Native  of  China  ;  is  cultivated  in  most  gardens 
in  the  Philippines. 

Dysoxylum  Blancoi,  Vidal.  (D.  salutare,  F.  Villar  ;  Turroea 
virens,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Ig'iWj  Ag'iWj  Tcdiatan,  Tag. ;  Ananagtag, 
Bakugan,  Makasili,  Vis. ;  Malabagaw,  Pam. ;  Basiloag,  Hoc. 

USES. — The  bark  of  the  trunk,  dry  and  finely  powdered,  is 
used  in  doses  of  1J-2J  grams  as  an  emetic,  and,  according  to 
Padre  Blanco,  its  effect  is  very  certain. 

It  is  also  a  febrifuge,  and  Padre  Mercado  states  that  it 
cures  "all  forms  of  asthma,  suffocative  affections  of  the  chest, 


SANDORICUM    INDICUM  77 

and  griping  pains  of  the  belly."  He  also  states  that  it  yields 
marvelous  results  in  malarial  fevers,  given  during  the  cold  stage 
in  doses  of  4-8  grams  in  water  or  wine  in  which  it  has  macerated 
12  hours.  He  also  recommends  its  use  before  breakfast  as  an 
anthelmintic  in  lumbricoids,  and  finally  attributes  to  it  virtues 
as  an  emmenagogue. 

Padre  Blanco  calls  attention  to  the  species  D.  sehizochitoides, 
Turcz.  (Turroea  octandra,  Blanco),  Himamaw,  Tag.,  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  1).  Blaneoi. 

The  Tagalo  "herb-doctors"  pretend  that  the  part  of  the 
bark  near  the  earth  is  doubly  efficacious,  for  which  reason  they 
administer  only  that  portion  which  is  within  one  meter  of  the 
ground,  giving  it  in  the  doses  already  mentioned. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Tree  1 6-20  meters  high.  Leaves 
glabrous,  odd-pinnate,  petioles  very  long ;  leaflets  entire,  oppo- 
site, short-petiolate,  acute,  oblique  at  the  base.  Flowers  in 
axillary  panicles.  Calyx,  5  imbricated  sepals.  Corolla,  5 
linear,  lanceolate  petals  united  at  the  base.  Staminal  tube,  10- 
toothed  and  10-anthered.  Ovary  5-celled,  each  cell  contain- 
ing two  ovules.  Style  somewhat  longer  than  the  stamens. 
Stigma  thick  and  depressed.  Seed  vessel  globose,  depressed, 
somewhat  downy,  5-angled  ;  with  5  compartments  each  contain- 
ing 2  seeds. 

HABITAT. —  Batangas  and  Laguna. 

Sandoricum  Indicum,  Cav. 

NOM.  VULG. — Santolj  Tag. 

USES. — The  santol  is  doubtless  one  of  the  best  known  fruits 
in  Manila.  The  most  savory  portion  is  the  center,  which  con- 
sists of  seeds  covered  with  a  white  pulp  of  a  delicious  flavor  in 
the  ripe  fruit  of  good  quality.  The  fleshy  covering  is  edible 
only  in  the  center  of  the  fruit  and  only  a  very  thin  layer  of 
that,  the  rest  having  very  little  flavor.  The  whole  fruit  is 
used  in  making  a  confection  often  prescribed  as  an  astringent. 


78  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

Padre  Mercado  compares  it  very  appropriately  to  the  quince. 
The  root  of  the  santol  is  aromatic,  stomachic  and  astringent,  by 
virtue  of  which  latter  property  it  is  used  in  Java  in  the  treat- 
ment of  leucorrhoea. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  30-40°  high,  well  known 
in  the  islands.  Leaves  ternate  ;  leaflets  4-5'  long,  half-ovate, 
obtuse,  entire,  stiif  and  downy,  the  middle  one  elliptical. 
Flowers  in  panicles.  Calyx  5-toothed.  Corolla  much  longer 
than  the  calyx,  5  greenish  petals,  linear  and  curved  downwards. 
Nectary  a  cylindrical  tube  attached  to  the  corolla  for  half  its 
length,  mouth  10-toothed,  containing  10  sessile  anthers.  Style 
somewhat  longer  than  the  stamens.  Stigma  5-parted.  Fruit 
about  size  and  form  of  a  small  apple,  thick,  brown,  pericarp 
indehiscent,  5  or  more  one-seeded  compartments. 

HABITAT. — Grows  in  all  parts  of  the  islands,  commonly 
along  the  roads. 

Carapa  Moluccensis,  Lam.     (Xylocarpus  granatum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Tabigi,  Nigi,  Kalumpag  sa  lati,  Tag.;  Migi, 
Pam. 

USES. — The  seeds  contain  a  yellow  oil,  bitter  and  astringent, 
with  a  characteristic  odor,  having  a  taste  somewhat  resembling 
the  odor.  In  decoction  they  are  used  for  diarrhoea  and  dysen- 
tery, on  account,  doubtless,  of  the  tannin  they  contain.  The 
dose  is  1—2  seeds  dried,  pounded  and  infused  with  200  grams 
of  sweetened  water. 

The  bark,  also  bitter,  is  said  to  be  useful  in  fevers. 

In  America  they  extract  an  oil  from  the  species  of  the  C. 
Guianensis,  Aubl.,  with  which  the  negroes  anoint  themselves  to 
keep  away  stinging  insects.  Wood  soaked  in  this  oil  is  also 
proof  against  insects. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — This  tree,  20°  high,  grows  in 
swampy  districts.  Leaves  opposite,  abruptly  pinnate.  Two 
pairs  of  wedge-shaped  leaflets,  entire  and  glabrous.  Petiole 


CEDRELA    TOON A  79 

very  short.  Calyx  inferior,  4-5-toothed.  Corolla,  4-5  con- 
cave petals,  slightly  notched  at  the  end.  Nectary  notched, 
ovate,  8-9-toothed.  No  filaments.  Anthers  equal  in  number 
to  the  teeth  of  the  nectary  and  inserted  between  them.  Ovary 
very  thick,  globose.  Stigma  shield-shaped.  Drupe  globose, 
resembling  a  very  large  orange,  5  chambers,  each  containing  1, 
2  or  more  seeds,  convex  on  one  side  and  concave  on  the  other, 
angular  and  much  crowded.  Testa  hard  and  porous. 
HABITAT. — Common  throughout  the  Archipelago. 

Cedrela  Toona,  Roxb.     (C.  odorata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — KalantaSj  Tag.,  Pam.;  Lanigpa,  Vis. 

USES. — The  infusion  of  the  flowers  is  antispasmodic.  The 
trunk  bark  is  an  excellent  astringent,  and  Dr.  Waitz  recom- 
mends it  in  extract  as  a  treatment  for  infantile  diarrhea,  for 
which  I  also  have  found  it  very  useful.  Blume  says  that  it 
contains  marked  antispasmodic  virtues,  and  Dr.  G.  Kennedy 
confirms  it.  Other  physicians  of  India,  among  them  Ros  and 
Newton,  have  recommended  the  bark  as  a  substitute  for  cin- 
chona, given  dry  in  doses  of  30  grams. 

INFUSION. — 

Bark  dry,  pounded 30  grams. 

Water ..150       « 

Filter  and  add : 

Syrup  of  cinnamon 20  grams. 

DOSE. — Several  dessert-spoonfuls  a  day. 

The  powdered  bark  is  very  useful  as  an  application  to  indo- 
lent ulcers  which  it  instantly  deodorizes  ;  like  powdered  quinine 
it  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  superficial  gangrene. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree.  Leaves  odd-pin- 
nate. Leaflets  oval,  lanceolate,  acuminate,  entire,  glabrous,  5- 
6  pairs.  Flowers  yellow,  in  terminal  panicles.  Calyx  5- 
toothed.  Corolla,  5  oblong  petals.  Stamens  5,  free,  inserted 
on  the  apex  of  a  disk.  Ovaries  sessile,  5  many-ovuled  cells. 


80  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Style   short.     Stigma  on  a  disk.     Seed  vessel   coriaceous,   5 
compartments,  septicidal,  5-valved.     Seeds  compressed,  pendu- 
lous, prolonged  in  a  membranous  wing. 
HABITAT. — Very  common  in  the  islands. 

CELASTRACEJE. 

Staff-Tree  Family. 

Celastrus  paniculata,  Willd.    (C.  alnifolia,  DC.;   C.Rothiana, 
Roem.;  Diosma  serrata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Bilogo,  Tag. 

USES. — I  am  not  acquainted  with  the  medicinal  uses  of  this 
plant  in  the  Philippines.  In  India,  by  means  of  a  primitive 
system  of  distillation,  they  extract  from  the  seeds  a  dark-col- 
ored oil  of  empyreumatic  odor,  which  under  the  name  of  Oleum 
nigrum  was  once  proclaimed  by  Dr.  Herklots  as  the  sovereign 
remedy  for  beriberi. 

This  oil  in  doses  of  10-15  drops  a  day  is  a  very  powerful 
stimulant,  the  action  of  which  is  manifested  by  profuse  perspi- 
ration several  hours  after  its  administration.  Malcolmson  re- 
ports that  it  has  given  him  good  results  in  several  cases  of 
beriberi,  particularly  in  recent  cases  and  those  in  which  nerv- 
ous and  paralytic  symptoms  predominated.  In  Coucan,  the 
juice  of  the  leaves  is  given  in  doses  of  30  grams  as  an  antidote 
for  opium.  The  bruised  seeds  made  into  a  paste  with  cow 
urine  are  used  locally  in  treatment  of  itch.  They  are  also 
used  in  the  treatment  of  leprosy,  gout,  rheumatism,  and  other 
diseases  which  according  to  their  medical  theories,  are  derived 
from  "cold  humors. "  For  these  purposes  they  give  the  seeds 
internally,  beginning  with  one  and  increasing  daily  until  50 
are  taken.  At  the  same  time  they  make  external  applications 
of  the  oil  or  of  another  compound  prepared  in  the  following  way  : 

Place  in  an  open  pot  with  one  opening,  seeds  of  C.  panicu- 
lata, cloves,  benzoin,  nutmeg  and  mace.  The  pot  having  been 


ZIZYPHUS    JUJUBA  81 

previously  heated,  is  covered  with  another,  inverted  over  the 
opening.  On  the  sides  of  the  latter  a  thick  black  oil  condenses 
which  Herklots  very  appropriately  named  Oleum  nigrum. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  climbing  shrub,  6-9°  high, 
without  spines.  Leaves  6-7 '  long  by  5'  broad,  alternate,  pet- 
iolate,  entire,  glabrous,  half-ovate.  Flowers  small  and  panicu- 
late. Calyx,  5  divisions.  Corolla,  5  petals.  Stamens  5,  in- 
serted in  a  disc.  Anthers  oblong.  Ovary  3-celled.  Stigma 
3-lobulate.  Style  short.  Seed  vessel  the  size  of  a  pea,  globose, 
3-celled,  loculicidal,  with  pulpy  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Tayabas,  Laguna,  Ilocos  North,  San  Mateo, 
Albay.  Flowers  in  April. 

RHAMNACE^I. 

Buckthorn  Family. 

Zizyphus  Jujuba,  Lam.     (Rhamnus  Jujuba,  L.  & 
Blanco ;  Z.  Mauritania,  Wall.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Manzanitas,  Sp.-Fil.;  Jujube  Fruit,  Eng. 

USES. — The  small  fruit  known  commonly  as  manzanitas  has 
an  agreeable  taste,  although  ordinarily  offered  for  sale  before 
they  are  quite  ripe.  They  are  among  the  most  popular  dain- 
ties at  the  fairs  and  festivals  in  the  provinces  of  Manila  and 
are  the  only  part  of  the  plant  used  in  medicine.  They  possess 
emollient  qualities  and  are  official  in  the  codex.  They  enter 
in  the  composition  of  the  so-called  pectoral  remedies  (composed 
of  equal  parts  of  figs,  dates,  Corinthian  raisins  and  manzanitas). 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub,  with  hooked  thorns, 
leaves  alternate,  petiolate,  coriaceous,  entire,  3-nerved,  2  thorny 
stipules,  one  of  them  crooked.  Flowers  small,  greenish,  axillary. 
Calyx,  5  oval  divisions.  Corolla,  5  petals.  Stamens  5,  free. 
Ovary  bilocutar,  situated  on  the  disc.  Styles  2-3,  divergent ; 
small  papillary  stigmas.  Drupe  pulpy,  globose,  resembling  a 
crab-apple  in  size  and  taste,  enclosing  a  hard,  2-celled  seed. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 


82  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Rhamnus  Wightii,  W.  &  Am.  (Ceanothus  WigUiana,  Wall.; 
R.  Carolianus,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kabatitij  Tag. 

USES. — The  dried  trunk  bark  is  the  part  employed  in  med- 
icine. Hooper  analyzed  it  in  1888  and  found  a  crystalline 
principle  (0.47  /o),  a  brown  resin  (0.85),  a  red  resin  (1.15),  a 
bitter  principle  (1.23),  sugar,  starch,  calcium,  oxalate,  etc. 

As  the  active  principles  exist  in  the  resins,  an  alcoholic  tinc- 
ture of  the  latter  is  the  best  preparation  for  administration.  In 
India  it  is  used  as  a  tonic  and  an  astringent. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  that  grows  near  the 
sea  coast.  Trunk  9-12°  high,  straight,  many-branched,  de- 
void of  thorns.  Leaves  alternate,  ovate,  acutely  serrate,  glab- 
rous, short-petioled.  Flowers  greenish-white,  axillary,  perfect. 
Calyx  5-toothed,  inversely  conical.  Corolla,  5  petals,  smaller 
than  the  teeth  of  the  calyx,  oval,  without  claws,  notched  at  the 
apex.  Disc  fleshy,  smooth,  slightly  concave.  Stamens  5,  hid- 
den within  the  petals.  Filaments  flattened.  Anthers  rounded. 
Ovary  fleshy,  inserted  at  the  bottom  of  the  calyx  tube.  Style 
short.  Stigmas  3,  divergent.  Fruit  oval,  its  base  adherent  to 
the  calyx,  3  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Batangas.     Blooms  in  July  and  October. 

ANACARDIACEJE. 

Cashew  Family. 
Mangifera  Indica,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Manga. 

USES. — The  dried  and  pulverized  kernel  of  the  seed  is  used 
as  an  anthelmintic  in  doses  of  1J-2  grams  both  in  India  and 
Brazil.  The  same  preparation  is  used  in  the  Philippines  in 
the  treatment  of  dysentery  and  diarrhoea  and  its  effect  is  doubt- 
less due  to  the  large  quantity  of  tannin  it  contains.  It  is  ad- 
ministered as  follows  :  The  pounded  kernels  of  20-25  seeds  are 


MANGIFEKA    INDICA  83 

brought  to  a  boil  in  2  bottles  (sic)  of  water.  When  the  liquid  has 
evaporated  a  third,  it  is  removed  from  the  fire,  cooled,  decanted, 
and  again  placed  on  the  fire  after  adding  three  to  four  hundred 
grams  of  sugar.  This  time  it  is  allowed  to  boil  till  reduced  to 
one  bottle.  The  dose  is  50-60  grams  2-3  times  a  day.  In- 
cisions in  the  trunk  exude  a  brownish  resin  which  solidifies  in 
the  air,  is  slightly  acrid,  bitter,  dissolves  in  alcohol  and  partially 
in  water.  In  Malabar  it  is  given  internally  in  the  treatment 
of  diarrhoea  and  dysentery,  mixing  it  with  white  of  egg  and 
opium.  But  the  curative  value  of  the  combination  is  more 
likely  due  to  the  albumen  and  opium  than  to  the  resin.  Dis- 
solved in  lemon  juice  it  is  a  useful  application  in  the  itch.  The 
trunk  bark  is  astringent  and  is  employed  in  decoction  as  a  wash 
for  ulcers  and  eczema  and  as  an  injection  in  leucorrhoea. 

The  fruit  is  one  of  the  most  highly  prized  in  the  Philippines, 
and  resident  Europeans  are  able  to  eat  large  quantities  of  it 
without  ill  effects  unless  the  fruit  is  over-ripe,  in  which  case  it 
often  causes  transient  diarrhcea,  which  should  be  treated  with  a 
mild  purge. 

In  Mauritius  the  following  compound  powder  is  used  in 
dysentery  : 

Dried  slices  of  manga  fruit 30  grams. 

Dried  manga  kernels 60       " 

Plantain  seeds 15       " 

Dried  ginger 8       " 

Gum  arabic 15       " 

Pulverize    each    ingredient    separately ;    add 

powdered  candy  sugar 30       " 

Mix. 

DOSE. — For  an  adult  one  dessert-spoonful  every  4  hours  ; 
may  be  given  in  cange  or  arrowroot. 

The  flowers,  testa  and  bark  are,  in  Hindoo  therapeutics, 
considered  "  cold,"  and  "  astringent,"  and  are  used  especially 
in  diarrhcea.  In  certain  throat  affections  the  Hindoos  employ 


84  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

the  burning  leaves  for  inhalation.  They  also  use  the  gum  made 
by  evaporating  the  juice  of  the  ripe  fruit,  as  a  confection  and 
an  antiscorbutic.  Dr.  Linguist  recommends  the  bark  as  a  local 
astringent  in  uterine,  intestinal  and  pulmonary  hemorrhage  and 
employs  the  following  : 

Fluid  Extract.— 

Fluid  extract  of  manga  bark 10  grams. 

Water 120       " 

Mix.     Dose,  1  teaspoonful  every  1  or  2  hours. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  noble  tree,  30°  to  40°  high, 
dome-like  or  rotund  in  outline.  Leaves  dark  green,  lustrous, 
alternate,  lanceolate,  entire  ;  short  petioles.  Flowers  racemose, 
in  verticillate  panicles.  Calyx,  4,  5  or  6  sepals.  Corolla 
white,  fragrant,  4,  5  or  6  petals.  Stamens  5,  of  which  per- 
haps 1,  2  or  3  are  fertile.  Style  on  one  side  of  the  ovary. 
Stigma  simple.  Fruit  large,  reniform,  fleshy,  yellow  when  ripe  ; 
contains  a  large,  flattened,  reniform  pit.  Blooms  from  Janu- 
ary even  till  June.  The  natives  force  the  fruit  by  building 
fires  under  the  trees  when  but  little  air  is  stirring. 

HABITAT. — Common  throughout  the  islands. 

Anacardium  occidentale,  L.  (Cassuvium  reniforme,  Blanco.) 
NOM.  VULG. — Kasuy,  Tag.;  Caskew  Nut,  Eng. 
USES. — The  pericarp  of  the  nut  contains  an  essential  oil 
which  is  very  irritant  and  used  by  the  Hindoos  as  a  vesicant ; 
it  severely  blisters  the  lips  and  tongues  of  imprudent  persons 
who  break  the  nut  without  taking  the  precaution  of  cleansing 
it  of  the  oil  before  opening  it.  In  addition  to  the  oil  called 
cardolj  the  pericarp  contains  an  especial  acid  anacardic,  a  little 
tannin  and  ammonia.  Cardol  (C21H31O2)  is  an  oleaginous,  yel- 
low liquid  very  unstable,  neutral,  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether, 
insoluble  in  water,  volatile,  and  vesicant  if  applied  to  the  skin. 
"  Anacardic  "  acid  is  white,  crystalline,  odorless,  with  a  burn- 
ing, aromatic  taste.  It  melts  at  26°  and  decomposes  at  200° 


ANACARDIUM   OCCIDENTALE  85 

forming  a  colorless  oil ;  it  is  not  vesicant,  burns  with  a  dark 
flame,  and  has  the  odor  of  rancid  oil.  A  tincture  of  the 
pericarp  has  been  made  (1  part  to  10  of  alcohol)  and  given  in- 
ternally as  a  vermifuge  in  doses  of  2—10  drops.  Cardol,  ac- 
cording to  some  authors,  does  not  exercise  a  vesicant  action  in 
the  gastro-intestinal  canal,  because  it  is  not  dissolved  by  the 
gastro-intestinal  juices  ;  I  am  sure,  however,  that  I  have  seen  a 
choleraic  diarrhoea  brought  on  by  swallowing,  in  fun,  the  peri- 
carp of  one  nut  and  a  half.  Cardol  is  eliminated  by  the  urine. 

The  kernel  is  edible  and  has  a  very  agreeable  taste  when  roasted. 
By  expression  it  yields  a  sweet,  yellowish  oil,  density  0.916. 

The  trunk  exudes  a  gum  resin  in  masses  varying  in  color 
from  red  to  yellow. 

The  fleshy  part,  called  the  fruit,  is  edible  but  contains  a  cer- 
tain quantity  of  cardol  not  only  evidenced  by  the  odor  but  by 
the  smarting  of  the  mouth  and  throat  after  eating.  It  is  very 
juicy  and  the  expressed  liquid  is  fermented  in  Bombay  and  dis- 
tilled to  make  a  very  weak  alcohol  which  sells  for  the  very  low 
price  of  4  annas  (5  cents  gold)  a  gallon.  This  alcohol  is  again- 
distilled  and  a  stronger  obtained  which  sells  for  1J  rupees  a 
gallon.  The  Portuguese  of  India  make  a  sort  of  wine  from 
the  fermented  juice  of  the  fruit,  which,  like  the  weak  alcohol  we 
have  mentioned,  is  a  well-known  diuretic  and  is  used  as  a  liniment. 

The  gum  resin  of  the  trunk  contains  90J&  of  anacardic  acid 
and  10J6  cardol.  Wood  soaked  in  it  is  preserved  from  the 
ravages  of  insects,  especially  of  white  ants,  for  which  purpose 
it  is  used  by  bookbinders  also.  Therapeutically  it  is  used  ex- 
ternally in  leprosy,  old  ulcers  and  to  destroy  corns,  but  on  ac- 
count of  its  rubefacient  and  vesicant  qualities  it  is  necessary 
to  use  it  cautiously. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  18°  high,  with  leaves 
cuneiform,  glabrous,  stiff,  short-petioled.  Flowers  polygamous 
in  terminal  panicles.  Calyx  with  5  erect  segments,  imbricated, 
caducous.  Corolla,  5  linear,  lanceolate  petals,  curved  and  im- 


86  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

bricated.  Stamens  8-10,  all  fertile.  Filaments  united  to  one 
another  and  to  the  disc.  Ovary  heart-shaped.  Style  filiform  and 
eccentric.  Stigma  defective.  Ovule  solitary.  Fruit  a  reni form 
nut  enclosed  in  a  pulpy  pyriform  body,  formed  by  the  matured  disc 
and  extremity  of  the  peduncle.  Seed  reniform,  testa  membranous. 
HABITAT. — Common  throughout  the  Archipelago.  Blooms 
in  February. 

Odina  Wodier,  Roxb. 

NOM.  YULG. — Amugis,  Tag.  and  Vis. 

USES. — The  bark  is  very  astringent  and  in  decoction  is  used 
for  chronic  ulcers.  In  India  Dr.  Kirkpatrick  has  used  it  as  a 
lotion  in  impetigo.  It  has  also  given  good  results  as  a  gargle 
in  affections  of  the  pharynx  and  buccal  cavity. 

The  trunk  exudes  a  gum  called  in  India  "  kanni  ki  gond," 
an  article  of  commerce.  It  is  almost  odorless  and  has  a  dis- 
agreeable taste.  It  is  only  partially  soluble  in  water,  forming 
a  viscid  mucilage.  It  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  contusions 
and  sprains  and  is  edible  when  mixed  with  cocoanut  milk. 
*  BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  with  leaves  bunched  at 
the  extremities  of  the  branches,  oblong,  oval,  acuminate,  odd- 
pinnate,  3-4  pairs  of  opposite  leaflets.  Flowers  greenish-white, 
polygamous,  in  terminal  panicles.  Calyx  gamosepalous,  4 
rounded  lobules.  Corolla,  4  imbricated  petals.  Stamens  8,  free. 
Ovary  4-parted.  Pistillate  flowers  ;  ovary  sessile,  oblong,  tmi- 
locular.  Style  4-parted,  thick.  Drupe  oblong,  compressed, 
unicellular.  Testa  hard,  with  1  non-albuminous  kernel. 

HABITAT. — San  Mateo. 

MO  RINGED. 

Moringa   pterygosperma,    Gaertn.     (M.   oleifera,    Lamk.; 

M.  poligona,  DC.;   Gidlandina  Moringa,  Blanco.) 
NOM.  VULG. —  Malugay,  Kamalugay,  Kalugay,  Tag.;  Dool, 
Malugit,  Vis.  and  Pam.;  Horse  Radish  Tree,  Indo-Eng. 


MORINGA    PTERYGOSPERMA  87 

USES. — The  root  is  vesicant  and  the  Filipinos  bruise  it  and 
use  it  for  sinapisms.  I  have  often  observed,  however,  that  it 
is  quite  painful  used  in  this  way.  Dr.  Waitz  states  that  it  is  a 
good  plan  to  add  a  few  drops  of  the  root  juice  to  mustard  sin- 
apisms, a  proceeding  which  seems  to  me  superfluous,  especially 
in  the  case  of  children  as  he  advises  it. 

The  Bengal  pharmacopoeia  contains  the  following  official 
preparations  : 

Compound  Spirit. — 

Small  pieces  of  moringa  root  ) 

I aa  600  grams. 

Orange  peel  j 

Nutmeg 20       " 

Spirit  of  wine 4J  liters. 

Water 1        " 

Mix  and  distil  4  liters. 

DOSE. — 8—30  cc.  as  a  stimulant  and  diuretic. 
Compound  Infusion . — 

Moringa  root,  small  pieces,  bruised  )       __  OA 

V  .  .  aa  30  grams. 
Mustard  seed  J 

Boiling  water J  liter. 

Let   stand  2   hours,  filter  and   add   com- 
pound spirit 30  grams. 

DOSE. — 30-60  grams  a  day,  as  a  strong  stimulant. 

The  expressed  seeds  yield  a  fixed  oil,  which  is  irritating  and 
in  my  opinion  should  not  be  used  internally. 

The  green  pods,  the  flowers  and  the  tender  shoots  of  the 
leaves  are  eaten  stewed.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  given 
internally  in  India,  as  an  emetic,  in  doses  of  30  grams. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  well-known  tree,  5-6  meters 
high.  Leaves  3-pinnate,  their  terminal  divisions  odd-pinnate. 
Leaflets  oval,  glabrous,  entire.  Calyx,  5  unequal  petaloid 
segments,  imbricated,  caducous.  Corolla  white,  5  unequal 
petals.  Stamens  inserted  on  the  border  of  a  disc,  unequal,  5 


88  THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS   OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

opposite  the  petals  bearing  anthers,  5  alternate  without  anthers. 
Anthers  dorsal,  unilocular.  Ovary  pedunculate,  lanceolate, 
unilocular,  with  many  ovules  in  2  series,  inserted  on  the  parietal 
placentae.  Fruit  a  pod  terminating  in  a  beak,  3-valved.  Seeds 
numerous,  very  large,  winged,  embedded  in  a  spongy  substance. 
HABITAT. — Common  throughout  the  islands.  Blooms  in 
November. 

LEGUMINOS-E.     (PAPILIONACEJE.) 

Pulse  Family. 
Agati  grandiflora,  Desv.     (Sesbania  grandiflora,  Pers.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Katuray,  Tag. 

USES. — The  flowers  are  edible.  They  and  the  leaves  are 
purgative  and  are  given  in  decoction  for  this  purpose,  30-40 
grams  to  200  of  water.  The  juice  of  the  flowers  is  a  popular 
remedy  in  India,  for  migraine  and  coryza.  The  trunk  bark  is 
bitter  and  tonic. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  4-6  meters  high,  with 
drooping  limbs  ;  leaves  long,  very  narrow,  abruptly  pinnate ; 
many  caducous  leaflets,  linear,  elliptical.  Flowers  large,  white, 
fragrant,  in  axillary  racemes.  Calyx  bell-shaped  with  two  in- 
distinct lips.  Corolla  papilionaceous,  white.  Standard  oval, 
a  slight  notch  at  the  apex.  Wings  almost  as  large  as  the  keel 
which  is  strongly  arched.  Stamens  10,  diadelphous.  Anthers 
uniform.  Style  and  stamens  equally  long.  Stigma  a  small 
head.  Pod  1-2°  long,  linear,  4-sided,  containing  many  oval 
seeds,  separated  by  filamentous  partitions. 

HABITAT. — Grows  in  all  sections  of  Luzon  and  Panay. 

Abrus  precatorius,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Saga,  Sagamamin,  Bagati,  Tag.;  Bagati  Gi- 
kosgikos,  Yis.;  Kanaasaga,  Pam.;  Bugayon,  Hoc.;  Jequiriti, 
Prayerbeads,  Eng. 


ABRUS    PRECATORIUS  89 

USES. — The  part  of  the  plant  most  important  in  thera- 
peutics is  the  seed,  the  size  of  a  small  pea,  bright  red  with  a 
black  spot,  hard  and  shining.  The  Filipino  children  use  them 
to  make  rosaries  and  other  decorations.  In  the  distant  past 
the  Filipinos  used  these  seeds  to  weigh  gold,  a  practice  followed 
even  to-day  by  the  Hindoos.  The  famous  Susrutas,  author  of 
the  "  Ayur  Veda,"  recommends  them  internally  for  nervous 
diseases ;  modern  therapeutics,  however,  limits  their  use  to  one 
disease,  though  that  is  frequent  and  stubborn  enough,  namely 
chronic  granular  conjunctivitis. 

Some  physicians  state  that  these  seeds  are  poisonous  and 
others  the  contrary,  but  the  fact  that  they  are  used  as  food 
among  the  poor  classes  of  Egypt,  demonstrates  their  harmless- 
ness  in  the  digestive  tract  at  least ;  when  introduced  into  the 
circulation  they  undoubtedly  exercise  a  toxic  effect.  We  have 
already  mentioned  that  their  use  is  limited  nowadays  to  the 
therapeutics  of  the  eye ;  the  decoction  of  the  seeds  known  in 
Europe  under  the  name  of  "  Jaqueriti  "• — so  named  in  Brazil — 
produces  a  purulent  inflammation  of  the  healthy  conjunctiva 
and  it  is  precisely  this  counter-irritant  effect  which  makes  it 
useful  in  chronic  granular  conjunctivitis,  the  persistence  of 
which  has  defied  the  most  heroic  measures  of  therapeutics. 
The  French  oculist,  Dr.  de  Wecker,  was  the  first  to  employ 
jequirity  for  this  purpose,  in  the  form  of  a  24  hours7  macera- 
tion of  the  seeds,  10  grams  to  500  grams  of  water.  It  is  nec- 
essary to  use  a  product  recently  prepared  and  with  this  several 
applications  a  day  are  made.  It  is  now  known  that  the  in- 
flammation of  the  healthy  conjunctiva  is  not  caused  by  germ- 
life  contained  in  the  solution  but  by  an  inorganic  ferment  dis- 
covered by  Bruylans  and  Venneman  and  named  jequiritin  ; 
they  state  that  it  is  produced  during  the  germination  of  the 
seeds  or  of  the  cells  in  the  powdered  seeds.  Warden  and  Wad- 
dell,  of  Calcutta,  have  isolated  an  essential  oil,  an  acid  named 
"  abric  "  and  an  amorphous  substance  called  abrin,  obtained  by 

8 


90  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

precipitation  with  alcohol  from  a  watery  infusion  of  the  pul- 
verized seeds.  Its  action  is  identical  with  that  of  "  jequiritin." 

The  infusion  appears  to  possess  considerable  value  as  a  stimu- 
lating application  to  indolent  ulcers. 

The  root  is  a  good  substitute  for  licorice,  is  emollient  and 
has  an  agreeable  taste.  The  extract  is  useful  in  catarrhal  dis- 
eases of  the  bronchi  and  in  dysuria.  The  leaves  contain  the 
same  properties  as  the  root  and  an  extract  prepared  from  them 
is  used  as  a  substitute  for  licorice. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION.- — A  vine,  with  leaves  opposite,  ab- 
ruptly pinnate,  a  stylet  taking  the  place  of  the  terminal  leaflet. 
Leaflets  linear,  entire,  glabrous,  tipped  with  a  small  point.  Com- 
mon petiole  with  2  awl-shaped  stipules  at  the  base.  Flowers 
in  small  racemes.  Calyx  gamosepalous,  caducous,  4—5  short 
teeth.  Corolla  papilionaceous,  wings  horizontal.  Stamens  9, 
monadelphous  with  bilocular  anthers.  Style  very  short.  Stigma 
globose.  Pod  4-5  cm.  long,  truncate  at  the  ends,  with  5-6 
red  seeds,  each  with  a  black  spot. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  mountainous  regions  of  the  is- 
lands. Grows  near  houses  and  roads. 

Mucuna  pruriens,  DC.  (If.  prurita,  Hook.;  M.  utilis,  Wall.; 
Dolichos  pruriens,  L.;  Carpopogon  pruriens,  Iloxb.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Nipay,  Lipay,  Vis. 

USES. — The  pods  are  official  as  an  anthelmintic  in  the  Phar- 
macopoeia of  India.  They  are  used  in  the  form  of  an  electuary 
triturated  to  the  proper  consistency  with  honey  or  syrup.  The 
dose  for  adults  is  one  soupspoonful,  and  for  children  a  teaspoon- 
ful,  given  every  morning  for  3-4  consecutive  days.  The  last 
day  a  purge  is  given  to  expel  the  lumbricoids. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  vine  with  ternate  leaves. 
Flowers  red,  keel  larger  than  the  standard  and  wings.  Pods 
about  as  thick  as  the  little  finger,  lacking  transverse  grooves, 
curved  in  the  form  of  the  letter  f,  covered  with  bright  red  down, 


ERYTHRINA    INDICA  91 

which  causes  an  unendurable  itching.     They  are  divided  into 
3  or  4  oblique  cells  each  containing  a  brown,  shiny  seed. 
HABITAT. — Luzon  and  Panay. 

Erythrina  Indica,  Lara.     (E.  corallodendron,  L.; 
E.  carnea,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Dapdap,  Kasindik,  Tag.;  Dapdap,  Kabrab, 
Vis.;  Dapdap,  Sulbay,  Para.;  Indian  Coral  Tree,  Eng. 

USES. — This  tree  is  well  known  on  account  of  the  beauty  of 
its  crimson  flowers.  The  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  a  useful 
cleansing  and  deodorizing  application  for  ulcers.  The  bruised 
leaves  are  used  locally  in  painful  affections  of  the  joints  and  to 
abort  syphilitic  buboes  and  abscesses  of  all  kinds.  The  juice 
of  the  tender  leaves  is  used  in  Con  can  to  destroy  maggots  in 
ulcers,  and  the  powder  has  a  similar  use.  A  decoction  is  used 
locally  in  ophthalmia. 

The  root  and  the  leaves  are  used  as  a  febrifuge  in  the  Philip- 
pines and  in  India,  according  to  Wight.  In  Brazil  the  bark 
is  given  in  small  repeated  doses  as  a  hypnotic  and  in  the  Phil- 
ippines as  a  diuretic  and  purgative ;  a  decoction  of  the  leaves 
is  similarly  used.  The  bark  contains  an  alkaloid  discovered 
by  Rochefontaine  and  Rey,  called  erythrin,  which  acts  upon  the 
central  nervous  system,  diminishing  its  normal  functions  even 
to  the  point  of  abolishment,  without  modifying  motor  excitabil- 
ity or  muscular  contractility.  W.  Young  isolated  a  glucoside, 
migarrliin,  similar  to  saponin,  but  possessing  the  additional 
property  of  dilating  the  pupil. 

In  bronchitis  with  dyspnoea  the  following  infusion  of  bark 
is  very  useful : 

Fresh  bark,  1 

-^      ,  ,    ,      .     ,  ,  > aa        2  grams. 

-b  reshly  bruised  leaves,  j 

Water 1,500  " 

Boil  till  reduced  one-half,  filter  and  add  : 

Simple  syrup 200  " 

Dose  :  Wineglassful  every  two  hours. 


92  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree,  20°  high,  thorny, 
with  ternate  leaves.  Leaflets  rhomboid,  broad,  entire,  glabrous. 
Secondary  petioles :  that  of  the  middle  leaflet  long,  bearing  2 
glands,  those  of  the  others  short,  bearing  1  gland  each.  The 
leaves  fall  at  the  end  of  the  rainy  season  and  the  flowers  bloom. 
They  are  a  handsome  scarlet  color,  large,  in  terminal  racemes. 
Calyx  half-cylindrical,  oblique,  truncate,  entire.  Corolla 
papilionaceous  ;  standard  elongated,  lanceolate.  Wings  short. 
Keel  very  short,  2-lobuled.  Stamens  diadelphous.  Anthers 
large.  Ovary  woolly.  Stigma  thick.  Pod  curved,  rounded, 
furrowed  in  parts  corresponding  to  the  seeds  which  are  numer- 
ous, oval,  pointed  at  the  ends. 

HABITAT. — Common  throughout  the  islands.  Blooms  in 
February. 

Clitoria  ternatea,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Kolokantiy,  Pukingay,  Tag. ;  Kolokatig,  Vis.; 
Butterfly-pea,  Eng. 

USES. — The  pounded  seeds  mixed  with  oil  are  used  locally 
for  painful  joints.  They  possess  purgative  and  emetic  proper- 
ties and  Dr.  J.  Shartt  has  employed  a  mixture  of  the  powdered 
roasted  seeds,  8  grams,  with  double  the  quantity  of  acid  tar- 
trate  of  potassium.  Its  action  is  gentle,  but  sure.  The  alco- 
holic extract  of  the  root,  a  soft,  brown,  resinous  substance  with 
an  odor  recalling  that  of  jalap,  is  a  very  active  cathartic,  pro- 
ducing sharp  effects  in  doses  of  30-60  centigrams ;  in  fact  it 
produces  such  severe  tenesmus  that  its  use  in  such  doses  should 
not  be  recommended. 

The  root  bark  is  used  internally  in  an  infusion  (4-8  grams  to 
1  liter  of  water)  as  an  emollient  in  irritability  of  the  bladder 
and  urethra  and  has  been  recommended  for  such  a  purpose  by 
Mooden  Sheriff.  It  is  a  diuretic  which  frequently  acts  as  a 
purgative,  a  fact  that  is  not  surprising  in  view  of  the  above- 
mentioned  properties  of  the  alcoholic  extract. 


PTEROCARPUS    ERINACEUS  93 

The  roasted  seeds  used  as  a  purgative  are  so  trustworthy  that 
they  deserve  the  further  attention  of  physicians. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  vine  very  well  known  by  its 
blue  flowers.  Leaves  alternate  with  3  pairs  of  oval  leaflets. 
Stipules  persistent.  Flowers  axillary,  solitary,  1—1  J'  in  long 
diameter.  Calyx  in  5  acute  divisions,  the  two  upper  ones 
smaller.  Corolla  papilionaceous.  Standard  open,  notched  at 
the  end.  Keel  shorter  than  the  wings  and  covered  by  them. 
Stamens  10,  9  united  and  1  free.  Stigma  downy,  thick.  Pod 
full  of  short  hairs,  with  more  than  6  surrounded  with  a  tow- 
like  substance,  reniform,  with  black  spots. 

HABITAT. — Common  along  the  roads  and  in  gardens.  Flow- 
ers in  July  and  November. 

1.  Pterocarpus  santalinus,  L.1 

NOM.  VULG. — Narra,  Naga,  Tag. ;  Apalit,  Daytanag,  Pam.  ; 
Red  Saunders  or  Red  Sanddlwood  Tree,  Eng. 

2.  P.  Indicus,  AVilld.     (P.  pallidm,  Blanco.) 
NOM.  VULG. — Asana,  Tag.;  Naga,  Vis. 

3.  P.  erinaceus,  Poir.     (P.  echinatus,  Pers.  &  DC.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Asana,  Narra,  Tag. 

USES. — The  wood  of  the  first  is  the  so-called  "  red  sandal- 
wood.'7  It  is  used  for  building  purposes  and,  in  medicine,  as 
an  astringent.  In  decoction  it  is  used  as  a  gargle  for  sore 
throat.  The  second  is  also  an  excellent  building  material  and 
is  used  medicinally  for  its  astringent  properties.  A  decoction 
of  sufficient  strength  to  color  the  water  a  light  blue  is  used  as  a 
mouth  wash  in  toothache  and  has  some  reputation  as  a  solvent 
of  vesical  calculi.  All  three  species  yield  a  resin  known  in  phar- 
macy under  the  name  of  "  kino."  The  true  gum  kino  is  really 

1  Official  in  the  U.  S.  P.  under  the  name  of  Santalum  rubrum,  and  used 
only  for  coloring  alcoholic  solutions. 


94  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

produced  by  the  P.  marsupium,  Roxb.,  but  the  Philippine 
product,  especially  that  of  the  second  and  third  species,  has  for 
a  long  time  been  exported  to  Europe  under  the  name  of  "  red 
astringent  gum  "  or  "  kino."  This  name  is  given  to  the  sap  of 
these  trees  dried  without  the  aid  of  artificial  heat.  The  bark  is 
the  part  which  produces  it  and  the  following  extractive  process 
is  employed  in  Madras  :  a  vertical  incision  is  made  in  the  trunk 
and  lateral  incisions  perpendicular  to  it  and  a  receptacle  is  placed 
at  the  foot  of  the  tree.  This  soon  fills  and  when  the  gum  is  suffi- 
ciently dried  by  air  and  sun  it  is  packed  in  boxes  and  exported. 

In  respect  to  appearance,  solubility  and  chemical  composi- 
tion, Fliickiger  and  Hanbury  were  unable  to  discover  any 
difference  between  the  kino  of  P.  marsupium,  Roxb.,  and  that 
of  P.  erinaceus,  Poir.  It  is  therefore  interesting  to  consider  a 
product  that  is  identical  with  that  described  in  the  pharmaco- 
poeias as  produced  by  the  P.  mawtpiiuii,  Roxb.,  though  the 
latter  does  not  grow  in  the  Philippines. 

Kino  is  at  present  used  but  little  in  therapeutics  and  its  ac- 
tion is  analogous  to  that  of  tannin  and  catechu.  It  is  given  in- 
ternally for  its  astringent  effect  in  chronic  diarrhoea,  leucorrhoea, 
blenorrhoea  and  hemorrhages.  The  dose  of  the  powder  is  1—4 
grams,  and  of  the  alcoholic  tincture,  containing  20  parts  kino 
to  100  of  alcohol,  5-10  grams.  In  prolapse  of  the  rectum 
and  anal  fissure  the  following  solution  is  used  by  enema  : 

Kino 3  grams. 

Water 500      " 

For  vaginal  injections  a  solution  of  20  to  250  water. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  "  pterocarpus, "  L.,  is  a 
tree  of  the  first  order  with  odd-pinnate  leaves.  Leaflets  alter- 
nate and  coriaceous.  Flowers  yellow,  in  racemes,  with  caducous 
bracts  and  bractlets.  Calyx  turbinate,  with  short  teeth.  Petals 
exserted,  markedly  unguiculate.  Standard  and  wings  curled. 
Keel  obtuse  with  its  petals  slightly  or  not  at  all  coherent.  The 
staminal  tube,  cleft  above  and  below  or  above  only.  Stamens 


PONGAMIA    GLABRA  95 

superior,  often  almost,  and  at  times  entirely,  free.  Anthers 
versatile.  Ovary  pedunculate,  with  2  ovules.  Style  curved. 
Stigma  terminal.  Pod  orbicular,  smooth  or  spiny,  usually  con- 
taining one  seed,  encircled  by  a  broad,  rigid  wing,  the  point 
curved  downward. 

HABITAT. — In  the  mountains  of  Luzon,  Panay  and  Min- 
doro.  Blooms  in  March. 

Pongamia  glabra,  Vent.     (Robinia  mitis,  L.;  Gadelupa 
maculatctj  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VTiLQ.—Balikbalik,  Tag.;  Bwtog,  Vis. 

USES. — The  oil  expressed  from  the  seeds  is  used  in  India 
for  lighting  purposes,  and  in  addition  is  of  notable  therapeutic 
value.  It  is  an  excellent  local  remedy  for  the  itch,  for  herpes 
and  especially  for  pityriasis  versicolor,  used  alone  or  emulsified 
with  lemon  juice.  In  stubborn  cases  Dymock  recommends  the 
addition  of  oil  of  hydrocarpus,  camphor  and  powdered  sul- 
phur. Dr.  Gibson  states  that  he  knows  of  no  plant  in  the 
vegetable  kingdom  possessing  more  notable  curative  properties 
in  itch,  herpes  and  other  cutaneous  diseases  than  the  plant 
under  consideration.  It  is  also  used  as  an  embrocation  in 
articular  rheumatism. 

The  powdered  leaves  mixed  with  common  salt  and  pepper 
are  given  internally  with  a  little  milk,  as  a  remedy  for  leprosy. 

The  juice  of  the  root  makes  a  useful  wash  for  gangrenous 
ulcers  and  a  good  injection  for  fistula. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  18°  high,  with  leaves 
opposite,  odd-pinnate,  Leaflets  in  3  pairs,  ovate,  lanceolate, 
entire,  glabrous  and  membranaceous.  Flowers  slightly  spotted, 
racemose.  Calyx  bell-shaped,  with  5  scarcely  visible  tooth- 
lets.  Corolla  papilionaceous,  petals  equal,  clawed.  Standard 
with  2  callosities  athwart  the  base.  Stamens  10,  diadelphous. 
Pod  with  one  seed,  which  is  flat,  smooth,  veined,  bright  red. 

HABITAT. — Luzon  and  Panay.     Blooms  in  October. 


96  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

LEGUMINOS^!. 

Brasiletto  Family. 
Caesalpinia  Bonducella,  Flem.     (Guilandina  Bonducella,  L.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Bayag-Kambig,  Kalambibit,  Tag.;  Dalugdug, 
Vis.;  Fever  Nut,  Physic  Nut,  Bonduc  Seeds,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  seed  is  the  part  of  the  plant  employed  and  is 
official  in  the  Pharmacopeia  of  India.  It  is  used  as  a  tonic 
and  antiperiodic  in  intermittent  fevers  and  in  general  where 
tonic  treatment  is  indicated.  It  has  given  good  results  in  the 
malarial  fevers  of  India,  according  to  English  physicians. 
The  Pharmacopeia  of  India  contains  the  following  preparation 
under  the  name  of  "  Compound  Powder  of  Bonduc  "  (Pulvis 
bonducellse  compositus). 

Seeds  of  Bonduc,  powdered 30  grams. 

Pepper 30       " 

Mix  and  keep  in  a  well-corked  flask. 

DOSE. — 1—2  grams  3  times  a  day. 

In  the  Philippines  the  powdered  seed  is  given  in  affections  of 
the  digestive  tract,  especially  in  diarrhea  and  feeble  digestion. 
The  same  name  of  Bonduc  is  given  to  the  seeds  of  another 
species  that  grows  in  the  Philippines,  O.  Bonduc,  Roxb.; 
Kamot-Kabag,  Bayan-Kambig,  Tag.  The  seeds  are  identical 
in  chemical  composition  and  therapeutic  indication. 

The  two  principal  substances  contained  in  the  seeds  are  an 
oil,  24J&  and  a  resin,  1.88JJ&.  The  former  is  straw-colored  and 
slightly  bitter  by  virtue  of  the  presence  of  a  resin  that  may  be 
precipitated  by  alcohol.  The  resin  or  bitter  principle  exists  as 
an  amorphous  powder,  Avhite,  bitter,  not  acrid,  soluble  in 
chloroform,  alcohol,  acetone,  crystallizable  acetic  acid,  fixed  and 
essential  oils ;  slightly  soluble  in  ether  and  bisulphide  of  car- 
bon, insoluble  in  water  and  petroleum  ether.  The  alkalies  do 
not  affect  it.  It  melts  at  140°,  decomposing  and  leaving  only 
a  carbon.  Its  discoverers,  Heckel  and  Schlagdenhaussen,  have 


C^SALPINIA    SAPPAN  97 

given  it  the   name   bonducin  (CUH15O.).     Hydrochloric    acid 
colors  it  red  ;  sulphuric  acid,  a  maranthin  red  in  half  an  hour. 

Bonducin  seems  to  be  the  active  principle  of  the  seeds  and 
is  given  internally  in  doses  of  10-20  centigrams;  according  to 
Dr.  Isnard,  of  Marseilles,  this  dose  has  given  as  good  results  in 
fevers  as  the  same  quantity  of  quinine. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  with  prostrate  stem 
bristling  with  thorns.  Leaves  twice  abruptly  pinnate,  a  thorn 
taking  the  place  of  the  terminal  leaflet.  Leaflets  in  10-14 
pairs,  ovate,  expanded,  with  a  spine  at  the  apex.  Common 
petioles  thorny,  with  4  leaf-like  stipules  at  the  base.  Flowers 
yellow,  in  racemes.  Calyx  5-parted,  curved  downward.  Corolla 
inserted  on  the  calyx,  5  petals,  4  nearly  equal,  the  uppermost 
broader  and  shorter.  Stamens  10.  Filaments  very  unequal 
in  height,  inserted  on  the  calyx,  united  and  woolly  at  the  base. 
Pistil  very  short.  Stigma  thick.  Pod  rhomboidal  before  ma- 
turity, prickly,  containing  2  semi-globose  seeds  with  testa  hard, 
mottled  and  tough. 

The  other  species,  C.  Bonduc,  Roxb.,  is  distinguished  by  leaf- 
lets unequal  at  the  base,  by  the  absence  of  stipules,  and  by  the 
bright  orange  yellow  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon,  Panay  and  Jolo.  Blooms 
in  December. 

Caesalpinia  Sappan,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Sibukao,  Sapag,  Tag. ;  Palo  del  Brawl,  Sp.; 
Sappan  Wood,  Eng. 

USES. — The  decoction  of  Sibukao  is  given  in  hemorrhages, 
especially  of  the  lungs.  It  is  probably  the  red  color  of  this  de- 
coction which  originated  the  idea  of  giving  it  to  check  bleeding, 
and  this  is  the  practice  of  the  native  Filipino  doctors,  as  well 
as  of  the  Arabs  and  Hindoos.  The  natives  of  Cochin  China, 
reasoning  in  an  opposite  manner,  prescribe  it  as  emmenagogue. 
Some  authors  recommend  Sibukao  as  a  substitute  for  logwood. 
The  decoction  is  administered  in  chronic  diarrhoea,  especially 


98  THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

that  of  children.     A  few  cases  of  phlebitis  have  been  reported 
as  occasioned  by  its  use.     The  extract  is  made  as  follows  : 

Sibukao  in  small   pieces 500  grams. 

Boiling  water 4J  liters. 

Macerate  for  24  hours,  boil  until  reduced  by  half,  filter  and 
evaporate  the  filtrate  to  a  syrupy  consistency.  Do  not  use  iron 
vessels. 

Sibukao  contains  much  tannin  and  gallic  acid,  and  a  pecu- 
liar substance  which  distinguishes  it  from  logwood,  brasilin 
(C22H20O7),  which  gives  a  red  color  to  alkaline  solutions  instead 
of  blue  or  purple.  It  is  a  crystalline  pigment  which  may  be 
considered  a  compound  of  hematoxylon  and  fenol. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  very  common  tree,  12-15° 
high,  with  spiny  trunk,  leaves  twice  abruptly  pinnate.  Leaf- 
lets linear,  notched  at  the  apex.  Flowers  racemose.  Calyx 
boat-shaped.  Corolla,  5  petals,  the  uppermost  broad,  short, 
spotted  red.  Stigma  bifid.  Pod  sabre-like,  woody,  with  3-4 
seeds  separated  by  partitions.  The  wood  is  well  known  every- 
where in  the  Philippines,  being  a  very  important  article  of 
commerce,  and  there  is  no  fear  of  logwood  being  substituted 
for  it,  as  the  latter  is  more  expensive,  and  substitutions  are  not 
ordinarily  made  under  such  circumstances.  In  commerce  it 
occurs  in  large  pieces  of  all  shapes  and  forms,  since  the  branches 
and  trunks  are  cut  into  pieces  which  vary  from  J-2  meters  in 
length.  Its  color  is  reddish-yellow  or  white  with  more  or  less 
red  grain.  Blooms  in  September. 

Caesalpinia  pulcherrima,  Swartz.  (Poinciana  pulcherrima, 
L.  &  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Flores  y  Rosas  Caballero,  Caballero,  Sp.-Fil.; 
Barbadoes  Flower-Fence,  Eng. 

USES. — The  leaves  are  emmenagogue,  purgative  like  those  of 
senna,  and  excitant.  The  bark  especially  is  a  powerful  emmen- 
agogue, used  in  some  countries  for  criminal  purposes.  The 


CASSIA    FISTULA  99 

decoction  of  the  flowers  is  pectoral  and  febrifuge  and  is  given 
in  bronchitis,  asthma  and  malarial  fever.  The  flowers  contain 
a  bitter  principle.  The  roots  are  acrid  and  poisonous.  The 
seeds  of  the  green  fruit  are  eaten  frequently  by  children  ;  when 
ripe  they  contain  gallic  and  tannic  acids,  by  virtue  of  which 
they  are  used  in  tanning  hides  and  to  dye  yellow  combined  with 
alum,  and  black  combined  with  salts  of  iron.  They  also  con- 
tain a  pigment  and  a  resin. 

INFUSION  OF  THE  FLOWERS.— 

Flowers  of  the  caballero,  dry 20  grams. 

Water 500       " 

Sugar 70       " 

Mix.     Dose,  a  wineglassful  several  times  a  day. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub,  with  prickly  trunk, 
Leaves  twice  abruptly  pinnate.  Leaflets  5—8  pairs,  glabrous, 
ovate  and  elliptical,  bearing  a  spine  at  the  extremity,  3  stipules 
to  each  pair  of  leaflets.  Flowers  yellow  and  red,  in  racemes  on 
the  ends  of  the  branches.  Calyx  divided  almost  to  the  base, 
with  5  concave  parts.  Corolla,  5  petals  V  long  with  short 
claws,  one  petal  very  small  and  straight,  the  others  larger,  with 
wavy  edges.  Stamens  10,  crimson,  3'  long,  free,  woolly,  united 
at  the  lower  end.  Pistil  the  same  length  as  the  stamens. 
Stigma  somewhat  concave.  Ovary  sessile,  unilocular,  many- 
ovuled.  Pod  compressed,  with  7  or  more  seeds  inserted  on  the 
superior  suture  and  separated  from  each  other  by  fleshy  divisions. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  gardens  where  it  is  cultivated 
for  its  beautiful  flowers.  Blooms  throughout  the  entire  year. 

Cassia  fistula,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Cana/istula,  Sp.;  Lombayog,  Ibabaw,  Baloyog, 
Vis.;  Purging  Cassia,  Eng. 

USES. — The  pod  known  in  pharmacy  under  the  name  of 
"  Canafistula  "  contains  a  blackish,  sweet  pulp,  which  is  a  mild 
purgative  if  combined  with  carminatives,  but  it  produces  severe 


100          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

colic  if  given  alone.  The  urine  sometimes  takes  on  a  dark  color 
after  taking  it.  The  laxative  dose  is  4—8  grams,  the  purgative 
30-60. 

EXTRACT  OF  CASSIA.— 

Pulp  and  seeds  of  ripe  pods 1  kilo. 

Water 1  liter. 

After  mixing  the  pulp  with  water  the  liquid  is  strained 
through  a  woolen  cloth  ;  the  material  which  remains  in  the 
strainer  is  washed  with  a  little  more  cold  water  which  is  added 
to  the  other  liquid  and  the  two  are  evaporated  to  the  consist- 
ency of  the  extract. 

DOSE. — 15-30  grams. 

Dr.  Irving  states  that  the  root  is  a  very  energetic  purgative. 
In  Coucan  the  juice  of  the  tender  leaves  is  used  in  the  treat- 
ment of  impetigo. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  with  trunk  about  as  thick 
as  the  human  body,  with  leaves  opposite  and  abruptly  pinnate. 
Leaflets,  the  lower  ones  smaller,  5  pairs,  ovate,  lanceolate, 
glabrous  and  rather  tough.  Common  petiole,  cleft  at  the  base, 
lacking  glandule.  Flowers  bright  yellow,  in  long,  pendulous 
racemes.  Calyx,  5  ovate  sepals.  Corolla,  5  unequal  petals. 
Stamens  10,  free,  3  longer  than  the  rest.  Ovary  unilocular, 
many-ovuled.  Pod  cylindrical,  pointed  at  the  end,  woody, 
black,  1-2°  long,  with  many  circular  seeds,  surrounded  by  a 
blackish  pulp  and  separated  by  partitions. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon  and  Panay.  Blooms  in 
March. 

Cassia  occidentalis,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Tighiman,  Balotagaso,Tsig.',  Tambalisa,  Vis.; 
Western  Senna,  Styptic  Weed,  Eng.;  Negro  Coffee,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — In  Brazil  they  use  an  infusion  of  the  root  as  a 
tonic  and  diuretic,  4  grams  of  the  root  bark  and  180  of  boil- 
ing water  to  be  taken  in  one  day.  In  Dahomey  the  leaves  are 
used  as  a  febrifuge.  Thirty  grams  of  fresh  leaves  are  boiled 


CASSIA    OCCIDENTALIS  101 

in  300  grams  of  water  till  the  liquid  is  reduced  to  250  grams. 
The  patient  takes  this  decoction  hot  the  first  day  of  the  fever 
and  a  profuse  perspiration  promptly  breaks  out.  As  a  rule 
the  effect  is  immediate  and  the  fever  does  not  recur.  This 
treatment  of  fevers  is  more  common  in  that  country  than  that 
by  quinine  and  they  claim  that  it  has  the  advantage  over  the 
latter  of  acting  as  a  stomachic  tonic.  By  adding  a  small 
quantity  of  the  roots  to  the  decoction  it  is  rendered  diuretic. 
The  seeds  possess  the  same  properties  and  are  used  in  de- 
coctions of  30  grams  to  300  of  water.  According  to  De 
Lanesan  the  roasted  seeds  are  used  in  La  Reunion  in  infusion 
similar  to  coffee  in  the  treatment  of  gastralgia  and  asthma. 
In  some  countries  they  mix  them  with  coffee  just  as  chicory  is 
used  in  Europe. 

Heckel  and  Schlagdenhaufen  have  made  a  very  complete 
study  of  the  plant  and  we  quote  the  following  from  their 
works  : 

Chemical  composition  of  the  seeds. — 

Water 8.850 

Fats  and  pigments  soluble  in  petroleum  ether .  1 . 600 

"    "           "              "      "chloroform 1.150 

Odorous  material  and  traces  of  tannin 5.022 

Glucose 0.738 

Gummy,  mucilaginous  and  pectic  matter. .  .  .  15.734 

Soluble  albuminoids  and  aleuron 6.536 

Cellulose 7.434 

Insoluble  albuminose 2.216 

Lignose 32.727 

Fixed  salts 17.976 

Lost  material .017 


100.000 

Previous  to  the  studies  of  the  above  authors  the  seeds  had 
been  therapeutically  tested  by  Delioux  de  Savignac  and  Pro- 


102          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS   OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

fessor  Clouet.  Heckel  and  Schlagdenhauffen  have  confirmed  the 
febrifuge  virtues  of  the  seeds  and  are  uncertain  as  to  the  active 
principle  since  they  found  no  glucoside  or  alkaloid  in  their 
analysis.  The  antiperiodic  properties  are  comparable  with 
those  of  quinine  and  have  even  proved  effective  in  some  cases 
in  which  quinine  failed.  It  seems  quite  clear  that  the  tannin  is 
the  active  principle  which  is  the  more  probable  because  its  anti- 
periodic  virtues  are  now  recognized  by  all  therapeutists. 

It  is  given  in  maceration  or  infusion,  2—15  grams  of  the 
seeds  to  3  or  400  of  water  to  be  taken  several  times  a  day. 
The  treatment  causes  no  very  marked  physiological  effects.  It 
seems  to  act  as  a  sedative  to  the  nervous  system. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — An  annual  plant,  .60-1  meter 
high.  Root  central  with  lateral  rootlets.  Stem  straight, 
ramose.  Leaves  opposite,  abruptly  pinnate  with  a  stylet  in 
place  of  the  odd  leaflet.  Leaflets,  5-6  pairs,  the  lower  ones 
smaller,  ovate,  oblong,  margins  and  lower  face  downy.  Com- 
mon petiole  swollen  at  the  base,  2  stipules  and  1  glandule. 
Calyx,  5  unequal  sepals.  Corolla,  5  nearly  equal  petals,  sul- 
phur yellow,  concave,  the  posterior  one  further  developed. 
Two  verticils  of  5  stamens  each.  Of  the  5  stamens  supe- 
rior to  the  sepals,  2  are  fertile,  larger  and  arched ;  of  the 
other  5  stamens  4  are  fertile  and  small.  Pod  compressed, 
linear,  smooth,  5r  long,  containing  many  compressed,  heart- 
shaped  seeds,  separated  by  thin  partitions. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon.     Blooms  in  October. 

Cassia  alata,  L. 

NOM.  VULG.  —  Acapulco,  Sp.-Fil.;  Katandd,  Gamut  sa 
Buni,  Sontiy,  Tag.;  Suntig,  Kansitm,  Vis.;  Pakayomkom- 
kdstlla,  Pam. 

USES. — This  is  one  of  the  most  popular  Philippine  remedies 
and  its  usefulness  is  vouched  for  by  many  physicians  practicing 
in  many  different  lands.  Its  antiherpetic  properties  are  nota- 


CASSIA    ALATA  103 

ble  and  the  Tagalo  name  of  the  plant,  "Gamut  sa  Buni,"  means 
literally  "medicine  for  herpes. "  The  natives  use  the  juice  of 
the  leaf  applied  locally  to  the  affected  part.  These  properties 
have  long  been  familiar  to  the  Malays  and  to  the  Hindoos  who 
in  their  medical  works  give  the  plant  the  Sanscrit  name  of 
"Dadrughna,"  meaning  "to  cure  herpes."  The  Pharmacopoeia 
of  Bengal  recommends  cassia  in  the  form  of  an  ointment  made 
by  mixing  the  crushed  tender  leaves  with  simple  ointment. 
This  preparation  is,  in  our  opinion,  undesirable  on  account  of 
its  liability  to  become  rancid  and  vaseline  should  be  the  ex- 
cipient  used.  Another  application  for  herpetic  eruptions  is  the 
juice  of  the  leaves  mixed  with  an  equal  quantity  of  lemon  juice. 
The  Malays  use  the  leaves  dried  in  the  sun,  adding  to  them  a 
little  water  and  rubbing  them  briskly  on  the  affected  parts, 
the  vigorous  treatment  being  an  important  part  of  the  cure. 

The  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  a  laxative  and  according  to 
Mr.  J.  Wood  the  tincture  has  an  action  similar  to  that  of  senna. 
Dr.  Pulney  Andy  of  India  states  that  the  extract  prepared 
from  the  tender  leaves  is  a  good  substitute  for  extract  of 
colocynth. 

Mr.  A.  Porte  claims  to  have  obtained  the  best  results  with  an 
acetic  extract  of  the  fresh  leaves.  The  following  is  his  formula  : 

Fresh  leaves  of  C.  alata 100  grams. 

Acetic  acid  diluted  in  f  water .  .450       " 

Macerate  10  or  12  days,  filter  and  express,  then  filter  again 
and  evaporate  to  the  consistency  of  an  extract. 

The  seeds  contain  vermifuge  principles. 

The  activity  of  this  plant  in  herpes  is  due  to  the  chryso- 
phanic  acid  contained  in  it.  The  more  recent  the  eruption  the 
more  certain  is  the  effect. 

The  following  species,  all  of  which  grow  in  the  Philippines, 
contain  principles  analogous  to  those  of  the  C.  alata,  viz.:  C. 
sophera,  L.  and  C.  torn,  L.,  called  in  Tagalo  manimanihan. 


104          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub,  7-9°  high,  with  a 
straight,  ramose  trunk  3— 4'  in  diameter.  Leaves  1J— 2°  long, 
opposite,  abruptly  pinnate,  a  thick  stylet  taking  the  place  of  the 
odd  leaflet.  Leaflets  10-13  pairs,  the  smaller  ones  1-2'  long. 
Common  petiole  with  2  horizontal  stipules  at  the  base.  Flow- 
ers in  conspicuous,  erect  racemes.  Calyx,  5  free  concave,  un- 
equal sepals.  Corolla,  5  petals  of  a  beautiful  yellow  color. 
Stamens  perigynous,  10  in  number,  3  upper  ones  very  small 
and  frequently  sterile,  3  lower  very  large.  The  bilocular  an- 
thers open  by  2  pores.  Ovary  many-ovuled  with  filiform 
style.  Pod  long  with  2  prominent  wings  on  the  sides  and 
many  seeds  which  slightly  resemble  a  cross  with  blunt  ends. 

The  C.  sophera,  L.,  is  characterized  by  10  stamens,  all  fer- 
tile and  a  smooth,  linear,  bivalved  pod  full  of  seeds  separated 
by  false  partitions.  The  C.  tora,  L.,  bears  a  quadrangular  pod 
about  15  centimeters  long  by  2  in  diameter. 

HABITAT. — Grows  in  all  parts  of  the  islands  and  is  univer- 
sally known  by  the  natives.  Blooms  in  May. 

Tamarindus  Indica,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Tamarindo,  Sp.;  Sampalok,  Tag.,  Pam.,  Bik.; 
Sambak,  Sumalagi,  Kamalagi,  Vis.;  Tamarind,  Eng. 

USES. — The  pulp  of  the  fruit  is  used  to  make  a  sort  of  sweet 
preserve  and  is  very  popular  among  the  Filipinos.  They  pre- 
pare a  refreshing  drink  from  the  pulp  mixed  with  sweetened 
water  and  believing  it  to  be  beneficial  to  the  liver,  stomach  and 
blood,  they  use  too  much  of  it.  Its  excessive  use  is  rather 
prejudicial  to  the  health,  but  given  in  moderation  it  is  very  effi- 
cient in  allaying  the  thirst  of  fever  patients.  The  pulp  con- 
tains weak  laxative  properties  and  it  is  customary  to  administer 
it  in  solution  with  cream  of  tartar.  Its  chemical  composition 
is  as  follows  : 


BAUHINIA    MALABARICA  105 

Citric  acid 9.40 

Tartaric  acid 1.55 

Malic  acid 0.45 

Potassium  bitartrate 3.25 

Sugar 12.50 

Gum 4.70 

Vegetable  gelatin 6.25 

Parenchyma 34.35 

Water 27.55 

(Yauquelin.) 

At  the  end  of  any  sickness,  especially  after  labor,  the  first 
bath  given  to  the  convalescent  is  with  a  decoction  of  the  leaves 
of  the  "sampaloc,"  to  prevent  convulsions,  the  native  herb- 
doctors  say. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree,  somewhat  re- 
sembling the  elm  in  contour,  with  leaves  opposite,  abruptly 
pinnate.  Leaflets  12  or  more  pairs,  linear,  with  a  notch  at  the 
apex,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  yellow-white,  spattered  dark 
red,  racemose.  Calyx,  4  sepals.  Corolla,  5  lanceolate  petals 
with  crispate  borders.  Stamens  monadelphous,  dividing  into  7 
filaments  above.  The  ripe  pod  is  chocolate  color,  oblong, 
slightly  compressed,  straight  or  curved,  6—15  centimeters  long, 
full  of  a  light-brown  pulp  in  which  rest  the  seeds  enveloped  in 
a  cellular  membrane.  These  seeds  are  flattened,  almost  quad- 
rangular ;  testa  hard,  of  a  chestnut  color,  shiny  and  without 
albumen. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  everywhere  in  the  islands. 
Blooms  in  May. 

Bauhinia  malabarica,  Roxb.     (B.  tomentosa,  Wall. 

and  Blanco.) 

NOM.   VULG. — Alibagbag,  Tag.,  Vis.,  Pam. 
USES. — The  leaves  of  this  tree  and  of  the  species  B.  tomen- 
tosa, L.,  are  quite  acid  and  the  Filipinos  use  them  as  an  ingre- 


106          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

client  of  many  dishes.  The  fresh  flowers  possess  anti-dysen- 
teric virtues  for  which  purpose  they  are  given  internally  in 
infusion  of  10—20  grams  of  the  flowers  to  one-half  liter  of  water. 
The  decoction  of  the  root  bark  is  a  common  remedy  for  liver 
troubles  along  the  coast  of  Malabar  according  to  Rheede. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  20°  high,  with  leaves 
alternate,  peltate,  slightly  cordate,  orbicular,  the  apex  divided 
into  two  large  lobules  with  a  stylet  between  them,  glabrous 
above,  somewhat  downy  beneath  ;  2  large,  flat  glandules  are 
situated  at  the  base.  Petioles  short.  Flowers  cymose.  Pe- 
duncle long.  Calyx  inferior,  funnelform,  with  4—5  sepals  as 
long  as  the  corolla.  Corolla,  5  petals.  Stamens  10,  5  alter- 
nate ones  longer  than  the  others.  Stigma  thick,  peltate,  2  lo- 
bules. Pod  1°  long,  with  linear  stalk,  containing  many  seeds 
separated  by  filamentous  isthmuses. 

HABITAT. — Common  everywhere.     Blooms  in  November. 

LEGUMINOSJE. 

Mimosa  Division. 

Entada   scandens,  Benth.     (E.  Purscetha,  DC.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — GogOj  Tag. ;  Bayogo,  Balogo,  Gohog  bakay, 
Vis.  and  Pam. ;  Gilla  Nuts,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  use  made  of  the  mashed  bark  of  this  tree  is  well 
known  throughout  the  Philippines.  Cut  in  strips  and  beaten 
thoroughly  between  stones  it  is  sold  under  the  name  of  "  gogo  "; 
it  is  macerated  in  water,  to  which  it  imparts  a  reddish  color, 
and  forms  a  substitute  for  soap.  The  Filipinos  use  this  prepa- 
ration for  bathing,  especially  the  hair,  for  which  purpose  there 
is  no  more  useful  or  simple  preparation.  It  cures  pityriasis, 
and  renders  the  hair  very  soft,  without  drying  it  too  much  as 
is  usually  the  case  with  soap.  The  natives  use  it  in  treating 
the  itch,  washing  the  affected  parts  with  the  maceration  and  at 
the  same  time  briskly  rubbing  them  with  the  bark ;  in  this  way 


PARKIA    ROXBURGHII  107 

they  remove  the  crusts  that  shield  the  acari.  The  treatment  is 
successful  in  direct  proportion  to  the  energy  of  rubbing. 

The  seeds  of  "  gogo "  are  very  large,  lenticular,  flattened, 
3-4  centimeters  in  diameter.  Their  chemical  composition  has 
been  studied  by  Petti t.  Alcohol  dissolves  the  active  principle, 
perhaps  a  glucoside,  the  study  of  which  the  author  has  not 
completed.  Five  centigrams  of  this  substance  administered  to 
a  guinea-pig  causes  paralysis  of  the  hind  quarters  without  any 
apparent  inflammation.  He  also  found  saponin  in  the  seeds, 
but  it  exists  in  much  greater  quantity  in  the  trunk.  In  the 
Sunda  Islands  they  eat  the  seeds  roasted  and  also  extract  from 
them  an  illuminating  oil. 

The  maceration  of  gogo  is  emetic  and  purgative  ;  it  is  used 
in  the  treatment  of  asthma;  it  is  exceedingly  irritating,  the 
slightest  quantity  that  enters  the  eye  causing  severe  smarting 
and  a  slight  conjunctivitis  for  one  or  two  days. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  high  climbing  shrub  with 
stem  as  much  as  7—8'  in  diameter.  Leaves  opposite,  twice 
abruptly  pinnate,  a  stylet  replacing  the  terminal  leaflet ;  5  pairs 
of  elliptical  leaflets,  entire,  glabrous  and  notched  at  the  apex. 
Common  petiole  with  2  stipules  at  the  base.  Flowers  in  deli- 
cate spikes.  Calyx  obliquely  truncate,  5-toothed.  Corolla,  5 
oval  petals  much  larger  than  the  calyx.  Stamens  10-13.  Fila- 
ments longer  than  the  corolla.  Anther  with  1-2  white,  globose 
glandules.  Pod  woody,  4-6°  long  by  "  4  fingers  "  broad,  with 
large  notches  on  the  borders,  many  compartments  containing 
many  large,  compressed,  circular  seeds  with  dark-colored  testa, 
3-4  centimeters  in  diameter. 

HABITAT. — Mountains  of  Luzon  and  Panay.  Blooms  in  May. 

Parkia  Roxburgh!!,  G.  Don.  (P.  brunonia,  Grah.;  P.  biglo- 
bosa,  Benth.;  Mimosa  peregrina,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kopag,  Tag. 

USES. — The  fruit  is  edible.  Its  pulp  is  golden  yellow  with 
a  sweetish  taste  and  an  odor  like  that  of  violets. 


108          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

The  roasted  seeds  are  used  in  certain  parts  of  Africa  to  make 
an  infusion  like  coffee,  for  which  reason  they  have  been  called 
"  Soudan  Coffee." 

The  pulp  was  analyzed  by  Heckel  and  Schlagdenhauffen  in 
1887  ;  it  contains  60  Jo  of  its  weight  of  sugar  (a  mixture  of 
dextrose  and  levulose),  0.98  Jfc  of  free  tartaric  and  citric  acids, 
fats,  albuminoids,  etc. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree  of  the  first  order. 
Leaves  opposite,  twice  abruptly  pinnate.  Leaflets  small,  linear, 
more  than  40  pairs.  Principal  petiole  with  one  glandule  at 
the  base  and  often  another  higher  up.  Calyx  long,  tubular, 
with  5  unequal  lobules.  Corolla,  5  equal  petals.  Stamens  10, 
monadelphous.  Ovary  free,  unilocular,  multi-ovulate.  Pod, 
1°  x  1',  woody,  much  compressed,  brown,  with  many  seeds  em- 
bedded in  a  yellow  pulp. 

HABITAT. — Abounds  in  the  provinces  of  central  Luzon. 
Blooms  in  December. 

Acacia  Farnesiana,  Willd.     (A.  Indica,  Desv.;  Mimosa 
Farnesiana,  L.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Aroma,  Sp.;   Cassie  Flower,  Eng. 

USES. — The  trunk  bark  is  astringent  and  in  decoction  is  of 
use  in  the  treatment  of  prolapsed  rectum  and  as  an  injection 
for  leucorrhcea.  A  poultice  of  the  tender  leaves  is  applied  to 
ulcers  and  sores  previously  washed  with  the  decoction. 

The  tree  exudes  an  abundant  gum  very  similar  to  gum  arabic 
which  latter  is  the  product  of  another  species  of  acacia  (A. 
Arabica,  Willd.).  The  Manila  pharmacist,  D.  Anacleto  del 
Rosario,  sent  to  the  Paris  Exposition  of  1899  a  specimen  of 
this  gum  obtained  on  the  plantation  of  D.  P.  P.  Roxas,  in 
Batangas.  This  specimen  differed  in  no  respect  from  gum 
arabic  and  it  will  surely  sooner  or  later  take  the  place  of  the 
latter  in  the  Philippines,  both  for  pharmaceutical  and  industrial 
purposes.  It  would  be  superfluous  to  describe  here  the  prop- 
erties of  gum  arabic. 


KALANCHOE    LACINIATA  109 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  9-12°  high,  very 
well  known,  trunk  bristling  with  long  thorns.  Leaves  twice 
abruptly  pinnate.  One  or  more  pairs  of  leaflets,  very  small, 
linear.  Common  petiole  with  two  thorns  united  at  its  base 
and  a  small  glandule  on  the  upper  part.  Flowers  yellow,  aro- 
matic, axillary,  joined  in  a  globose  head  J-f '  in  diameter,  con- 
sisting of  more  than  50  minute  flowerets.  In  each  axil  are  2 
peduncles.  In  some  heads  all  the  flowerets  are  staminate,  in 
others  hermaphrodite.  The  hermaphrodite  flowers  have  a 
calyx  with  5  small  teeth.  Corolla,  5  petals.  Stamens  40  or 
more.  Pistil  same  length  as  the  stamens.  Staminate  flowers  : 
calyx,  corolla,  stamens  and  anthers  as  in  the  hermaphrodite 
flowers.  Pistil  none.  Pod  round,  curved,  with  8  or  more 
elliptical,  compressed  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Grows  everywhere,  but  forms  dense  thickets  in 
the  provinces  of  La  Lagnna  and  Batangas.  Blooms  in  Jan- 
uary. 

CRASSULACE.E. 

Orpine  Family. 

Kalanchoe  laciniata,  DC.  (Cotyledon  laciniata,  Roxb.;  Bryo- 
phyllum  serratum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Siempreviva  (Live-for-ever'),  Sp.-Fil.;  Kataka- 
takd,  Tag. 

USES. — The  fleshy  leaves  are  beaten  up  and  applied  to 
chronic  ulcers  and  sores  on  which  they  exert  a  stimulant  action. 
Applied  to  the  temples  they  relieve  headache.  Ainslie  testifies 
to  the  good  effect  of  its  local  use  in  inflammations  and  as  a  wash 
for  ulcers.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  used  in  Concan  in  the 
treatment  of  bilious  diarrhoea  and  gall  stones. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  well-known  plant,  about  2° 
high,  with  leaves  sessile,  opposite,  oval,  serrately  toothed,  fleshy. 
Flowers  yellow,  in  umbels,  the  stalks  reaching  a  height  of  3°. 
Calyx  very  short,  with  4  lanceolate,  acuminate  sepals,  united 


110          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

at  the  base.  Corolla  salver-shaped,  persistent,  with  border 
having  4  small  lobules.  Stamens  8,  fertile.  Ovaries  4,  free, 
each  with  1  many-ovuled  cell.  Styles  same  length  as  the  sta- 
mens. Stigmas  awl-shaped.  Four  seed  vessels,  each  with  1 
compartment  containing  many  oblong  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 

COMBRETACEJE. 

Terminalia  Catappa,  L.     (T.  molucana,  Lam.;   T.  mauricimui, 

Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Talisay,  Tag.;  Almendro,  Sp.-Fil.;  Talisay, 
Banilak,  Nato,  Hitam,  Vis.;  Kalisay,  Pam.;  Lugo,  Pandan, 
Hoc.;  Indian  Almond,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  kernel  is  edible  and  has  a  very  agreeable  taste. 
It  yields  about  50  Jfe  of  a  fixed  oil,  sweet  and  savory.  If  left 
for  some  time,  it  deposits  an  abundance  of  stearin.  It  closely 
resembles  oil  of  sweet  almonds  for  which  it,  as  well  as  the  oil 
of  Pili  (Canarium  commune,  L.),  which  we  have  already  de- 
scribed, makes  a  good  substitute. 

The  trunk  bark  is  astringent  and  in  decoction  is  used  for 
atonic  diarrhoea  and  as  a  lotion  for  ulcers. 

DECOCTION. — 

Bark  (ground  and  pounded) 12  grams. 

Water 150       " 

Simple  syrup 40       " 

To  be  given  by  the  tablespoonful  in  24  hours. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  6-8  m.  high.  Branches 
horizontal  and  radiating  from  the  trunk.  Leaves  purplish, 
bunched,  cleft  at  the  base,  sometimes  transversely  ovate,  some- 
times oval,  notched,  glabrous.  Petiole  very  short.  Flowers 
axillary,  racemose,  with  a  scale  at  the  base  of  the  peduncle,  some 
hermaphrodite  and  others  lacking  pistils.  Staminate  flowers  : 
calyx  downy  within,  with  5  lobes.  Corolla  wanting.  Stamens 


TERMINALIA    CHEBULA  111 

1.0,  inserted  on  the  calyx.  Hermaphrodite  flowers  :  pistil  same 
length  as  stamens.  Drupe,  fleshy,  inferior,  oval  with  the  bor- 
ders turned  upward  containing  a  very  hard  and  fibrous  nut; 
seed  long  and  sharp-pointed. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon.  In  Manila  it  is  cultivated 
extensively  as  an  ornamental  tree,  especially  along  the  Sabana 
Walk,  General  Solano  Ave.  and  in  Sarnpaloc  and  Malacanan. 

Terminalia  Chebula,  Retz.     (T.  reticulata,  Toth.;  Bucida 
cuminata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Diylas,  Diglas,  Tag.;  Black  Myrobalan  Tree, 
Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  ripe  fruit,  called  myrobalans  in  India,  is  purga- 
tive and  six  of  them  pounded  up  and  given  in  decoction  oper- 
ate with  certainty,  producing  4  or  5  copious  evacuations  with- 
out nausea  or  other  disagreeable  symptoms.  Dr.  Waring  has 
experimented  with  them  and  recommends  them  highly.  The 
taste  may  be  made  more  agreeable  by  adding  a  little  cinnamon 
to  the  decoction.  Dymock  states  that  three  fruits  are  sufficient, 
and  Dr.  Hove  gives  one  as  the  effective  dose.  This  lack  of 
agreement  may  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  the  fruits  are  of 
different  sizes,  and  probably  Waring  refers  to  those  of  medium 
size.  Contrary  to  what  one  would  imagine,  judging  from  its 
purgative  action,  the  fruit  contains  astringent  principles,  and 
makes  an  effective  injection  for  leucorrhoea  as  a  substitute  for 
nut  galls.  It  is  also  of  some  merit  in  the  treatment  of  piles. 

The  green  fruit  is  highly  esteemed  by  Radja  Kalikesen  as 
a  carminative,  tonic  and  purgative.  Dr.  Twining  also  men- 
tions these  same  properties,  recommends  it  as  a  tonic  and 
aperient  of  great  benefit  in  atony  of  the  digestive  organs  and 
expresses  surprise  that  the  Europeans  make  no  use  of  it.  Ac- 
cording to  the  same  author  a  dose  in  the  treatment  of  diarrhoea 
and  dysentery  is  4  grams  twice  a  day.  He  quotes  a  case  of 
hypertrophy  of  the  spleen  which  he  cured  with  this  fruit. 


112         THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

Some  of  the  leaves  bear  horn-shaped  galls,  flattened,  narrow 
and  hollow.  They  are  caused  by  an  insect  which  stings  the 
leaves  and  deposits  its  eggs  in  them.  These  leaves  with  galls 
are  astringent  and  very  useful  and  effective  in  dysentery  and 
diarrhrea,  especially  that  of  children.  The  dose  for  a  child  of 
more  than  one  year  is  0.40  to  0.50  gram  a  day,  administered 
in  fractional  doses  every  two  or  three  hours. 

Fridolin  has  obtained  from  its  fruit  an  acid,  which  he  calls 
chebulinic  (C28H25O10)  and  presumes  to  be  a  mixture  of  tannic 
and  gallic  acids.  As  Stenhouse  had  formerly  indicated,  no 
principle  has  been  discovered  to  which  the  purgative  properties 
can  be  attributed,  unless  it  be  a  green  oleo-resin  turned  red  by 
nitric  acid,  obtained  from  the  fruit  by  Apery. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  of  the  second  order,  with 
leaves  3r  long,  alternate,  lanceolate,  entire  and  glabrous.  Peti- 
oles short.  Flowers  terminal,  in  spiked  panicles.  Calyx  supe- 
rior, bell-shaped,  colored,  downy  within,  5-toothed.  Corolla 
wanting.  Stamens  10,  longer  than  the  calyx.  Anthers  round- 
ish. Ovary  cylindrical.  Style  curved  and  longer  than  the 
stamens.  Stigma  simple.  Fruit  ovoid,  2-4  centimeters  long, 
5-10  acute  angles,  wrinkled,  with  blackish,  hard,  compact  meso- 
carp  ;  contains  1  seed. 

HABITAT. — Batangas,  San  Mateo.     Blooms  in  May. 

Quisqualis  Indica,  L.     (Q.  villosa,  Roxb.;    Q.  spinosa,  Nares.) 

NOM.  YULG. — TagaraWj  Niogniogan,  Tag.;  Tangolon,  Vis.; 
Babebabe,  Pam.;  Tartaraw,  Hoc. 

USES. — The  fruit  contains  a  kernel  that  tastes  much  like 
cacao,  for  which  reason  the  Tagalogs  call  it  "  niogniogan  "  (like 
cacao).  This  kernel  is  a  powerful  anthelmintic,  used  also  in 
India,  the  dose  for  a  child  of  4  years  being  2-4,  pulverized 
and  mixed  with  a  little  molasses  or  sugar.  A  large  dose  pro- 
duces hiccough,  a  fact  well  known  to  the  natives.  Dr.  Bouton 


PSIDIUM    POMIFERUM  113 

states  that  they  may  cause  convulsions  and  other  similar  nerv- 
ous disorders. 

They  yield  a  light  green,  fixed  oil,  probably  the  active  prin- 
ciple of  the  plant. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  climbing  shrub,  6-9°  high, 
whose  stem  is  thickly  set  with  long,  opposite  thorns.  Leaves 
in  stars  of  3,  oblong,  acute,  entire,  glabrous.  Petioles  very 
short.  Flowers  white,  veined  with  red,  in  axillary  spikes. 
Calyx  very  long,  nearly  cylindrical,  5-toothed.  Corolla,  5 
petals,  inserted  between  the  teeth  of  the  calyx.  Stamens  10, 
inserted  on  the  calyx-tube,  shorter  than  the  corolla,  arranged  in 
2  series,  5  higher  than  the  rest.  Style  the  same  length  as  the 
stamens,  united  throughout  nearly  its  entire  length  with  the 
wall  of  the  calyx-tube  from  which  it  separates  near  the  stigma. 
Stigma  rather  bulky.  Fruit  1'  long,  ovoid,  5  sharp  ridges  in 
the  woody,  fragile,  mahogany-colored  pericarp,  which  contains 
a  pointed  kernel  at  one  end. 

HABITAT. — San  Mateo,  and  along  the  shores  of  Luzon. 
Blooms  in  May. 

MYRTACE^S. 

Myrtle  Family. 

Psidium  pomiferum,  L.     (P.   aromaticum  and  P.  pyriferum, 

Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Guayabas,  Sp.;  Bay  abas,  Guayabas,  Tayabas, 
Tag.,  and  other  dialects  ;  Guava,  Eng. 

USES. — The  green  fruit  is  acid  and  very  astringent.  The 
stage  of  development  when  it  is  best  eaten  raw,  is  just  before  it 
ripens,  for  then  its  acidity  has  lessened,  it  is  not  astringent  and 
does  not  emit  the  strong  odor,  so  disagreeable  to  many,  that 
characterizes  the  ripe  fruit.  When  fully  ripe  it  is  sweet,  non- 
astringent  and  very  bland,  and  this  is  the  stage  when  it  is  best 
for  making  the  jellies  and  preserves  so  popular  in  the  Philip- 
pines. 
10 


114          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

The  bark,  especially  that  of  the  root,  is  highly  astringent  and 
a  decoction  of  it  is  used  for  diarrhoea  and  as  a  wash  for  ulcers. 
Dr.  Waitz  has  successfully  used  the  following  formula  in  treat- 
ing the  chronic  diarrhoea  of  children  : 

Root  bark  of  guava 15  grams. 

Water , .180       " 

Boil  till  reduced  one  half.  Dose,  a  tablespoonful  every  2  or 
3  hours  according  to  age. 

A  decoction  of  the  shoots  is  very  useful  in  stomatitis,  cuta- 
neous eruptions  and  ulcers.  Dr.  Waitz  advises  his  formula  in 
prolapsus  recti  of  children.  It  is  also  of  value  as  an  injection 
in  diarrhoea  and  dysentery. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  about  10°  high,  branches 
square  and  somewhat  winged  towards  the  ends.  Leaves  op- 
posite, oblong,  obtuse,  downy,  aromatic  in  odor.  Petiole  very 
short.  Flowers  axillary,  solitary,  white  and  fragrant.  Calyx 
adherent,  the  border  breaking  in  3,  4  or  more  unequal  parts 
when  the  flower  expands.  Corolla,  5-6  petals,  inserted  on  the 
calyx,  curved  downward.  Stamens  numerous,  inserted  in  the 
calyx,  as  long  as  the  corolla.  Style  same  length  as  stamens, 
awl-shaped.  Fruit  somewhat  pear-shaped,  with  4  or  5  ribs 
that  disappear  at  maturity,  4  or  more  cells  each  with  many 
small,  hard,  irregular  seeds.  In  the  Philippines  the  fruit  grows 
to  the  size  of  a  small  pear. 

Eugenia  Jambolana,  Lam.     (Calyptrcmihes  Jambolana,  Willd. 
and  Blanco  ;  Syzygium  Jambolanum,  DC.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Lomboy,  Duhat,  Duat,  Tag.,  Pam.,  Vis.; 
Jambul  or  Black  Plum,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  ripe  fruit,  so  dark  a  purple  in  color  that  it 
seems  black,  is  edible  and  very  popular  in  the  Philippines, 
though  not  considered  choice.  Some  suppose  it  to  be  harmful, 
but  it  is  in  reality  very  easy  of  digestion. 


EUGENIA    JAMBOLANA  115 

The  syrup  of  the  fruit  juice,  and  the  decoction  of  the  trunk 
bark  are  both  very  efficacious  in  the  treatment  of  diarrhoea  and 
dysentery. 

SYRUP  OF  JAMBUL. — 

Juice  of  ripe  fruit 500  grams. 

White  sugar 950       " 

Dissolve  in  a  covered  water-bath,  strain  through  woolen 
cloth  and  put  aside. 

DOSE. — 60-200  grams  a  day. 

The  juice  of  the  leaves  is   also  used  to  treat  diarrhoea.     A 
Hindoo  physician,  Bhavaprakasa,  advises  the  following  receipt : 
Juice  of  leaves  of  lomboy     ~| 

"      "       «       «   manga       V aa  4  grams. 

Pulp  of  Terminalia  chebula  J 

Give  in  one  dose  in  a  little  goat's  milk  and  honey. 
A  sort  of  wine  of  very  agreeable  taste  is  made  from  the  fruit 
juice.  Lately  the  powdered  seed  has  been  recommended  in  the 
treatment  of  glycosuria  or  at  least  it  has  been  stated  that  its  in- 
ternal use  lessens  and  finally  abolishes  the  glucose  from  the 
urine  of  the  patient.  It  has  even  been  affirmed  that  while 
under  this  treatment  the  patient  may  eat  glucose-forming  foods 
without  fear  of  glycosuria  supervening. 

The  chemical  composition  of  the  seeds  are  as  follows  : 

Essential  oil Traces. 

Chlorophyl  and  fatty  matters 0.37 

Resin  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether 0.30 

Gallic  acid 1.65 

Albumin 1.25 

Pigment  soluble  in  water 2.70 

Water 10.00 

Insoluble  residuum  .  .    83.73 


100.00 


116          THE    MF.mriNAI,    PLANTS    OF    TIM:     I'll  I  I.I  1MM  NES 

Dujardin-Beaumetz  has  tested  the  therapeutic  value  of  these 
seeds  in  diabetes  but  with  negative  results.  Scott  has  main- 
tained that  by  adding  the  powdered  seed  to  a  mixture  of  malt 
and  starch,  fermentation  is  impeded ;  but  Dr.  Villy  in  the 
laboratory  of  Dujardin-Beaumetz  has  demonstrated  that  such  is 
not  the  case.  Contrary  to  the  opinions  of  those  physicians  who 
stated  that  "jambul  "  was  capable  of  causing  the  glucose  to 
disappear  from  the  urine  of  diabetic  patients  without  concur- 
rent diabetic  regimen,  Dujardin-Beaumetz  observed  in  his  trials 
of  the  drug  that  the  slightest  relaxation  of  the  regimen  was 
followed  by  an  increase  of  glucose.  Under  the  influence  of  the 
medicine  in  doses  of  2—10  grams  daily,  at  the  same  time  main- 
taining a  strict  diabetic  diet,  the  Parisian  therapeutist  noted 
that  the  glucose  disappears  from  the  third  to  the  fifth  day  ;  but 
this  occurred  only  in  cases  of  medium  intensity,  whereas  in 
severe  cases  the  medication  produced  no  effect.  Upon  stopping 
the  treatment  the  sugar  reappeared. 

BOTANICAL  DKS<  -u  i  PTION. — A  tree,  15-20°  high,  with  leaves 
opposite,  acute,  entire,  ovate,  lustrous,  very  smooth.  Flowers 
in  racemose  panicles  with  peduncles  opposite.  Calyx  superior, 
with  5  small  teeth  and  a  deciduous  cover  composed  of  many 
orbicular  pieces  joined  below.  Corolla  none.  Stamens  numer- 
ous, inserted  on  the  edge  of  the  calyx.  Stigma  pointed.  Fruit 
black,  oval,  crowned  with  the  calyx  ;  one  long  cylindrical  seed 
with  membranaceous  epidermis. 

HABITAT. — Common  all  over  the  Archipelago.  Blooms  in 
February. 

MELASTOMACE^l. 

Melastoma  malabatrichum,  L.  (IT.  obm/ntum,  Jack.;  ^[. 
tittjH-i'ti  and  <i/>r<t/nf(i,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. —  Gnnmfix.  Tag. 

USES. — A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  of  use  as  an  astringent 
in  diarrhoea  and  dysentery.  A  decoction  of  the  bark  is  used  as 


AMMANNIA    VESICATORIA  117 

a  gargle  for  aphthae  and  catarrhal  sore  throat,  and  as  a  wash 
for  ulcers  and  the  itch. 

The  fruit  is  edible,  resembling  slightly  the  currant ;  it  has 
doubtless  received  the  name  "  granatis  "  on  account  of  its  many 
seeds. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Small  tree,  with  opposite 
branches,  their  ends  covered  with  hairs.  Leaves  opposite,  3- 
nerved,  V  long,  very  rough  with  short  hairs.  Flowers  car- 
mine, in  terminal  panicles.  Stamens  10.  Filaments  alter- 
nating violet  and  straw-color. 

HABITAT. — Mountains  of  Angat  and  San  Mateo. 

LYTHRACEJE. 

Loosestrife  Family. 

Ammannia  vesicatoria,  Roxb.  (A.  baceifera,  L.;  A.  Indica, 
Lam.;  A.  <l<l>ili*  and  Celosia  mana,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Bias  pogo,  Tag.;  Blistering  Ammannia,  Indo- 
Bug. 

r>i-:s. — The  leaves  contain  an  irritant  and  acrid  principle 
that  renders  them  vesicant  when  applied  to  the  skin.  The 
Pharmacopeia  of  India  quotes  Sir  \V.  O'Shaughnessy  to  the 
effect  that  plasters  made  of  the  bruised  leaves  even  when 
renewed  every  half  hour  require  24  hours  to  raise  a  blister  and 
at  the  same  time  cause  severe  pain.  He  found  it  much  more 
painful  than  cantharides  and  much  less  prompt  to  act.  Dr. 
Dymock  has  prepared  an  ethereal  tincture  of  the  leaves  and 
obtained  with  it  results  very  different  from  those  just  men- 
tioned ;  this  is  not  surprising  in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  tinc- 
ture holds  in  solution  in  a  small  quantity  of  ether,  a  consider- 
able amount  of  the  vesicant  principle.  This  tincture  has  the 
same  color  as  the  "  epispastic  "  of  the  English  Pharmacopoeia, 
causes  less  pain  and  rapidly  raises  a  good  blister,  facts  of  which 
I  have  convinced  myself  by  the  use  of  a  small  quantity  sent 
me  from  Bombay  in  1891. 


118          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Dr.  Bholanauth  Bose  recommends  the  internal  use  of  the 
juice  of  the  leaves  as  a  remedy  for  chronic  diseases  of  the 
spleen ;  this  treatment,  however,  has  caused  severe  pain  and  is 
absolutely  uncertain  in  effect. 

In  Concan  the  juice  of  the  leaves  is  given  mixed  with  food 
to  animals  in  heat,  for  its  anaphrodisiac  action.  The  fresh  or 
dried  plant  is  given  in  decoction  mixed  with  ginger  in  inter- 
mittent fevers. 

If  the  ethereal  tincture  be  evaporated  a  resinous  residue 
remains  that  has  not  been  studied,  but  appears  to  be  the  vesi- 
cant principle.  This  tincture  should  be  made  from  the  dried 
leaves  to  avoid  hydration  of  the  ether. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  plant  with  stem  red, 
straight,  quadrate,  ramose.  Leaves  opposite,  lanceolate,  and 
fringed  with  hairs.  Flowers  axillary,  small,  red,  solitary. 
Peduncles  short.  Calyx  inferior,  bell-shaped,  with  8-toothed 
border,  the  4  alternate  teeth  larger.  Corolla  none.  Nectary 
bell-shaped,  surrounding  the  ovary,  shorter  than  the  calyx, 
with  4  toothlets  which  lengthening  form  the  filaments  of  as 
many  stamens.  Anthers  4-celled.  Ovary  of  4  pluriovulate 
locules.  Style  almost  wanting.  Stigma  fluted.  Seed  vessel 
glabrous,  horizontally  dehiscent,  containing  15  or  more  angular 
seeds  joined  to  a  common  axis. 

HABITAT. — It  grows  in  the  marshes  of  Mandaloyon. 

Lawsonia  alba,  Lam.     (L.  spinosa,  L.;   L.  inermis,  Roxb.) 
NOM.  YULG. — Cinamomo   del  pais  (native    cinnamon),  Sp.- 
Fil.;  Henna,  Campkire,  Samphire,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — This  is  a  very  popular  plant  in  the  Orient,  for  many 
races  use  its  leaves  to  impart  a  reddish-yellow  stain  to  the  nails, 
finger  tips  and  palms  of  the  hands.  There  is  a  tradition  among 
the  Mohammedans  that  the  Prophet  once  called  this  plant  "  the 
best  of  all  herbs."  The  leaf  in  form  of  a  dry  powder  is  sold 
in  the  bazars  of  India  under  the  name  of  "  henna "  ;  mixed 


LAWSONIA    ALBA  119 

with  water  it  gives  it  a  yellow  color,  and  when  boiled  the  tone 
of  the  liquid  becomes  darker ;  the  addition  of  an  alkali  turns 
it  brown.  In  Persia  they  add  indigo  to  this  solution  and  use 
it  as  a  hair  dye. 

The  Hindoos  apply  the  bruised  leaves  to  the  soles  of  the  feet 
of  small-pox  patients,  their  purpose  being  to  prevent  the  spread 
of  the  eruption  to  the  eyes.  They  also  use  it  locally  in  a  dis- 
ease known  among  them  as  "  burning  of  the  feet."  Grierson 
and  Waring  obtained  good  results  in  this  disease  by  making  a 
paste  of  the  bruised  leaves  and  vinegar ;  cases  that  resisted 
such  treatment  yielded  completely  to  a  brisk  rubbing  of  the 
feet  with  a  simple  paste  of  the  leaf.  The  decoction  and  the 
bruised  leaves  are  also  used  locally  for  contusions. 

The  bark  has  been  given  in  jaundice,  hypertrophy  of  the 
spleen,  calculi  of  various  sorts,  leprosy  and  stubborn  skin  dis- 
eases, as  an  alterative.  In  decoction  it  is  applied  to  burns. 

An  English  physician,  Dr.  Newton,  made  an  extract  of  the 
leaves  and  flowers  with  which  he  pretended  to  cure  leprosy ;  it 
was  but  one  more  useless  drug  in  the  long  list  used  to  combat 
that  terrible  disease.  The  dose  of  the  extract  is  a  teaspoonful 
daily,  given  in  2  doses. 

The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  given  in  sweetened  water  in  some 
countries  as  a  remedy  for  spermatorrhoea. 

The  flowers  are  given  in  decoction  for  headache  and  the  fruit 
is  emmenagogue. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree,  about  12°  high. 
Leaves  opposite,  lanceolate,  broad,  entire,  glabrous  and  tough, 
the  edges  turned  downwards.  Flowers  yellowish-white,  term- 
inal in  racemose  panicles  with  opposite  peduncles.  Calyx  in- 
ferior, bell-shaped,  4  acute  sepals.  Corolla,  4  petals,  longer 
than  the  calyx.  Stamens  8,  inserted  by  pairs  on  the  segments 
of  the  calyx,  alternating  with  and  longer  than  the  petals.  An- 
ther kidney-shaped.  Ovary  at  the  bottom  of  the  calyx.  Styles 
of  the  same  length  as  the  stamens.  Stigma  obtuse.  Seed  ves- 


120          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

sel  a  little  larger  than  a  pea,  globose,  4  chambers,  many  seeds. 
HABITAT. — Common  all  over  the  Archipelago.     Blooms  in 
July. 

Punica  Granatum,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Granada,  Sp.  and  Fil.  dialects  ;  Pomegranate, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  decoction  of  the  tender  leaves  is  used  as  a  gargle 
and  wash  in  angina,  aphthae,  and  wounds  within  the  buccal 
cavity. 

The  peel  of  the  fruit  is  highly  astringent  and  in  decoction  is 
a  useful  agent  in  treating  chronic  diarrhoea,  and  locally  in  injec- 
tions of  lotions  for  leucorrhoea  and  inflamed  haemorrhoids.  It 
should  not  be  given  when  rectal  tenesmus  exists.  The  Phar- 
macopoeia of  India  contains  the  following  formula  for  preparing 
the  decoction  of  the  peel : 

Pulp  of  the  fruit,  mashed 60  grams. 

Water 600      " 

Boil  for  15  minutes  in  a  covered  vessel,  cool,  filter  and 
add  water  enough  to  make  a  liter.  Dose,  30-50  grams 
per  diem. 

This  preparation  is  also  used  in  astringent  gargles  and  injec- 
tions. For  internal  use  the  decoction  is  rendered  more  active 
by  adding  a  small  quantity  of  cloves  or  cinnamon.  This  mix- 
ture with  the  addition  of  opium  gives  excellent  results  in  the 
treatment  of  diarrhoea  among  the  natives  of  India  and  is  highly 
recommended  by  Dr.  Kirkpatrick. 

The  most  important  part  of  the  pomegranate,  however,  is  its 
root,  the  bark  of  which  is  a  very  efficient  taenifuge  and  the  most 
astringent  portion  of  the  plant.  It  should  be  used  fresh,  as 
drying  destroys  its  activity  and  gives  negative  results.  Many 
failures  to  expel  the  taenia  are  probably  due  to  this  fact.  Ac- 
cording to  Beranger-Ferand  the  root  gives  25%  to  40%  of 
cures,  whereas  pumpkin  seeds  give  but  5%  to  10%. 


PUNICA    GRANATUM  121 

DECOCTION. — (French  Codex.) 

Fresh  bark  of  pomegranate  root 60  grams. 

Water 750      " 

Macerate  6  hours,  boil  over  slow  fire  till  reduced  to  500 
grams.  Strain.  Administer  fasting,  in  3  doses  half  an  hour 
apart.  The  evening  before  the  patient  should  eat  a  light  meal 
and  take  a  cathartic  in  order  that  the  intestinal  canal  may  con- 
tain the  smallest  possible  quantity  of  faecal  matter.  After  tak- 
ing the  third  dose  of  the  decoction  the  patient  should  take  a 
mild  purgative  such  as  30  grams  of  castor  oil  to  expel  the  ta3nia. 
This  preparation  has  a  most  disagreeable  taste.  It  is  better  to 
give  the  "  tannate  of  pelletierine,"  a  compound  of  tannin  and  one 
of  the  alkaloids  that  Tanret  discovered  in  pomegranate  root. 
A  sufficient  dose  of  tannate  of  pelletierine  is  30-40  centigrams  in 
wafer  form,  followed  by  a  purge  and  with  the  other  precautions 
and  preparatory  measures  mentioned  above.  It  causes  toxic 
symptoms  similar  to  those  produced  by  curare,  according  to  the 
experimental  studies  of  Dujardin-Beaumetz  and  Rocheniere.  Its 
action  is  upon  the  ends  of  the  motor  nerves.  A  dose  of  40 
centigrams  may  cause  in  man  such  symptoms  of  intoxication  as 
vertigo,  inverted  vision  and  muscular  paralysis.  Pelletierine 
should  not  be  administered  to  children,  but  Be>anger-Ferand 
states  that  the  tannate  may  be  safely  given  them,  as  follows  : 

Tannate  of  pelletierine 0.30  grams. 

Sweetened  water 40.00      " 

A  coffee-spoonful  of  this  solution  contains  0.03  gram  of  the 
tannate,  and  this  quantity  may  be  given  to  a  child,  in  a  little 
milk.  If  no  symptoms  supervene  within  one-half  hour  give 
another  similar  dose  and  so  on  up  to  3  or  4  doses  or  .12  gm.  in 
all.  After  the  last  dose  give  the  purgative  as  a  routine.  It  is 
certainly  imprudent  to  trust  the  administration  of  such  a  drug 
to  any  one  incapable  of  recognizing  the  symptoms  of  intoxica- 
tion, and  as  no  one  but  a  physician  can  judge  the  effects  of  the 
alkaloid  he  himself  should  remain  with  the  patient  until  the 


122          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

efficient  dose  has  been  absorbed.  This  is  manifestly  impractical 
and  we  therefore  maintain  that  the  alkaloid  is  not  suited  for  the 
treatment  of  children. 

An  analysis  of  the  root  bark  made  by  the  French  chemist 
Tanret  revealed  the  presence  of  four  alkaloids  :  pelletierine,  iso- 
pelletierine  (CgH15NO),  pseudo-pelletierine  (C9H16NO),  and  me- 
fhylpeletierine  (C9H17NO). 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  6-9°  high  with  branches 
terminating  in  thorns ;  some  of  the  branches  abort  and  form 
thorns.  Leaves  simple,  oval,  oblong,  without  stipules,  with 
short  petioles.  Flowers  axillary,  solitary  or  in  pauciflorous 
cymes.  Calyx,  4-8  sepals,  persistent,  fleshy,  yellow  or  red. 
Corolla,  4-8  petals,  imbricated.  Stamens  numerous,  free. 
Style  1 .  Stigma  thick.  Fruit  with  leathery  rind,  about  size 
of  small  apple,  packed  with  seeds,  each  imbedded  in  a  small 
amount  of  crisp,  juicy  pulp. 

ONAGRACEJE. 

Evening  Primrose  Family. 
Jussisea  suffruticosa,  L.     (J.  villosa,  Lam.;  J.  erecta,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Malapoko,  Tag. 

USES. — The  entire  plant  reduced  to  a  pulp  and  mixed  with 
milk  is  used  in  India  to  treat  dysentery.  Ainslie  states  that 
the  decoction  is  employed  as  a  vermifuge  and  purgative. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — An  herb  with  square  stem,  leaves 
alternate,  lanceolate,  nearly  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  axillary, 
yellow,  solitary.  Calyx  of  4-5  lobules.  Corolla,  4  lanceolate 
petals  inserted  between  the  divisions  of  the  calyx.  Stamens  8, 
of  these  4  alternate  being  shorter.  Ovary  very  long,  inferior, 
with  4  many-ovuled  locules.  Style  the  same  length  as  the 
stamens.  Stigma  4-lobuled.  Seed  vessels  very  long,  with  faint 
longitudinal  ridges,  crowned  by  the  remains  of  the  calyx,  4 
pluriovulate  locules. 


CARICA    PAPAYA  123 

HABITAT. — In  the  arable  fields  and  along  the  banks  of  rivers. 
Blooms  in  January  and  March. 

PASSIFLORACE^E. 
Passion  Flower  Family. 
Carica  Papaya,  L. 

NOM..  VULG. — Papaya,  in  many  Phil,  dialects ;  Papaya, 
PapaWj  Eng. 

USES. — The  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  locally  in  sores 
and  atonic  ulcers,  followed  by  a  poultice  of  the  boiled  and 
mashed  leaves.  The  natives  use  the  cold  infusion  of  the  leaves 
to  wash  clothes  spotted  with  blood  and  the  spots  disappear 
rapidly  by  virtue  of  the  ferment  papain  which  digests  the  fibrin. 
The  infusion  is  also  very  useful  as  a  wash  for  sores  and  gan- 
grenous ulcers,  modifying  their  appearance  very  rapidly. 

Before  proceeding  further  it  is  desirable  to  give  a  descrip- 
tion of  papain,  a  digestive  ferment  which  exists  throughout  the 
whole  plant,  fruit,  trunk,  leaves  and  petioles  ;  it  is  contained 
in  the  milky  juice  which  exudes  from  all  these  parts  when  cut. 
This  juice  was  studied  simultaneously  by  Wurtz  in  France 
and  Peckolt  in  Brazil.  The  best  method  of  collecting  it  is  to 
make  several  superficial,  longitudinal  incisions  in  the  green 
fruit  without  removing  it  from  the  tree ;  immediately  an 
abundance  of  juice  appears  in  the  incisions  and  coagulates  rap- 
idly. The  best  time  to  do  this  is  the  early  morning.  The 
fruit  does  not  suffer  by  this  process  but  continues  developing 
and  ripens  perhaps  more  rapidly,  at  the  same  time  improving 
in  flavor,  becoming  sweeter ;  the  seeds,  however,  atrophy  and 
lose  their  power  of  germination.  Peckolt  gives  the  following 
as  the  composition  of  the  juice  : 

A  substance  analogous  to  caoutchouc 4.525 

Awa..  .    2.424 


124        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Soft  resin 0.110 

Brown  resin 2.776 

Albuminoids 0.006 

Papayotin  (Papain  of  Wurtz) 1.059 

Extractive  matter 5.303 

Malic  acid 0.443 

Peptic  material  and  salts 7.100 

Water 74.971 

The  milky  juice  is  neutral  and  coagulates  rapidly,  separating 
in  two  parts  :  a  kind  of  insoluble  pulp  and  a  limpid  colorless 
serum.  If  combined  with  fibrin,  raw  meat,  white  of  egg  or 
gluten  it  gradually  softens  them  and  completely  dissolves  them 
in  3  or  4  hours  in  vitro  at  40°  C.  Combined  with  milk  it 
coagulates  it  and  soon  precipitates  the  casein  which  is  also  dis- 
solved a  little  later.  It  digests  lumbricoids  and  tape-worms 
and  the  false  membrane  of  croup,  in  a  few  hours.  According 
to  Wurtz  and  Bouchut  papain  is  prepared  as  follows  : 

The  fluid  juice  or  the  aqueous  solution  of  the  milky  exudate 
is  precipitated  by  the  addition  of  ten  times  the  volume  of 
alcohol.  The  precipitate,  after  treating  again  with  concen- 
trated alcohol,  is  dissolved  in  water  and  the  addition  of  sub- 
acetate  of  lead  eliminates  the  albuminoids  and  peptones  but 
does  not  precipitate  the  papain.  The  liquid  is  filtered  and  the 
lead  salts  separated  by  means  of  a  current  of  hydrogen  sulphide. 
It  is  filtered  again  and  alcohol  added  gradually,  which  process 
first  precipitates  whatever  sulphate  of  lead  may  have  passed 
through  the  filter,  and  then  the  papain. 

Papain  is  an  amorphous  substance,  perfectly  white,  soluble 
in  water,  insipid,  odorless.  An  aqueous  solution,  if  shaken 
violently,  foams  like  a  solution  of  soap.  Boiling  makes  it 
turbid  and  when  concentrated  it  has  a  slightly  astringent  taste. 
It  is  precipitated  by  hydrochloric,  nitric,  picric  and  the  meta- 
phosphoric  acids.  Trommer's  test  gives  it  a  beautiful  blue 
violet  color  which,  on  boiling,  changes  to  a  red  violet. 


CARICA    PAPAYA  125 

It  is  an  extremely  active  digestive  ferment,  comparable  with 
pepsin,  but  superior  to  the  latter  because  it  does  not  require  an 
acid  medium,  as  its  digestive  action  takes  place  even  in  the 
presence  of  an  alkaline  medium  and  of  antiseptic  substances 
such  as  boric  acid,  phenol,  etc.  It  is  given  in  doses  of  10-40 
centigrams  in  different  vehicles  such  as  water,  wine,  etc.  It 
should  be  given  after  meals  carefully  and  properly  diluted,  in 
order  that  its  action  may  not  be  exerted  upon  the  gastric  mucous 
membrane  itself.  Its  use  is  contraindicated  in  gastric  ulcer. 

A  watery  solution  prepared  by  macerating  the  green  fruit 
has  been  used  effectively  to  remove  blemishes  from  the  face, 
leaving  the  skin  clean  and  smooth.  The  natives  use  little  pieces 
of  the  green  fruit  to  remove  freckles  (which  they  call  pecas). 
The  ripe  fruit  is  edible  and  its  taste  quite  agreeable ;  in  some 
of  the  Malay  Islands  it  is  given  for  dysentery,  but  it  must  be 
remembered  that  the  ripe  fruit  does  not  contain  papain. 

The  pure  exudate  is  given  to  children  as  an  anthelmintic  in 
doses  of  2-6  grams  with  a  little  molasses,  but  it  is  not  so  harm- 
less that  it  may  be  used  with  impunity  in  this  form,  Moncorvo 
and  others  having  reported  cases  of  peritonitis  with  symptoms 
suggestive  of  cholera  following  its  use.  It  is  drastic  and  di- 
gestive in  addition  to  its  anthelmintic  action,  but  according  to 
Rabuteau,  boiling  destroys  the  first  property  without  affecting 
the  others.  Dr.  Lemarchand  of  the  island  of  Mauritius  gives 
the  following  anthelmintic  prescription  : 

Juice  of  papaya  and  molasses aa  1  tablespoon. 

Add  gradually  while  shaking  the  mixture. 

Boiling  water 4  tablespoons. 

Cool  and  administer  in  one  dose  followed  immediately  by  30 
grams  of  castor  oil.  For  a  child,  one-half  dose. 

This  treatment  frequently  causes  colic,  for  the  relief  of 
which  the  author  advises  an  injection  of  sweetened  water.  Sir 
O'Shaughnessy's  prescription  is  preferable  : 


126         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

20—60  drops  of  the  exudate  in  a  little  sweetened  water. 
This  dose  cannot  cause  any  untoward  symptoms  and  is  efficient 
in  expelling  both  lumbricoids  and  tsenise. 

The  triturated  seeds  may  be  given  internally  in  doses  of  1-2 
grams  with  milk  or  molasses  to  expel  lumbricoids.  Analysis 
has  revealed  in  the  seeds  the  presence  of  a  resinous  oil,  an  oleag- 
inous material  of  disagreeable  odor  and  taste  called  by  Peckolt 
caricin,  a  fatty  acid,  papayic  acid  and  a  resin.  In  India  the 
seeds  are  considered  emmenagogue.  In  some  countries  they 
wrap  meat  in  papaya  leaves  for  several  hours  before  eating  in 
order  to  soften  it.  For  the  same  purpose  they  sometimes  boil 
the  meat  in  water  containing  a  few  leaves  or  pieces  of  the 
green  fruit ;  some  even  go  to  the  length  of  saying  that  it  is 
only  necessary  to  hang  a  piece  of  meat  in  a  papaya  tree  for  a 
time  in  order  to  soften  it. 

The  decoction  of  the  green  fruit  is  given  internally  for  indi- 
gestion, a  treatment  common  in  the  provinces  of  Bulacan  and 
Pampanga.  The  milky  juice  is  used  to  remove  corns  and  Dr. 
Daruty  offers  the  following  prescription  for  eczema  and  psoriasis : 

Exudate  of  papaya 1.00  grams. 

Borax  (powdered) 0.60       " 

Water 16.00       " 

Mix. 

Paint  the  affected  part  with  feather  or  brush,  2-3  times  a 
day.  The  same  solution  may  be  used  for  softening  corns. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Trees  15°  in  height,  trunk  cov- 
ered with  large  leaf  scars,  wood  soft  and  brittle,  the  long-peti- 
oled,  palmately-lobed  leaves  growing  in  a  crown  and  giving 
the  tree  the  general  appearance  of  a  palm.  Flowers  dioecious. 
Staminate  tree :  Flowers  loosely  clustered  on  long,  hanging 
stems.  Calyx,  5-6  teeth.  Corolla  tubular,  V  long,  limb 
divided  into  5  oval  parts.  Stamens  10,  inserted  in  the  throat. 
Style  short,  awl-shaped.  Pistillate  tree  :  Flowers  much  larger, 


TRICHOSANTHES    PALM  ATA  127 

sessile,  in  axils  of  leaves.  Calyx  5-toothed.  Corolla  large,  5 
lanceolate  petals  curved  outward,  fleshy.  Stigmas  5,  fringed. 
Fruit  about  size  of  child's  head  or  smaller,  somewhat  pear- 
shaped,  juicy,  pulp  melon-like,  1  compartment  with  numerous 
seeds,  each  in  a  mucilaginous  aril. 

CUCURBITACEJE. 

Gourd  Family. 

Trichosanthes  palmata,  Roxb.     (T.  tricuspis,  Mig.;    T.  luci- 
aniana,  Bares.) 

NOM.  VULG.— (?). 

USES. — Roxburgh  states  that  the  fruit  is  toxic  and  sometimes 
used  to  kill  crows.  Dymock  states  that  the  leaf  is  smoked  in 
Bombay  as  a  remedy  for  asthma. 

The  extremely  bitter  taste  of  the  fruit  and  rind  induced  Sir 
W.  O'Shaughnessy  to  examine  it  for  tonic  and  purgative  prop- 
erties ;  doses  as  high  as  0.20  gram  3  times  a  day  failed  to 
exert  a  purgative  effect.  The  root  is  used  in  veterinary  medi- 
cine particularly  for  pneumonia.  Mixed  with  equal  parts  of 
colocynth  it  is  applied  to  carbuncles.  In  combination  with 
equal  parts  of  Terminalia  chebula  and  ginger  it  is  made  into  a 
sweetened  infusion  for  internal  use  in  gonorrhoaa. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  climber  with  broad,  heart- 
shaped,  serrate,  7-lobulate  leaves.  Flowers  mono3cious ;  stami- 
nate  white  and  racemose;  pistillate  solitary,  growing  at  the 
base  of  the  staminate  racemes.  Staminate  receptacle  tubular, 
calyx  inserted  on  the  border  of  the  receptacle,  5  sepals.  Corolla, 
5  petals.  Stamens  5,  of  which  4  are  in  pairs.  Pistillate  :  the 
receptacle  dilates  in  its  lower  part  in  form  of  a  globose  vase  and 
encloses  the  unilocular  pluriovulate  ovary.  Fruit  ovoid  or 
pyriform,  scarlet  when  fresh,  orange-yellow  when  dry.  Seeds 
of  irregular  form,  somewhat  triangular.  Kernel  oily. 

HABITAT. — Luzon. 


128         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

T.  anguina,  L.     (T.  amara,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Salagsalag,  Pakupis,  Salimpokot,  Kukubitan, 
Halahala,  Buyokbuyok,  Tag. ;  Tabdbog,  Kukubitan,  Pukopukot, 
Kuragda,  Vis.,  Pam. 

T.  cucumerina,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Probably  the  same  as  T.  anguina. 

USES. — The  fruit  of  T.  anguina  is  purgative,  emetic  and 
anthelmintic.  The  natives  use  an  infusion  of  the  filamentous, 
reticulate  portion  surrounding  the  seeds,  in  doses  of  0.50—0.60 
gm.,  according  to  P.  Blanco. 

The  second  species,  T.  cucumerina,  has  a  wider  use.  In  India 
it  is  regarded  as  a  febrifuge  and  laxative  and  is  commonly 
given  with  some  aromatic.  Ainslie  notes  that  the  leaves,  as  well 
as  the  fruit,  are  bitter  and  purgative  and  that  the  Tamuls  use 
them  for  their  laxative  and  stomachic  effect.  Drury  states  that 
on  the  Malabar  coast  the  seeds  have  a  considerable  reputation 
as  a  remedy  for  functional  disorders  of  the  stomach.  Although 
the  green  fruit  is  very  bitter  the  natives  of  that  region  use  it 
as  a  condiment.  The  tender  stems  and  the  dry  capsules,  both 
bitter  and  purgative,  are  given  in  infusion  and  in  a  sweetened 
solution,  as  an  aid  to  digestion.  The  seeds  are  febrifuge  and 
anthelmintic.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  emetic  and  that  of 
the  roots  purgative.  The  decoction  of  the  stem  is  expec- 
torant. 

In  Bombay  the  plant  is  considered  febrifuge,  and  is  given 
in  decoction  with  ginger,  Swertia  chirafft,  and  sugar.  The 
Mohammedan  authors  say  that  the  T.  cucumerina  is  effective  in 
expelling  lumbricoids  and  one  of  them  mentions  the  following 
as  a  cure  for  stubborn  fevers  : 

Seeds  of  T.  cucumerina No.  180. 

Seeds  of  coriander  or  cumin No.  180. 

Boiling  water 200  grams. 


LAGENARIA   COURGOURDA  129 

Let  stand  over  night,  filter,  add  a  little  sugar,  administer  in 
2  doses  morning  and  evening. 

In  Concan  they  use  the  juice  of  the  leaves  as  a  liniment  in 
remittent  fevers,  rubbing  the  hepatic  region  and  in  fact  the  en- 
tire body. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — T.  anguina,  L.,  is  a  vine  with 
5-angled  stem,  bearing  tendrils  and  spattered  with  white  dots. 
Leaves  heart-shaped,  with  5  acute  lobules,  spiny -toothed.  Peti- 
oles with  a  bifid  swelling  at  their  bases.  Flowers  white,  monoe- 
cious. Staminate :  calyx  5-toothed  with  dotted  borders ;  corolla, 
5  fringed  petals;  stamens  3 ;  anthers  3,  entirely  united  and  form- 
ing a  cylinder.  Pistillate  :  3  glandules  in  the  corolla  tube ; 
style  long ;  stigmas  3.  Fruit  ribbed,  long,  the  compartments 
formed  by  reticular  partitions;  contains  many  irregular  seeds, 
one  border  sharp,  the  other  obtuse,  covered  by  a  very  thin 
aril. 

The  T.  eucumerina,  L.,  is  less  common,  bears  a  spindle- 
shaped  or  obovate  fruit,  is  hairy  and  lacks  ribs.  Its  seeds 
are  ovoid,  very  smooth,  encircled  by  a  narrow  wing.  The 
reticulum  within  the  fruit  is  similar  to  that  of  the  foregoing 
species. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands.  Blooms  in 
October. 

Lagenaria  vulgaris,  Ser. 
NOM.  VULG. — Common  Gourd,  Bottle  Gourd,  Calabash,  Eng. 

Yar.  Lagenaria  Gourda,  Ser.     (Cucurbita  lagenaria 
oblonga,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Calabaza  de  peregrino,  Sp.;  Pilgrim's  Gourd, 
Eng. 

Var.  L.  courgourda,  Ser. 
NOM.  VULG. — Tabayag,  Tag. 
11 


130        THE    MEDK.'IXAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Yar.  L.  clavata,  Ser.     (C.  layeitai'ift.  vi/lo*«,  Blanco.) 

EfOM.VlttA — '  -*{>.:  'tjt>,.  Tag.: 

En-. 

l'-f>. — The  three  above-mentioned  varieties  of  Z.  n<(</< 
Ser.,  are  commonly  grouped  under  the  name  calabaza  (gourd). 
All  have  the  same  action  and  hence  the  same  therapeutic  appli- 
cation.    The  green  portion  of  the  rind  is  bitter  and  j 
purgative  and  emetic  properties.     The  decoction  of  the  tender 
shoots  is  expectorant ;  in  addition  it  appears  to  possess  purga- 
tive properties  and  in  India  is  used  in  jaundice. 

The  part  of  the  plant  most  generally  used  is  tli  -.  the 

taenifuge  properties  of  which  are  well  known.  Its  action, 
however,  is  not  always  certain,  which  may  be  as  truly  said  of 
all  other  known  teenifuges.  The  seeds  have  the  advantage  of 
lacking  the  disgusting  taste  characteristic  of  other  remedi 
the  same  class ;  the  taste  is  almost  neutral  and  a  little  sugar 
conceals  it  completely.  The  dose  is  unlimited  ;  some  take  15 
grams,  others  as  high  as  100,  and  no  unpleasant  symptoms  of 
any  kind  have  been  reported.  The  only  precaution  to  be  ob- 
served is  to  give  the  patient  a  purgative  I— '2  hours  after  his  • 

Heckel  has  analyzed  the  seeds  and  found  a  resin  which  he 
calls  jjfj/'j-t'f.-xinft ;  it  exists  in  the  greenish  pellicle  that  envel- 
opes the  embryo  and  appears  to  be  the  active  principle  of  the 
seeds.  Its  •  -  ].<><>  ^ram  (Dujardin-Beaumetz),  the 

product  of  250  grams  of  the  seeds.     The  dose  of  100  grams  of 
the  seeds  mentioned  above  is  very  small,  if  the  pepo-resin  rep- 
resents the  entire  active  principle,  for  100  grams  of  the  - 
would  only  contain  about  40  centigrams. 

BOTANH-AL  I>P>«  f:iKrr«»x. — A  very  familiar  vine,  clammy, 
pubescent  and  Brack-Mated  ;  large  leaves,  long-stalked  flowers, 
white  petals,  greenish  veiny  fruit  usually  club-shaped  or  en- 
larged at  the'  apex,  the  hard  rind  used  for  dippers,  and 
so  forth.  It  is  noteworthy  that  none  of  the  Uenifuge  varieties 
mentioned  bears  vellow  fruit. 


LUFF  A    JEGYPTIA»'A  131 

Luffa  .ffigyptiaca,  Mill.     (L.  pentamtra,  Roxb.;  L.  petola, 
Ser.:  l[n,iiD,><lir<i  njH'reulatn,  Blanco.) 

N«»M.  Vi'Li;. — Probably  bears  the  same  names  as  the  Tri- 
chowmthes. 

r>Ks. — The  root  is  a  hydragogue  cathartic  even  in  minute 
doses.  The  fruit  is  emollient  by  virtue  of  the  large  quantity 
of  mucilage  it  contains,  but  it  is  more  interesting  for  other 
properties.  When  cut  in  two,  deprived  of  epidermis  and  seeds, 
and  washed  until  none  of  the  mucilage  remains,  there  is  left  a 
fibrous  skeleton,  a  sort  of  skein  of  interwoven  nets  that  consti- 
tutes the  so-called  vegetable  sponge.  It  serves  the  same  pur- 
p<  »se  as  a  sponge  and  has  the  advantages  that  its  fibers  do  not 
rot  and  that  they  are  easily  kept  clean.  In  view  of  its  cheap- 
ness and  plent  it\i  In  ess  in  the  Philippines  the  above  advantages 
should  suffice  to  bring  it  into  universal  use  for  the  toilet,  for 
surgical  purposes  and  for  cleaning  in  general. 

BOTANICM.  OI>M  KIPTION. — A  vine  with  square,  glabrous 
stem.  Leaves  alternate,  cordate.  -°>— 3-lobulate,  dentate,  rough, 
o-7-nerved.  Petioles  short.  Flowers  monoecious.  Staminate 
in  axillary  panicles  ;  calyx  bell-shaped  ;  corolla  yellow,  5  oval 
petals,  borders  entire  :  stamens  3  ;  filaments  short ;  two  thick 
ones  divide  high  up  in  '2  parts,  thus  giving  the  appearance  of 
•"»  stamens  in  all.  Pistillate  axillary,  calyx  adherent,  5  pointed 
sepals  ;  corolla,  ~)  nearly  triangular  petals,  finely  dentate  ;  style 
thick,  short,  the  base  encircled  by  3  glandules  :  stigma  cordate. 
( )vary,  3  pseudo-locales  formed  by  the  central  union  of  the 
placentas  ;  pluriovulate.  Fruit  oblong,  terminating  at  the  apex 
in  a  deciduous  lid  or  cover,  marked  with  8  or  10  black  longitu- 
dinal lines  ;  the  interior  reticulate,  3  compartments  with  many 
seeds,  oval,  black,  Hat  with  thin  borders.  The  natives  do  not  dis- 
tinguish between  this  specimen  and  the  Trichox«,it/n'*%  but  it  is  to 
be  noted  that  the  corolla  of  the  former  is  not  ravelled  or  fringed. 

HA  HIT  AT.  Common  in  Lu/on  and  Panay.  Blooms  in 
January. 


132        THE    MEDICINAL   PLANTS   OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

Momordica  balsamina,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Ampalaya,  Ampalea,  Tag.;  Amargoso,  Sp.- 
Fil.;  Paria,  Hoc.;  Apalia,  Pam.;  Balsamina,  Sp.;  Balsam 
Apple,  Eng. 

M.  charanta,  L.    (M.  muricata,  Willd.;  M.  cylindrica,  Blanco.) 

NQM.  VULG. — The  same  as  of  M.  balsamina. 

USES. — The  fruit  of  both  varieties  is  edible,  though  a  bitter 
principle  gives  it  such  an  intensely  bitter  taste  that  it  is  intol- 
erable to  the  unaccustomed  palate.  It  is  eaten  raw  as  a  salad, 
or  cooked  with  meat  or  fish.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  pre- 
scribed internally  as  a  purgative  and  anthelmintic.  In  Concan 
it  is  given  alone  or  combined  with  aromatics,  in  bilious  dis- 
orders as  an  emetic  and  purgative  ;  externally  they  use  it  as  an 
ointment  for  the  itch  and  other  skin  diseases  ;  in  India  it  is 
mixed  with  cinnamon,  pepper,  rice  and  oil  of  Hydnocarpus 
inebrians,  Vahl. 

The  fruit  and  leaves  are  used  internally  for  worms  and  ex- 
ternally for  leprosy.  Some  Hindoo  writers  state  that  the  fruit 
is  tonic  and  stomachic,  and  that  it  is  useful  in  rheumatism,  gout, 
diseases  of  the  liver  and  spleen. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRfPTiox. — The  first  variety,  M.  balsamina, 
more  common  than  the  second,  is  a  vine  with  angular  stem  and 
simple  tendrils.  Leaves,  many  serrate  lobules  with  white  dots 
on  the  ends.  Flowers  yellow,  monoecious.  Staminate  soli- 
tary, peduncles  very  long,  involucre  cordate ;  calyx  5-lobed  ; 
corolla  5  petals ;  filaments  simple,  one  separate,  2  approxi- 
mated ;  anthers  joined  at  their  bases.  Pistillate  solitary ; 
ovary,  3  locules  and  numerous  ovules  ;  stigma,  3  bifid  divi- 
sions ;  fruit  globose,  narrowing  at  the  ends,  covered  with  tuber- 
cles ;  seeds  numerous,  lacking  albumen,  having  red  aril. 

The  second  variety,  M.  cylindrica,  has  a  downy  stem,  5- 
angled  with  simple  tendrils.  The  leaves  are  5-lobuled,  cordate, 


CITRULLTJS   COLOCYNTHIS     '  133 

serrate,  with  short  hairs  on  under  surface.  Melon  hollow, 
glabrous,  very  long,  cylindrical,  tapering  at  the  ends,  covered 
with  tubercles,  some  elevated  in  longitudinal  lines,  others  de- 
pressed ;  seeds  in  3  rows,  enveloped  in  pulpy  arils,  white,  long 
quadrangular,  truncate  above,  encircled  by  2  rows  of  obtuse 
toothlets. 

HABITAT. — Both  grow  in  all  parts  and  are  well  known. 

Citrullus   Colocynthis,  Schard.     (Cucumis  Colocynthis,  L.) 

NOM.  VULG. —  Coloqnintida,  Sp.;  Coloeynth,  Bitter  Apple, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  part  employed  is  the  fruit  pulp,  official  in  all  the 
pharmacopeias  as  a  very  energetic  hydragogue  cathartic.  It  is 
seldom  given  alone,  but  in  combination  with  other  drugs  to 
modify  its  energy  and  its  action. 

In  large  doses  it  causes  vomiting,  bloody  diarrhoea  and  a  series 
of  nervous  phenomena  that  may  end  in  death.  Six  to  ten 
grams  constitute  a  toxic  dose.  It  operates  with  most  force  upon 
the  large  intestines  and  sympathetically  upon  the  uterus. 

DOSE.— Extract,  0.10-0.30  gram;  powder,  0.30-1.00  gram. 

The  pulp  contains  a  yellow,  intensely  bitter  substance,  quite 
soluble  in  water  and  in  alcohol,  discovered  by  Hubschmann 
and  named  by  him  eoloquintina.  The  seeds  contain  17yfc  of  an 
insipid  oil. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — An  herb  with  long,  prostrate 
stems  covered  with  stiff  hairs.  Leaves  alternate,  triangular, 
deeply  cleft  in  3  lobules  that  subdivide.  Petioles  long.  The 
color  of  the  leaves  is  pale  green  above,  whitish  or  gray  and 
covered  with  white  hairs  underneath.  Flowers  yellow,  monoB- 
cious,  solitary,  axillary,  with  long  peduncles.  Staminate  :  re- 
ceptacle cup-formed,  5  sepals  and  5  free,  yellow  petals ;  5 
stamens  in  pairs,  one  free.  Pistillate  :  the  'receptacle  globose, 
covering  the  lower  part  of  the  ovary  ;  3  staminodes  take  the 
place  of  the  stamens.  Ovary  unilocular,  uniovulate,  with  a 


134        THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS   OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

short  style  bearing  3  lobules  at  its  apex.  Fruit  globose,  6-8 
centimeters  in  diameter,  smooth,  greenish,  later  yellow  with 
white  spots  ;  it  is  full  of  a  whitish  pulp  that  becomes  dry  and 
pithy  and  that  contains  the  obovate  seeds,  smooth,  flattened, 
brown,  lacking  albumen. 
HABITAT. — Manila. 

FICOIDEJE. 

Trianthema  monogyna,  L.  (T.  obcordata,  Roxb. ;  Portulaca 
toston  and  axiflora,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Toston,  Tag. ;  Alusiman,  Ayam,  Vis. 

USES. — This  plant  is  edible,  the  natives  eating  it  boiled,  fried 
or  in  salad.  The  root  is  cathartic  and  is  used  powdered. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  with  prostrate  stems, 
radiating  branches.  Leaves  ensheathing  the  stem,  opposite, 
oval,  red-bordered,  glabrous.  Petioles  with  2  stipules  at  the 
base  and  2  small  teeth  near  the  middle.  Flowers  axillary,  soli- 
tary, sessile.  Calyx,  2  pointed  sepals.  Corolla,  5  oval  petals. 
Stamens  15-20.  Style  simple.  Seed  vessels  inversely  pyram- 
idal, dehipccnce  horizontal.  Seeds  numerous. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  the  rice  fields.  Blooms  in 
January. 

UMBELLIFER.E. 

Parsley  Family. 
Hydrocotyle  Asiatica,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Takip  kohol,  Takip  suso,  Tag. ;  Rabasa,  Sp. ; 
Indian  Pennywort,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — Dr.  Daruty,  of  Mauritius,  has  published  a  study  of 
this  plant,  giving  a  resume  of  its  composition,  therapeutic  uses 
and  physiological  action.  The  writers  of  antiquity  recognized 
the  plant  as  a  powerful  alterative,  tonic,  diuretic,  stimulant  and 
vermifuge,  especially  effective  in  secondary  syphilis  and  in 
ulcerative  diseases  of  the  skin. 


HYDROCOTYLE    ASIATICA  135 

Lepine  and  Boileau  used  it  experimentally  to  treat  leprosy 
and  reported  favorably ;  but  later  experience  demonstrated  that 
it  did  not  exercise  any  specific  effect,  but  benefited  ,ana3sthetic  lep- 
rosy simply  by  improving  the  general  condition  of  the  patient. 

The  plant  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopeia  of  India,  as  altera- 
tive, tonic  and  stimulant.  It  states  that  the  drug  has  been 
found  very  useful  in  the  treatment  of  secondary  and  constitu- 
tional syphilis,  when  the  disease  attacks  the  skin  and  subcuta- 
neous tissue. 

In  Bombay  it  is  a  popular  remedy  for  the  mild  dysentery  of 
children,  given  as  a  decoction  of  3  or  4  leaves  with  a  little 
cumin  seed  and  sugar ;  the  bruised  leaves  are  then  applied  to 
the  umbilical  region.  In  the  Philippines  the  decoction  of  the 
leaves  is  given  as  a  purge. 

Dr.  Dervegie  reports  good  results  in  the  treatment  of  eczema, 
administering  the  powdered  leaf  in  dozes  of  0.10  gram  and 
applying  locally  the  powder  or  an  ointment  of  the  same.  The 
most  marked  and  constant  effects  of  the  drug  are  a  considerable 
increase  of  the  urinary  secretion,  elevation  of  the  temperature 
of  the  skin  and  profuse  diaphoresis. 

Dr.  Boileau,  quoted  above,  himself  contracted  leprosy  of 
which  he  died  ;  he  experimented  on  himself  with  "  hydroco- 
tyle  "  and  on  one  occasion  a  dose  of  3  grams  nearly  proved 
fatal ;  tetanic  symptoms  supervened  with  suffocation,  palpita- 
tion, epistaxis  and  rectal  hemorrhage,  abating  finally  with  pro- 
fuse sweating  and  diuresis. 

Dr.  Lepine,  a  pharmacist  of  Pondicherry,  has  analyzed  the 
plant  and  isolated  a  substance  that  seems  to  be  the  active  prin- 
ciple ;  he  has  named  it  vallarin,  from  "  vallarai,"  the  Tamul 
name  of  the  plant.  "  Vallarin  "  is  a  thick,  pale  yellow  oil  of 
a  piquant  and  persistent  taste  and  an  odor  peculiar  to  the  plant. 
It  changes  under  the  influence  of  air,  moisture  or  heat  and 
volatilizes  at  120°.  It  is  soluble  in  alcohol.  The  plant  contains 
T8<j-  to  1  ft  of  this  oil,  a  dark  resin  and  a  green  resin. 


136        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS   OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

The  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  gives  2  official  formulae,  a  powder 
and  a  cataplasm.  The  powdered  leaf  is  given  internally  in 
doses  of  0.30  to  1.50  grams  and  is  applied  locally  to  superficial 
ulcers. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Plant  herbaceous  with  reniform 
or  heart-shaped  leaves,  forming  a  sort  of  funnel,  dotted  with 
little  hairs,  dentate  with  white  tips.  Petioles  very  long,  en- 
sheathing  each  other  by  2  wings  at  their  bases.  Flowers  3-4, 
sessile,  springing  directly  from  the  root,  greenish-white,  grow- 
ing in  horizontal  rows  on  either  side  of  a  short,  common  pedun- 
cle. Common  involucre  of  2-3  leaflets.  Calyx  adherent,  flat- 
tened, faintly  toothed.  Corolla,  5  small  petals,  ovate.  Stamens 
5,  equal  in  height,  inserted  on  the  receptacle,  alternating  with 
the  petals.  Filaments  short.  Anthers  globose,  cleft  at  the 
base  in  2  diverging  parts.  Ovary  inferior,  cordate,  much  flat- 
tened. Styles  2,  short.  Stigmas  simple.  Fruit  truncate,  oval, 
downy,  indehiscent,  marked  with  furrows,  with  2  compartments 
each  containing  a  seed  inserted  on  the  wall. 

HABITAT. — Grows  in  shady  and  moist  places.  Blooms  in 
July. 

Carum  copticum,  Benth.     (C.  ajowan,  DC.;  Ammi  copticum, 

L.;  A.  glaucifolium,  Blanco;  Daucus  options,  Pers.; 

D.  anisodorm,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Lamudio,  Damoro,  Tag.;  Lamudio,  Vis.;  Cara- 
way, Eng. 

USES. — The  fruit,  of  which  both  form  and  taste  remind  one 
of  anise,  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  as  a  carmina- 
tive, stimulant  and  antispasmodic.  It  is  indicated  in  flatulent 
colic,  atonic  dyspepsia  and  diarrhoea  and  gives  very  good  results. 
It  has  been  used  in  cholera,  but  is  of  little  value  in  that  disease. 
In  moderate  doses  it  increases  salivary  and  gastric  secretion. 

The  P.  of  India  contains  the  2  following  official  formulae  : 
Oleum — obtained  from  the  fruit  by  distillation  ;  is  colorless 


CARUM   COPTICUM  137 

when  fresh  but  soon  turns  yellow ;  possesses  the  odor  of  the 
fruit  and  an  acrid,  burning  taste.  Aqua — 600  grams  of  the 
fruit  ground  and  mixed  with  9  liters  of  water ;  this  is  distilled 
till  4J  liters  have  gone  over,  these  constituting  the  "  aqua  cari." 

DOSE. — 1—2  drops  of  the  essential  oil  in  emulsion  or  on  a 
piece  of  sugar.  Of  the  "  aqua,"  30-60  grams  as  a  carminative 
or  to  disguise  the  taste  of  other  drugs  (such  as  castor  oil),  thus 
frequently  preventing  nausea  or  vomiting. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Leaves  finely  pinnately  com- 
pound. Common  petiole  clasps  the  stem  at  the  base.  Flowers 
white,  in  flat  compound  umbels.  The  secondary  peduncles  12. 
Flowerets  of  each  partial  umbel  about  16.  Calyx  of  flowerets 
superior,  5  globose  sepals.  Corolla,  5  equal  petals,  with 
rounded  lobules.  Stamens  5.  Ovary  tuberculate.  Styles  2, 
very  short.  Seeds  2,  united,  furrowed  and  nearly  glabrous  at 
maturity. 

HABITAT. — Cultivated  in  gardens.     Blooms  in  October. 

Fceniculum  vulgare,  Gaertii.     (F.  qfficinale,  Allion  ;  F.  pan- 
morium,  DC.;   Anethum  foeniculiim,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Anis,  Sp.;  Fennel,  Eng. 

Coriandrum  sativum,  L.     (Ciimmum  cynimum,  Wall.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Cominos,  Calantro,  Sp.;   Coriander,  Eng. 

USES. — The  fruit  of  both  species  has  the  same  therapeutical 
application  being  stomachic  and  carminative  par  excellence.  It 
yields  an  aromatic  essential  oil  with  stimulant  properties,  pop- 
ular because  of  its  agreeable  odor  and  taste. 

As  a  rule  the  infusion  is  given  in  doses  of  one  liter  a  day 
(15-30  grams  of  the  seeds  to  one  liter  of  water).  The  essence 
and  the  alcoholate  are  also  employed,  the  former  obtained  by 
distillation,  the  latter  by  macerating  the  fresh  seeds  in  alcohol. 
The  dose  of  the  essence,  4—8  drops  on  a  piece  of  sugar  or  in 
12 


138         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

potion  ;  the  alcoholate,  2-10  grams  in  sweetened  water  or  in- 
fusion of  aromatic  herbs. 

Both  plants  are  official  in  the  Spanish  Pharmacopoeia  and 
they  and  their  preparations  are  common  in  all  drug  stores. 

HABITAT. — Common,  cultivated  in  the  gardens  and  well 
known. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — F.  vulgare :  Aromatic,  stout, 
smooth  herb,  4-6°  high.  Leaves  with  many  slender  thread- 
like divisions.  Large  umbel  of  yellow  flowers,  no  involucre 
and  no  involucels.  C.  sativum :  Low  aromatic  herb,  leaves  pin- 
nately  compound,  small  umbels  with  few  rays,  flowers  white. 

CORNACEJE. 

Dogwood  Family. 

Alangium  Lamarkii,  Thwaites.     (A.  decapetalum,  hexapetalum 
and  tomentosum,  Lam.) 

NOM.  VULG.— (?) 

USES. — According  to  Mooden  Sheriff,  the  root  bark  is  an 
efficient  emetic  in  doses  of  3  grams.  In  smaller  doses  it  is 
febrifuge  and  produces  nausea.  The  bark  is  extremely  bitter  ; 
its  reputation  in  the  treatment  of  skin  diseases  is  undeserved. 
It  is  a  good  substitute  for  ipecac,  having  given  good  results  in 
all  conditions  in  which  the  latter  is  indicated,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  dysentery. 

The  febrifuge  dose  is  0.35-0.60  gram  ;  alterative,  0.15-0.30 
gram. 

It  is  furthermore  prescribed  in  India  for  syphilis  and  leprosy 
and  is  one  of  the  many  remedies  used  for  the  bites  of  rabid  ani- 
mals. The  bruised  leaves  are  applied  to  the  joints  of  rheumatic 
patients. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  20-30  meters  high, 
leaves  alternate,  persistent,  petiolate,  no  stipules,  oblong,  den- 
tate, acuminate,  pinnately  nerved.  Flowers  whitish,  regular, 


ALANGIUM    LAMARKII  139 

hermaphrodite,  in  terminal  cymes.  Receptacle  concave.  Calyx 
short,  10-toothed.  Corolla,  10  narrow,  elongated  ribbon-like 
petals.  Stamens  30—40,  filaments  free  and  glabrous.  Ovary 
inferior,  held  in  the  concavity  of  the  receptacle,  one-celled, 
with  1  seed,  crowned  by  an  epigynous  disc,  above  which  rises 
a  simple  style  with  dilated  stigma.  Fruit  a  globose  drupe, 
crowned  by  the  calyx,  with  10  inconspicuous  ribs.  The  ptita- 
men  encloses  an  albuminous  kernel. 

HABITAT. — The  mountains  of  San  Mateo. 


DICOTYLEDONOUS,  GAMOPETALOUS. 


RUBIACEJE. 

Madder  Family. 

Hymenodictyon  excelsum,  Wall.    (H.  Horsfieldii,  Miq. ;  Ckln- 
chona  exeelsa,  Roxb. ;  E.costema  Ph'dipplcum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Huligaga,  Tag. 

USES. — The  bark  of  this  tree  has  a  wide  reputation  in  India 
as  a  tonic  and  febrifuge.  The  inner  layer  of  the  bark  possesses 
astringent  and  bitter  properties  much  like  quinine.  Ainslie 
states  that  it  is  used  in  India  to  tan  hides  and  therapeutically 
where  an  astringent  is  required.  O'Shaughnessy  experimented 
with  it  in  the  hospital  of  the  Medical  College  of  Calcutta  and 
reported  good  tonic  and  antipyretic  effects. 

In  1870,  according  to  Dymock,  Broughton  analyzed  the 
fresh  bark  and  reported  that  the  bitter  taste  was  due  to  esculin, 
which  after  drying  and  coming  in  contact  with  decomposing 
organic  matter  is  transformed  into  the  almost  tasteless  cM-n-lctin. 
Baylor  studied  the  bark  at  a  later  period,  and  attributed  the 
bitterness  to  an  alkaloid  that  he  named  hymenodictyonine.  This 
substance  exists  in  the  form  of  a  gelatinous  mass,  cream-col- 
ored, very  hygroscopic.  An  ethereal  solution,  carefully  evap- 
orated, deposits  it  in  the  form  of  crystals.  Its  empirical  form 
is  C23H401N"2 ;  it  is  probably  volatile  and  is  notable  for  its  lack 
of  oxygen.  It  differs  from  quinoidme  in  that  it  is  inactive  (?) 
and  that  in  combination  with  platinum  it  retains  less  of  this 
metal  than  does  quinoidine.  It  differs  from  parieine  in  its  pro- 
portion of  hydrogen,  and  from  berberine  in  containing  more  car- 
bon. In  the  presence  of  sulphuric  acid  its  solution  assumes 
a  yellow  color,  changing  to  wine- red  and  then  to  dark  red. 


OLDENLANDIA    CORYMBOSA  141 

Naylor  extracted  another  principle  which  he  found  combined 
with  the  alkaloid  in  a  soda  precipitate  of  the  latter ;  it  is  a 
product  of  the  decomposition  of  a  glucose,  the  formula  of  which 
is  C2_H49O7.  This  compound  remains  insoluble  when  the  alka- 
loid is  treated  with  ether.  Repeated  boiling  in  alcohol  renders 
it  colorless.  It  is  bitter,  soluble  in  alcohol  and  dilute  acids ; 
insoluble  in  ether  and  chloroform.  Reaction,  neutral. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  tree,  with  leaves  oppo- 
site, oval,  entire,  acute,  downy.  Petioles  long,  flat  above,  with 
2  stipules.  Flowers  axillary,  in  compound  verticillate  racemes. 
Calyx  adherent,  with  5  promptly  deciduous  teeth  which  leave 
a  scar  that  also  disappears.  Corolla  much  longer  than  the  calyx, 
funnel-form,  the  limb  5-cleft.  Stamens  5,  inserted  near  the 
middle  of  the  tube.  Filaments  rudimentary.  Anthers  2- 
celled.  Style  longer  than  the  corolla.  Stigma  globose.  Seed- 
vessel  rather  rough,  ovoid,  flattened,  of  2  compartments,  where 
are  inserted  numerous  seeds,  imbricated,  circular,  encircled  by 
an  entire  wing. 

HABITAT. — Angat  and  the  woods  of  San  Mateo.  Blooms 
in  August.  (P.  Blanco  states  further  that  this  tree  grows  to  a 
height  of  about  3  yards  in  Angat  and  that  it  exhales  a  strong 
odor  resembling  that  of  vinegar  at  times,  and  again  like  that  of 
tobacco.) 

Oldenlandia  corymbosa,  L.  (0.  biflora,  Lam.;  0.  raraosa, 
Roxb.;  0.  herbacea  and  scrabridcij  DC.;  O.  burmaniana,  Mig.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Doubtful. 

USES. — The  Sanscrit  writers  often  mention  this  plant  as  an 
important  remedy  for  the  fevers  due,  according  to  their  theo- 
ries, to  disordered  bile,  i.  e.,  remittent  fevers,  accompanied  by 
gastric  irritability  and  nervous  depression.  The  entire  plant  is 
used  to  make  a  decoction,  often  combined  with  aromatics. 
Dymock  observed  in  Goa  that  this  plant  could  be  gotten  in  all 
the  shops  of  the  herb-venders,  and  that  it  was  widely  used  as 


142         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

an  alterative  in  mild  fevers  in  combination  with  "Hydrocotyle 
Asiatica  and  Adiantum  lunulatum." 

In  Concan  they  apply  the  juice  to  the  hands  and  feet  in 
fevers,  giving  at  the  same  time  a  dose  of  one  "tola"  (6.80 
grams)  in  sweetened  water  or  milk.  This  juice  is  obtained  by 
soaking  the  bruised  plant  in  water.  In  remittent  fever  the 
decoction  is  also  used  as  a  liniment  for  the  whole  body.  It  is 
given  internally  for  skin  eruptions  due  to  excessive  heat,  espe- 
cially "  lichen  tropicus." 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION.  —  A  small  herb,  stem  straight,  about 
30  centimeters  high,  glabrous,  dichotomous.  Leaves  opposite, 
linear,  green,  lanceolate,  stipulate.  Flowers  small,  hermaph- 
rodite, axillary,  solitary,  or  in  pairs,  alternate  or  opposite. 
Calyx  gamosepalous  with  5  short  teeth.  Corolla  gamopetalous, 
funnel-shaped.  Stamens  5,  free,  inserted  in  the  tube  of  the 
corolla.  Ovary  inserted  in  the  hollow  of  the  receptacle,  2  many- 
ovuled  locules.  Style  simple,  ending  in  a  bifid  stigma.  Cap- 
sule rounded-oval,  membranous.  Seeds  numerous,  polyhedrons, 
albuminous,  surface  granular. 

HABITAT.  —  In  the  rice  fields. 


Randia  dumetorum,  Lam.     (R.  longispina,  DC.;  R. 

Blanco  ;  R.  stipulosa,  Miq.;  Gardenia  spinosa,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG.  —  Sinampaga,  Tag. 

USES.  —  The  fruit  is  used  in  some  parts  of  India  to  kill  the 
fish  in  ponds  and  sluggish  rivers,  the  same  use  to  which  they 
sometimes  put  the  "Cocculus  Indicus."  It  is  prescribed  as  an 
emetic  by  the  Sanscrit  and  Arabic  medical  authors  of  India. 
Mooden  Sheriff  ascribes  its  emetic  properties  to  the  pulp  alone, 
the  epicarp  and  seeds  being  inactive  according  to  his  authority. 
It  is  a  substitute  for  ipecac  even  in  the  treatment  of  dysentery 
in  which  case  the  decoction  of  the  trunk  bark  is  also  used. 

The  dried  and  powdered  pulp  is  given  in  dose  of  2.50  grams 
as  an  emetic  and  1-2  grams  as  an  antidysenteric.  To  prepare 


IXORA   COCCINEA  143 

the  fresh  fruit  for  administration  as  an  emetic,  mash  2—3,  mac- 
erate 15  minutes  in  150-200  grams  of  water  and  filter.  It 
acts  in  a  few  minutes  and  its  eifect  may  be  hastened  by  giving 
tepid  Avater  or  tickling  the  fauces. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  with  straight,  thorny 
stem,  leaves  sessile,  springing  from  the  buds,  occurring  in 
threes,  obtusely  lanceolate,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  solitary 
or  in  pairs,  very  fragrant.  Calyx  gamosepalous  with  10  tooth- 
lets.  Corolla  twisted,  arched,  cleft  in  the  middle,  throat  nude, 
limb  slashed  in  5  large  glabrous  parts.  Stamens  5.  Fila- 
ments short,  inserted  on  corolla.  Style  1.  Stigma  bifid. 
Fruit  inferior,  about  the  size  of  a  crab  apple,  crowned  by  the 
remains  of  the  calyx,  smooth,  yellow,  fleshy,  1-celled  with 
many  seeds. 

HABITAT. — On  the  coast  of  Luzon.     Blooms  in  May. 

Ixora  coccinea,  L.     (I.  bandhucaj  Koxb.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Santan,  Tag. 

USES. — The  handsome  red  flowers  are  used  in  decoction  for 
haemoptysis  and  catarrhal  bronchitis.  Both  root  and  flower 
are  astringent  and  are  given  for  dysentery.  In  Concan  they 
cook  2  "tolas77  (13.60  grams)  of  the  flowers  in  lard,  to- 
gether with  coriander  and  "  mesua  ferrea,"  add  a  little  candied 
sugar  and  divide  the  mass  into  large  pills  to  be  given  twice  a 
day. 

The  fresh  root  in  the  form  of  an  alcoholic  tincture  has  been 
recommended  by  Deb  for  dysentery,  the  dose  2-4  grams  in  an 
appropriate  potion.  The  tincture  of  the  fresh  plant  is  prepared 
by  macerating  126  grams  of  the  fresh  root  15  days  in  473 
grams  alcohol.  The  plant  has  been  used  in  intermittent  fevers 
and  various  skin  diseases. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  cultivated  in  all  gar- 
dens, 6-8°  high.  Leaves  oval,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  in 
terminal  umbels,  white,  pink  or  red.  Corolla  tubular  with 


144         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

limb  cleft  in   4  rounded   lobes.     The  plant  is  so  well  known 
that  further  description  would  be  superfluous. 

Coffea  Arabica,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. —  Cafe,  Sp.;  Coffee,  Eng. 

USES. — The  infusion  of  roasted  and  ground  coffee  seeds  con- 
stitutes a  beverage  of  Arabic  origin,  but  now  common  all  over 
the  world.  In  the  Philippines,  where  a  few  years  ago  the 
coffee  plant  was  only  cultivated  in  gardens,  the  harvest  has 
assumed  such  proportions  that  it  now  constitutes  one  of  the 
greatest  sources  of  agricultural  wealth.  Its  use  is  becoming 
more  general  every  day  and  the  discovery  of  its  alkaloid 
" caffeine"  the  therapeutical  use  of  which  is  also  steadily  in- 
creasing, has  given  new  importance  to  the  seed  on  account  of 
its  increasing  demand  in  the  drug  trade.  When  newly  har- 
vested its  taste  is  not  very  agreeable,  for  it  needs  considerable 
time — 2  or  3  years — in  which  to  dry  completely,  before  it  ac- 
quires the  aromatic  properties  and  the  savor  of  which  it  is  sus- 
ceptible. General  Morin  relates  an  incident  of  having  drunk 
a  delicious  infusion  of  coffee  made  from  authentic  Moka  that 
had  been  kept  for  fifty  years,  of  course  under  ideal  conditions 
of  preservation. 

In  civilized  countries  coffee  is  an  article  of  prime  necessity 
as  a  food ;  here  we  shall  consider  it  therapeutically  under  two 
heads,  as  a  tonic-stimulant  and  as  an  antiseptic.  As  caffeine  is 
the  principle  that  acts  upon  the  heart  we  shall  consider  the 
cardiac  properties  of  coffee  under  the  head  of  that  alkaloid,  so 
important  that  it  may  best  be  studied  separately. 

There  are  two  preparations  of  coffee,  the  decoction  used  by 
the  Arabs  and  the  infusion,  used  in  Europe  and  adopted  in  the 
Philippines.  The  decoction  forms  a  tonic  and  aromatic  drink 
devoid  of  any  excitant  properties,  but  the  infusion  is  highly 
excitant  and  should  not  be  taken  in  such  large  amounts  as  the 
decoction,  for  its  action  may  be  powerful  enough  to  cause  head- 


COFFEA    ARABICA  145 

ache,  nausea,  trembling  of  the  extremities  and  disorders  of 
vision  and  hearing.  These  phenomena  however  are  not  danger- 
ous and  rapidly  subside  as  soon  as  the  urine  eliminates  the  sub- 
stances that  cause  them. 

Infusion  of  coffee  stimulates  especially  the  cerebral  functions 
and  the  circulation  ;  as  to  its  digestive  properties,  opinion  is 
divided  but  it  is  more  probable  that  it  lacks  them  and  that 
coffee  taken  after  meals  owes  its  reputation  as  a  digestive  aid  to 
two  distinct  factors — the  temperature  and  the  sugar.  Without 
doubt  it  exerts  an  anaphrodisiac  action,  on  account  of  which 
the  illustrious  Linneus  called  it  the  "  drink  of  eunuchs." 
This  action  seems  incompatible  with  the  fact  that  the  Arabs, 
who  are  so  much  given  to  the  abuse  of  the  pleasures  forbidden 
to  eunuchs  are  most  addicted  to  the  use  and  abuse  of  coffee. 
The  explanation  rests  in  the  form  in  which  they  consume  their 
coffee,  namely  the  decoction,  which  is  free  from  the  sedative 
principle  of  the  seed,  that  undoubtedly  resides  in  the  aromatic 
ingredient  "cafeol." 

Coffee  is  contraindicated  in  hysterical  and  nervous  persons, 
in  children  and  in  those  who  suffer  with  insomnia  or  palpita- 
tion. It  counteracts  sleep  and  coma,  being  very  useful  in 
poisoning  by  opium  or  its  alkaloids.  Its  stimulant  action  is  as 
rapid  as  that  of  alcohol.  On  several  occasions  it  has  yielded 
me  marked  results  when  given  by  stomach  or  by  enema  in  cases 
of  nervous  and  cardiac  depression.  Indeed  it  is  a  remedy  that 
I  cannot  recommend  too  highly  and  each  day  leaves  me  more 
convinced  of  its  therapeutic  activity  and  certainty. 

Attention  has  only  lately  been  directed  to  the  antiseptic 
property  of  coffee  though  we  have  long  been  availing  ourselves 
of  that  property  without  knowing  it ;  this  is  true  of  many  other 
medicinal  agents,  indeed  of  all  that  the  modern  studies  of  bacteri- 
ology have  presented  to  us  asantifermentives  and  microbicides. 
Roasted  coffee  in  powder  form  gives  good  results  if  dusted  over 
ulcers  and  gangrenous  sores,  rapidly  improving  their  appear- 


146         THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

ance  and  destroying  the  foetid  odor.  It  corrects  the  unhygienic 
properties  of  non-potable  water  and  therefore  enters  into  the 
army  and  navy  ration  of  nearly  all  the  nations  of  Europe.  In 
epidemics  of  disease  every  physician  should  advise  its  use  in 
mild  infusion  as  a  regular  beverage. 

Dr.  Luderitz,  experimenting  in  the  Hygienic  Institute  of 
Berlin,  reported  that  no  bacteria  could  resist  the  action  of  coffee 
in  infusion.  He  attributed  this  action  not  only  to  the  tannin, 
which  is  present  in  high  percentage,  but  principally  to  the  em- 
pyreumatic  substances  formed  by  the  roasting.  The  caffeine 
takes  no  part  in  this  action.  Dr.  Luderitz  exposed  the  coffee 
to  the  open  air  for  six  days  and  found  it  free  from  bacteria  at 
the  end  of  that  time.  Whatever  may  be  the  explanation  of  its 
activity  the  fact  remains  that  coffee  is  highly  antiseptic,  and 
this  should  be  kept  in  mind  by  physicians  not  only  because  it 
is  everywhere  easily  obtained  and  an  infusion  easily  prepared, 
but  because  it  in  addition  possesses  the  great  advantage  of  being 
nontoxic. 

The  chemical  analysis  of  the  seed  is  as  follows  : 

Cellulose 34.000 

Water 12.000 

Fatty  matters 10  to  13.000 

Glucose, dextrin,  undetermined  acid.  15. 500 

Legumiu,  caffeine 10.000 

Chlorogenate  of  caffeine  and  potassa  3.500  to  5.000 

Albuminoids    3.000 

Caffeine,  free 800 

Essential  oil,  solid 001 

"  "     liquid 002 

Mineral  substances 6.697 

Caffeine,  the  only  one  of  the  ingredients  that  interests  us,  was 
discovered  by  Hunge  in  1821  and  recognized  as  an  alkaloid 


COFFEA    ARABICA  147 

by  Herzog.  It  also  exists  in  tea,  formerly  known  as  "  the- 
ine  "  which  is  now  known  to  be  identical  with  caffeine  ;  both 
are  expressed  by  the  formula  C8H10N2O2-fH2O.  It  crystal- 
lizes in  fine,  silky  needles,  is  colorless,  odorless  and  slightly 
bitter. 

It  is  considered  a  substitute  for  digitalis,  especially  valuable 
as  a  diuretic  and  where  cerebral  anemia  exists.  Germain  See 
values  it  as  a  preventive  medicine,  acting  principally  upon 
the  heart  and  thus  preventing  fatigue ;  with  this  end  in  view 
he  advises  its  use  before  long  marches,  violent  exercise  and  all 
conditions  where  the  heart  will  be  called  upon  to  do  a  greatly 
increased  amount  of  work.  Dose  0.25  gram  to  1  or  2  grams  a 
day  given  by  stomach  or  hypodermic  injection. 

Caffeine  is  also  useful  in  headache,  neuralgia,  and  asthma  and 
as  a  general  tonic.  For  the  latter  action  it  is  best  given  in  pill 
form,  0.02—0.04  gram  a  day,  with  the  extract  of  cinchona  or 
other  bitter  tonic. 

"  Etoxy-caffeine,"  which  is  caffeine  in  which  an  atom  of  H  has 
been  replaced  by  the  C9H5O,  exists  as  white,  needle-like  crys- 
tals, slightly  soluble  in  water  ;  it  is  narcotic  and  sedative  to 
the  cerebro-spinal  system.  In  doses  of  0.24  gram  it  is  useful 
in  headache. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — "  A  small  tree  that  reaches  a 
height  of  8-9°.  It  grows  readily  in  the  province  of  Batangas 
without  cultivation/7  Blanco. 

A  small  tree  or  shrub  with  leaves  opposite,  smooth,  glossy, 
rich  green,  oval,  edges  fluted.  Flowers  fragrant,  white,  grow- 
ing in  small  clusters  in  the  axils  of  the  leaves.  Calyx  4-5- 
toothed.  Corolla  short-tubed  with  4-5  spreading  lobes  of 
about  the  same  length.  Berry  red,  containing  two  plano-convex 
seeds  enveloped  in  arils. 

The  plant  is  widely  cultivated  in  gardens.  It  finds  ideal 
conditions  for  growth  in  some  of  the  hilly  and  mountainous 
regions  of  Luzon,  notably  in  Benguet  and  Batangas. 


148          THE    MEDICINAL,    PLANTS    OF    TLIE    PII I IA  PI'I  NKS 

Morinda  citrifolia,  L.;  variety :  bracteata,  Hoock,  Jr. 
(M.  ligulata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Bankundo,  Pankundo,  Baglturo,  Nino,  AW//, 
Tumbogaso,  Lino,  Mambog,  Takpus,  Tag.  and  Vis.;  Tal'uuitiu', 
Pam.;  Apalot,  Hoc.;  Indian  Mulberry,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — In  the  Philippines,  as  well  as  in  India,  the  root  of 
the  plant  is  widely  used  as  a  red  dye.  As  a  medicine  the 
Tarn ul  physicians  use  it  in  decoction  to  treat  diarrhoea  and  dys- 
entery. The  fruit  is  emmenagogue  and  perhaps  aperient.  In 
Bombay  the  mashed  leaves  are  applied  to  wounds  and  ulcers  to 
hasten  cicatrization  ;  they  also  use  the  decoction  internally  as  a 
febrifuge  and  tonic,  10  grams  to  500  of  water,  a  wineglassful 
twice  a  day. 

The  root  bark  contains  a  crystalline  substance  called  by 
Anderson  morind'm,  C9SH30Olr).  It  is  a  glucoside  and  exists  in 
the  form  of  yellow  needles,  soluble  in  alcohol  and  in  cold  water, 
insoluble  in  ether;  dissolves  in  alkalies  producing  an  orange- 
red  color. 

There  is  another  species,  M.  tinctona,  Roxb.;  M.  Eoyoc,  Blanco, 
called  in  Tagalog  Tumboug  aso  kapay,  the  roots  of  which  are 
used  by  the  Filipinos  for  the  same  purposes  as  the  leaves  of 
the  former  species  ;  the  dose,  8  grams  a  day.  The  powder  is  also 
applied  to  ulcers  and  sores,  especially  those  of  gangrenous  aspect. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree  11  or  more  feet 
high,  branches  opposite,  quadrate  at  the  extremities.  Leaves 
opposite,  oval,  oblong,  smooth,  entire,  glabrous.  Petioles  very 
short,  with  2  broad,  lanceolate  stipules  curved  outward. 
Flowers  white,  opposite  the  leaves,  fixed  on  globose,  solitary 
receptacles  from  which  spring  the  flowerets.  Calyx  proper, 
very  short,  monophyllous,  a  lanceolate  leaflet  springing  from  the 
border.  Corolla  tubular,  woolly  inside  about  the  middle,  with 
5  lobules.  Stamens  5,  inserted  on  the  walls  of  the  corolla. 
Anthers  thin,  incumbent.  Pistil  somewhat  longer  than  the 
corolla.  Stigma  cleft  in  2  laminae.  Fruit :  the  receptacle  of 


EUPATORIUM    AYAPANA  149 

the  flowerets  ripens  to  a  globe  bristling  with  the  remains  of  the 
calyces,  like  a  berry  covered  with  many  smaller  ones,  each  con- 
taining 2  monospermous,  quadrangular  seeds. 

M.  tinctoria,  Roxb.,  is  a  climbing  shrub  with  leaves  opposite, 
ovate,  keeled ;  petioles  very  short ;  flower  and  fruit  like  the 
foregoing  species. 

HABITAT. — In  Luzon  and,  especially  the  M.  tinetoria.,  in 
Malinta,  Calauan  and  Tanauan. 

Paederia  fcetida,  L.     (P.  sessiflom,  DC.) 

NOM.  VULG. — K<nitut<iHj  K(Ditutcc,Tag.;  LUitan,  Tce-tce,  Vis. 

USES. — The  foetid  odor  of  this  plant  has  suggested  both  the 
technical  and  common  names  for  it.  The  natives  regard  it  as 
a  cure  for  rheumatism.  The  root  is  emetic.  The  leaves, 
boiled  and  mashed,  are  applied  to  the  abdomen  in  retention  of 
urine ;  the  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  for  the  same  purpose 
and  also  has  some  reputation  as  a  solvent  for  vesical  calculus. 
For  fever,  cloths  soaked  in  the  decoction  are  applied  to  the  head, 
the  same  preparation  being  given  internally  at  the  same  time. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  slender,  twining  plant  with 
leaves  3'  by  lr,  opposite,  oval,  acute,  entire,  long  petioles  and 
caducous  stipules.  Flowers  dark  rose  color,  in  compound  axil- 
lary and  terminal  cymes.  Calyx  of  5  persistent  lobules.  Corolla 
tubular,  pubescent,  5  lobules.  Stamens  5,  free.  Ovary  inferior, 
flattened,  2  uniovulate  locules.  Style  with  2  stigma-bearing 
branches. 

HABITAT. — Luzon,  Mindanao,  Cebu,  Panay. 

COMPOSITES. 

Eupatorium  Ayapana,  Vent. 

NOM.  VULG. — Aya-pana,  Sp.;  Ayapana,  Apana,  Tag.; 
Ayapan,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — A  native  plant  of  Brazil  now  naturalized  and  well 
known  in  the  Philippines  and  many  other  tropical  countries  ; 


150        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

it  is  called  by  its  Brazilian  name,  Aya-pana,  more  or  less  modi- 
fied. The  entire  plant  is  aromatic  and  its  infusion  has  an  agree- 
able, bitter  taste.  Its  virtues  have  been  much  exaggerated,  but 
it  is  certainly  a  good  stimulant,  diaphoretic  and  tonic.  An  in- 
fusion, 30  grams  of  the  leaves  to  1  liter  of  water,  is  given  in  dys- 
pepsia, a  small  cup  after  each  meal.  In  the  island  of  Mauri- 
tius this  infusion  was  widely  used  as  a  stimulant  and  aromatic 
in  the  cholera  epidemics  of  1854  and  1856. 

It  is  used  internally  and  locally  for  the  bites  of  venomous 
snakes  and  insects.  The  leaf-juice  is  a  good  application  for 
foul  ulcers,  as  is  also  the  decoction  of  the  entire  plant.  "  It 
appears  probable  that  this  plant  has  fallen  into  unmerited 
neglect." — Pharm.  of  India. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — An  aromatic  plant  3°  high, 
leaves  opposite,  sessile,  coherent  at  the  base,  lanceolate,  entire, 
glabrous.  Flowers  in  racemose  panicles.  Common  calyx 
cylindrical,  of  many  imbricated,  awl-shaped  scales,  the  lower 
ones  smaller ;  within  are  20  or  more  hermaphrodite  disk-flow- 
ers. Corollas  are  funnel-form,  5-lobed.  Style  a  little  longer 
than  the  stamens.  Stigmas  2,  long.  Seed  1,  quadrangular, 
with  simple,  downy,  sessile  pappus.  Receptacle  nude. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  fields  and  gardens.  Blooms  in  Jan- 
uary. 

Blumea  balsamifera,  DC.    (Conyza  balsamifem,  L.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Sambon,  Tag.;  Lakbandulan,  Hamlibon, 
Lalakdan,  Lakadbulan,  Gintingintin,  Gctbuen,  Ayoban,  Alibitn, 
Vis.;  Sobsob,  Hoc. 

USES. — Sambon  is  a  panacea  among  the  Filipinos ;  its  virtues 
are  prodigious  according  to  the  ignorant  natives  who  wear  the 
leaves  in  the  hat  or  the  "salakod"  (rain  hat),  to  prevent 
"tabardillo"  ("burning  fever";  tabardillo  pintado  =  spotted 
fever).  They  use  the  decoction  to  bathe  convalescents,  and 
for  rheumatism  they  vaporize  it  in  an  improvised  bath-cabinet 


SPHOEEAN-THUS    INDICUS  151 

consisting  of  a  chair  in  which  the  patient  sits  enveloped  in 
blankets  that  reach  to  the  floor  and  retain  the  steam. 

The  hot  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  a  good  diaphoretic  taken  by 
the  mouth,  especially  useful  in  catarrhal  bronchitis,  and  prized 
as  an  expectorant  by  the  Chinese  and  Javanese.  "Furthermore 
it  is  stomachic,  antispasmodic  and  emmenagogue. 

The  camphorous  odor  of  the  plant  suggested  to  me  its  appli- 
cation as  an  antiseptic  lotion  for  varicose  ulcers  and  my  results 
have  been  very  satisfactory.  The  infusion  for  internal  use  is 
30  grams  to  the  liter  of  water. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  woody  plant  6-9°  high. 
Leaves  1°  long,  3'  wide,  oblong,  lanceolate,  acutely  serrate, 
rugose,  soft,  downy,  whitish.  Flowers  yellow  in  panicles. 
Involucre  conical,  of  many  linear  scales,  enclosing  15  or  more 
hermaphrodite  disk-flowers  and  several  pistillate  ray-flowers. 
Hermaphrodite :  corolla  infundibuliform,  5-toothed.  Pistil- 
late :  corolla  very  minute,  infundibuliform,  obscurely  4-toothed. 
One  seed  crowned  with  a  simple  hairy  pappus. 

HABITAT. — Grows  universally  in  the  islands  and  is  well 
known.  Blooms  in  January. 

Sphceranthus  Indicus,  L.     (8.  hirtw,  Willd.; 
8.  mottis,  Roxb.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Sambog-gala,  Tag. 

USES. — This  plant  seems  to  possess  anthelmintic  properties 
and  for  this  purpose  it  is  administered  in  powder,  2—4  grams 
with  a  little  molasses  or  syrup.  It  is  bitter  and  aromatic  and 
is  given  in  diseases  of  the  stomach  and  intestines  for  its  tonic 
and  stimulant  effect.  The  odor  of  the  drug  is  transmitted  to 
both  urine  and  sweat.  In  India  it  is  used  in  "bilious  dis- 
eases" and  to  dissipate  all  sorts  of  tumors.  The  Hindoos  cook 
it  with  flour,  lard  and  sugar  and  eat  the  mixture  as  a  tonic  and 
to  prevent  gray  hair  and  baldness.  They  also  give  the  seed, 
fried  in  oil,  as  an  aphrodisiac.  The  aqueous  distillate  is  a 


152          THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

good  preparation  as  it  contains  the  active  principle  of  the  plant, 
a  yellow,  viscid,  essential  oil. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  about  1°  high,  stem 
and  branches  bearing  3  serrate  wings.  Leaves  premorse,  lan- 
ceolate, decurrent,  downy.  Flowers  white,  in  a  globose  head, 
divided  into  50  or  more  groups  each  with  its  own  calyx  of  9  or 
10  leaflets  surrounding  2  or  3  hermaphrodite,  5-toothed,  cam- 
panulate  flowers.  Anthers  5,  united.  Style  1,  thick  at  ex- 
tremity. Stigma  none.  Corolla  of  pistillate  flowers  very 
minute,  with  3  obscure  teeth.  Stigma  of  2  down-curved  divi- 
sions. One  seed,  4-angled,  imbricated. 

HABITAT. — The  rice  fields.     Blooms  in  January. 

Spilanthes  Acmella,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Hagonog,  Tag. ;  Agonoy,  Sp.-Fil.,  Vis.  (?)  ; 
Palunay,  Pam. 

USES. — Some  native  herb-doctors  use  the  root  as  a  purgative, 
giving  a  decoction  of  4-8  grams  to  a  cup  of  water.  The  infu- 
sion is  used  locally  for  itch  and  psoriasis.  Internally  it  has  a 
diuretic  effect  and  is  reputed  to  be  a  solvent  of  vesical  calculi. 
The  leaf  juice  and  the  bruised  leaves  are  applied  to  wounds  and 
atonic  ulcers.  These  leaves  with  those  of  "  sambon "  and 
"sampaloc"  (tamarind)  are  used  to  prepare  aromatic  baths  for 
convalescents,  rheumatics  and  pregnant  women. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  with  stem  drooping, 
square,  grooved,  covered  with  drops  of  gum  resin.  Leaves 
opposite,  cordate,  oval,  lanceolate,  serrate,  3  prominent  nerves 
covered  with  short  down.  Petioles  short,  grooved.  Flowers 
yellow,  in  a  sort  of  umbel,  with  3  or  more  flowerets  on  long 
peduncles.  Common  calyx,  9—11  narrow  sepals,  concave,  fleshy, 
in  2  rows.  Hermaphrodite  disk-flowers  40  or  more.  Corolla 
tubular,  5-toothed.  Anthers  longer  than  corolla.  Pistil  longer 
than  stamens.  Style  bifid.  Pistillate  flowers,  15  or  more,  form- 
ing the  rays.  Corolla  monopetalous,  3-toothed.  Style  and 


ARTEMISIA   VULGARIS  153 

stigma  as  in  hermaphrodite  flowers.  Seeds  of  hermaphrodite 
flowers  quadrangular,  crowned  by  one  long  awn,  and  the  rudi- 
ment of  another.  Seeds  of  ray  flowers  small  and  sometimes 
flattened,  2  awns,  of  which  one  alone  lengthens  and  becomes 
conspicuous.  Receptacle  covered  with  concave  scales. 

HABITAT. — Grows  along  the  shores  of  the  sea  and  of  rivers. 
It  is  very  well  known. 

Artemisia  vulgaris,  L.     (A.  Indica,  Willd.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Ka-Maria,  Santa  Maria,  Tinisas,  Tag. ;  In- 
dian Wormwood,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  native  women  use  the  infusion  of  its  aromatic 
leaves  to  induce  menstruation.  It  is  also  used  as  an  abortifa- 
cient,  but  is  too  mild  a  uterine  stimulant  to  be  reliable  for  that 
purpose.  Its  stomachic  and  tonic  properties  are  common 
knowledge  in  the  Philippines.  The  Hindoos  use  it  for  those 
effects  and  as  an  antispasmodic  in  amenorrhoea  and  hysteria. 
Dr.  Wight  states  that  the  leaves  and  tops  are  useful  in  nervous 
troubles  resulting  from  debility  and  that  a  decoction  of  them 
makes  a  good  fomentation  for  phagedenic  ulcers. 

The  infusion  is  prepared  in  the  proportion  of  10-30  grams 
of  leaves  to  1  liter  of  water  and  the  powdered  leaves  are  given 
in  doses  of  4-8  grams  ;  the  aqueous  extract  30-40  grams  a  day. 
For  amenorrhoea  the  drug  is  given  daily  for  a  week  preceding 
the  menstrual  date. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  3°  high,  stem  straight, 
woody,  square  toward  ends  of  branches.  Leaves  alternate, 
tomentose,  decurrent,  divided  in  several  places,  medium  lanceo- 
late. Flowers  straw-colored,  in  axillary  and  terminal,  1 -ranked 
spikes.  Common  calyx  cylindrical,  2  circles  of  oval,  scarious 
leaflets  around  its  border,  11  hermaphrodite  disk-flowers  and 
about  5  pistillate  ray-flowers.  Hermaphrodite  :  Corolla  bell- 
shaped,  5  obtuse  teeth ;  stigmas  2,  bent  to  the  sides.  Pistil- 
late :  Corolla  diminutive,  5  toothlets  ;  anther  none  ;  stigmas  2. 
13 


154          THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Seeds  of  both  small  and  quadrate,  smaller  in  the  latter.     Re- 
ceptacle nude. 

HABITAT. — Grows  throughout  the  islands  and  is  well 
known. 

Carthamus  tinctorius,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Azafrdn  de  la  tierra,  Sp.;  Bin,  J\ftsubha, 
-Katsumba,  Lago,  Tag.;  Kasabba,  Vis.;  Kaxubha,  Kagtumbd) 
Pam.;  Bastard  Saffron,  Dyer's  Safflower,  Eng. 

USES. — This  plant  must  not  be  confounded  with  Curcuma 
longa,  L.,  whose  tuber  is  also  frequently  called  saffron  (azafrnn), 
and  is  used  to  color  food. 

The  flower  is  the  part  employed  as  a  condiment  coloring  the 
food  yellow.  Some  use  them  internally  in  doses  of  4  grams  to 
cure  icterus.  The  leaves  coagulate  milk.  The  seeds  are  pur- 
gative in  dose  of  8-16  grams,  bruised  and  taken  in  emulsion, 
or  15-30  grams  in  decoction. 

The  following  is  the  chemical  analysis  of  the  plant  : 

Yellow  coloring  matter,  soluble 26.1-36.0 

Carthamic  acid 0.3-  0.6 

Extractive  matter 3,6-  6.5 

Albumin 1.5-  8.0 

Wax 0.6-  1.5 

Cellulose,  pectin 38.4-56.0 

Silica 1 .0-  8.4 

Oxide  of  iron,  aluminum,  oxide  of  manga- 
nese     0.4-  4.6 

(Salve  tat.) 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  3°  high,  root  gray  and 
spindle-shaped.  Stem  straight,  few  branches.  Leaves  scat- 
tered, sessile,  partially  embracing  the  stem,  lanceolate,  serrate 
with  hooked  teeth.  Flowers  yellow,  terminal  in  a  sort  of 
corymb.  Common  calyx  semiglobose,  with  imbricated  scales, 
the  border  often  bearing  thorns  ;  numerous  hermaphrodite  disk 


PLUMBAGO    ZEYLANICA  155 

flowers,  with  'corolla  very  long,  funnel-form,  5-toothed. 
Style  longer  than  the  stamens.  Stigma  bifid.  Seed  large, 
lacking  pappus. 

HABITAT. — Cultivated  in  the  gardens. 

PLUMB  AGINE^I. 

Leadwort  Family. 
Plumbago  Zeylanica,  L.     (P.  viscosa,  Blanco.) 

NOM.    VULG. — Sagdikit,    Tag.;    Bagbag,    Talankaw,    Hoc.; 
White-flowered  Leadwort,  Eng. 

USES. — The  root  is  vesicant  and  is  used  by  the  natives  for 
this  purpose.  (P.  rosea,  L.,  common  in  India,  is  more  power- 
ful. The  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  states  that  both  species  are 
worthy  of  further  investigation.)  According  to  the  Sanscrit 
authors  it  increases  the  appetite  and  is  useful  in  dyspepsia, 
piles,  dropsy,  diarrhoea  and  skin  diseases.  The  Filipinos  use 
the  infusion  locally  for  itch  with  good  results.  A  favorite 
medicine  of  the  Hindoos  for  flatulence  is  the  old  recipe  of 
Susrutas,  composed  of  equal  parts  of  the  following  substances 
in  powder  : 

Leadwort  root,  root  of  Clssampelos  Pareira,  Picrorrhiza  kur- 
roa,1  Aconitwn  heterophyllum,1  and  Terminalia  Chebula  in  dose 
of  4  grams  a  day. 

Dr.  Oswald  has  employed  the  alcoholic  tincture  of  lead  wort 
in  the  intermittents,  with  satisfactory  results,  and  claims  that 
it  is  a  powerful  diaphoretic.2  The  mashed  root  is  mixed  with 
rice  flour  and  made  into  a  caustic  paste  to  apply  to  buboes, 
destroy  warts,  etc.  Women  also  use  the  scraped  root  to  induce 
abortion,  introducing  it  through  the  vagina  into  the  os  uteri. 
This  practice  should  be  strongly  condemned  on  account  of  its 
dangerous  consequences — metritis,  peritonitis  and  often  death. 

1  Do  not  grow  in  the  Philippines. 

2  Waring,  loc.  cit,  p.  170. 


156          THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

The  chemical  composition  of  the  root  has  been  studied  by 
Dulong.1  It  includes  a  non-nitrogenous  principle,  plumbagin, 
existing  in  the  form  of  orange-yellow  needles,  bitter,  acrid, 
volatile,  neutral,  slightly  soluble  in  cold  water,  more  soluble  in 
ether,  alcohol  and  hot  water.  The  aqueous  solution  becomes 
cherry-red  on  the  addition  of  an  alkali,  which  color  is  changed 
to  yellow  by  acids.  Basic  acetate  of  lead  causes  the  same  color 
change. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Plant  with  stem  declined,  angu- 
lar. Leaves  lanceolate,  entire,  rather  downy.  Petioles  at  their 
base  embrace  the  stem.  Flowers  white,  in  axillary  spikes. 
Individual  involucres,  3  oval  leaflets,  the  lower  larger.  Calyx 
long,  cleft  almost  to  the  base  in  5  lineal  parts  thickly  set  with 
small  glands,  exuding  a  sticky  gum.  Corolla  salver-shaped, 
the  tube  long,  square,  throat  bare,  limb  divided  into  5  obovate 
parts,  ending  in  stylets.  Stamens  5,  inserted  near  the  base  of 
the  corolla,  almost  as  long  as  the  tube.  Style  a  little  shorter 
than  the  stamens.  Stigma,  5  parts.  One  long  seed  enclosed 
within  the  calyx,  pentangular,  covered  with  a  membranaceous 
skin. 

HABITAT. — In  Tanauan  (Batangas). 

SAPOTACEJE. 

Sapodilla  Family. 
Achras  Sapota,  L. 

NOM.  VULG.— Chico,  Sp.-Fil.;   Tsiku,  Tag. 

TJ(SES. — The  chico  is  one  of  the  popular  fruits  of  the  Philip- 
pines, much  appreciated  by  Europeans  as  well  as  the  natives. 
When  not  entirely  ripe  it  yields  a  resinous  juice  that  sticks  to 
the  lips  and  affords  a  disagreeable  taste  ;  but  when  once  thor- 
oughly ripe  it  has  a  slightly  vinous,  sweetish  taste  and  is  easily 
digested.  Therapeutically  its  seeds  are  used  as  a  diuretic,  but 
'Journal  de  Pharmacie,  Vol.  XIV.,  p.  441. 


MIMUSOPS    ELENGI  157 

large  doses  should  be  avoided  as  they  contain  a  small  propor- 
tion of  hydrocyanic  acid.  The  proper  dose  is  5—6  mashed 
seeds  in  sweetened  water.  They  contain,  in  addition  to  the 
above,  a  fatty  substance  of  the  consistency  of  butter. 

The  trunk  bark  is  tonic  and  febrifuge  ;  Mr.  Bernon l  has 
isolated  from  it  a  crystalline  alkaloid,  sapotine,  soluble  in  ether, 
chloroform  or  alcohol,  but  not  in  water  ;  a  large  per  cent,  of 
sapotanic  acid  and  two  resins. 

The  trunk  exudes,  when  incised,  a  milky  resin,  closely  re- 
sembling guttapercha  and  possibly  susceptible  of  the  same  uses. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Trees,  about  11°  high,  with 
leaves  lanceolate,  keeled,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  pure 
white,  solitary  or  by  twos,  terminal,  very  long  peduncles. 
Calyx,  6  sepals,  3  within  the  others,  inferior  persistent.  Cor- 
olla jug-shaped,  the  border  divided  into  12  parts,  the  6  smaller 
ones  alternating  and  within  the  others.  Stamens  6,  inserted 
near  the  border  of  the  inner  petals  and  opposite  the  outer 
circle.  Filaments  very  short.  Style  long.  Stigma  obtuse,  fruit 
globose,  resembling  a  small  pear,  russet  brown,  crowned  with 
the  hardened  style,  more  than  10  compartments,  each  contain- 
ing a  seed.  Seed  oval,  flattened,  joined  to  a  central  fleshy  axis. 

HABITAT. — Common  all  over  the  Archipelago.  Blooms  in 
April. 

Mimusops  Elengi,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Kabikly  Tag. 

USES. — Its  flowers  are  fragrant  and  generally  well  known. 
The  trunk  bark  is  astringent,  and  in  decoction  is  given  by 
mouth  for  fevers  and  diarrhoea.  Locally  is  used  as  an  injection 
for  blenorrhoea,  as  a  gargle  for  sore  throat  or  relaxed  uvula,  and 
a  mouth  wash  to  harden  the  gums.  Horsfield  states  that  the 
Javanese  use  it  as  a  tonic  and  antiperiodic.  In  India  an 
aqueous  distillate  is  employed  as  a  perfume  and  therapeutically 
as  a  stimulant.  In  Concan  they  chew  the  green  fruit  for  tooth- 
'L'  Union  Pharm.,  Vol.  XXIIL,  p.  291. 


158          THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

ache  and  to  harden  relaxed  gums.  The  decoction  of  the  green 
fruit  serves  the  same  purpose  and  besides  is  used  to  wash 
wounds  and  ulcers. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  large  ornamental  tree  with 
leaves  alternate,  oblong,  coriaceous,  green.  Flowers  small, 
straw-colored,  star-shaped,  very  fragrant.  Calyx,  8  sepals. 
Corolla  gamopetalous,  16  oblong,  lanceolate  divisions.  Stamens 
8,  free,  short,  alternating  with  8  petaloid,  conical,  pubescent 
staminodia.  Ovary  free,  many  ovules.  Fruit  fleshy,  oval, 
smooth,  yellow  when  ripe,  with  one  or  several  locules  accord- 
ing to  the  number  of  matured  seeds.  Seeds  solitary,  oblong, 
flattened. 

HABITAT. — Cultivated  in  the  gardens. 

OLEACE^l. 

Olive  Family. 
Jasminum  Sambac,  Aiton.     (Nychtnthes  Sambac,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Sampaga,  Tag.;  Sampaguitas,  Sp.-Fil.;  Ara- 
bian Jasmin,  Eng. 

USES. — The  flower  is  the  most  popular  and  beloved  of  any 
in  the  Philippines  (and  is  commonly  referred  to  as  the  national 
flower).  In  decoction  it  is  used  as  an  eye-wash  in  catarrhal 
conjunctivitis.  In  India  the  flowers  and  the  leaves  have  a 
merited  reputation  as  a  lactifuge ;  2  handfuls  of  flowers  bruised 
and  applied  without  moistening,  once  or  twice  a  day,  sometimes 
checks  the  secretion  of  the  milk  within  24  hours,  but  generally 
2  or  3  days  are  required  for  a  complete  effect. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Stems  scarcely  climbing,  flat- 
tened, pubescent.  Leaves  opposite,  cordate  base,  lanceolate- 
ovate,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  in  small,  close  clusters,  white, 
fragrant.  Calyx-teeth  8-9,  long  and  awl-shaped.  Corolla, 
long  tube,  7-8  rounded  lobes.  Stamens  2.  Style  1 .  Stigma 
cleft  in  2  laminae. 


THEVETIA     NERIFOLIA  159 

APOCYNACE^. 

Dogbane  Family. 
Allamanda  cathartica,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Not  known. 

USES. — As  this  plant  has  no  common  name  in  the  Philip- 
pines it  is  most  probable  that  the  natives  do  not  use  it.  The 
Portuguese  introduced  it  into  India  from  Brazil.  A  decoction 
of  the  leaves  is  purgative  and  is  used  in  lead  colic.  The  milky 
juice  of  the  plant  is  emetic  and  cathartic  in  large  doses,  but 
simply  laxative  when  given  in  doses  of  8  or  10  drops.  On  ac- 
count of  its  possible  violent  cathartic  action  great  prudence 
should  be  exercised  in  prescribing  it. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  twining  shrub  with  leaves  in 
fours,  bright  green,  oblong,  covered  with  rough  hairs.  Flow- 
ers in  compound  spikes,  yellow.  Calyx  5-toothed.  Corolla  5- 
lobed,  funnel-form.  Stamens  5,  inserted  in  throat  of  corolla, 
which  above  them  is  closed  by  a  crown  of  hairs.  Ovary  1- 
celled  with  2  many-ovuled  placentae.  Style  cylindrical,  termi- 
nating in  a  bilobulate  cone.  Capsule  globular,  about  the  size 
of  a  pea,  black,  coriaceous,  thorny,  bivalvate.  Seeds  numer- 
ous, each  encircled  by  a  broad  membranous  wing. 

HABITAT. — In  Calauang  and  other  parts  of  Luzon  and 
Pa  nay. 

Thevetia  nerifolia,  Suss.     (Cerbera  Thevetia,  L.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Campanelo,  Sp.-Fil.;  Exile  or  Yellow  Olean- 
der, Eng. 

USES. — This  shrub  is  very  common  in  gardens,  well  known 
by  its  pretty  yellow,  bell-shaped  flowers.  The  trunk  bark 
possesses  antiperiodic  properties  first  described  by  Descourtilz 
and  confirmed  later  by  Dr.  G.  Bidie  and  Dr.  J.  Short.  Both 
the  latter  used  the  tincture  in  10-15-drop  doses  3  times  a 


160         THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

day.  This  tincture  was  prepared  by  macerating  for  one  week 
in  150  grams  of  alcohol  30  grams  of  fresh  bark  finely  divided. 
This  preparation  operates  as  an  emetic  and  purgative  in  doses 
of  30-60  drops.  -It  is  evident  that  the  plant  possesses  very 
active,  even  poisonous  properties  and  should  be  employed  with 
great  caution.  The  decoction  of  the  bark  is  given  as  an  emetic 
and  cathartic,  but  very  imprudently  because  there  is  no  means 
of  determining  the  quantity  of  active  principle,  shown  by 
chemical  analysis  to  be  a  dangerous  product. 

The  fruit  is  very  bitter  and  acrid.  The  seeds  yield  by  ex- 
pression 35  to  41%  oil  (De  Yry)  and  57%  when  treated  with 
benzol.  It  has  an  agreeable  odor  resembling  that  of  sweet 
almonds,  its  density  is  0.9148  at  25°  and  it  is  perfectly  clear 
and  transparent  at  that  temperature.  At  15°  it  thickens  and 
at  13°  solidifies.  According  to  Oudemans  it  consists  of  63% 
triolein  and  37  %  tripalmin  and  tristearin  ;  it  is  not  poisonous. 
After  expression  De  Vry  obtained  from  the  caked  residue  4% 
of  a  crystalline  glucoside  called  by  him  t/icvetm.  Bias,  of  the 
Academy  of  Medicine  of  Belgium,  studied  it  later  and  de- 
scribed it  as  a  white  powder  of  small  colorless  scales,  odorless, 
very  bitter,  soluble  at  14°  in  122  parts  of  water,  in  alcohol,  in 
crystallizable  acetic  acid,  insoluble  in  ether ;  formula  C54H34O24. 
Concentrated  sulphuric  acid  dissolves  it,  producing  a  dark  red 
color  that  changes  to  cherry  red  and  then  after  several  hours  to 
violet.  The  color  disappears  if  water  be  added.  Boiled  in  acid 
solution  the  glucoside  changes  to  a '  new  substance,  thev&resin 
(C48H70O17),  white,  amorphous,  slightly  soluble  in  boiling  water 
and  in  alcohol,  insoluble  in  benzine  or  chloroform,  soluble  in 
alkalies,  very  bitter.  Both  substances  are  energetic  narcotic 
poisons ;  but  the  plant  contains  another  even  more  powerful 
poison  isolated  by  Warden,  of  Calcutta;  it  docs  not  form  crys- 
tals, it  is  very  bitter,  freely  soluble  in  water,  and  is  turned 
yellow  by  sulphuric  and  nitric  acids. 

Thevetin  and  theveresin  exercise  a  marked  toxic  effect  on  the 


CERBERA    ODALLAM  161 

heart.  The  former  induces  emetic  and  cathartic  phenomena, 
trembling  and  progressive  weakness.  The  latter  does  not  cause 
vomiting  or  diarrhoea,  but  anaesthesia  and  rigidity  of  the  limbs. 
Both  poisons  arrest  the  heart  in  systole.  Injected  hypoderm- 
ically  they  are  irritant,  are  eliminated  by  the  liver,  but  are  not 
found  in  the  urine. 

BOTANIC  AT,  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub,  about  10°  high,  with 
leaves  nearly  sessile,  somewhat  bunched  at  the  ends  of  the 
branches  and  overlapping,  lanceolate,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers 
about  2'  long.  Calyx  5-toothed.  Corolla  straw-colored,  cylin- 
drical, very  narrow  below,  but  the  limb  very  large,  spreading 
into  5  lobes  with  greenish,  superimposed  borders.  Stamens  5, 
inserted  in  the  throat,  anthers  lanceolate.  Ovaries  2,  united  at 
base,  free  above,  unilocular.  Style  simple,  enlarging  at  the 
base  in  a  bilobed  stigma.  Fruit  a  fleshy  drupe  resembling 
somewhat  a  small  apple,  the  pit  very  hard,  semilunar,  flattened, 
with  4  compartments  and  as  many  solitary  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  gardens  and  on  the  seashore. 

Cerbera  Odallam,  Gaertn.     (G.  manglms,  Bl.  &  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Toktok-kalo,  Tag. 

USES. — The  milky  juice  of  the  plant  is  emetic  and  purgative. 
The  chemist  De  Vry  has  isolated  from  it  a  poisonous  alkaloid 
analogous  to  "  thevetin,"  which  has  just  been  considered.  The 
seeds  are  likewise  emetic  and  toxic.  The  Javanese  call  the 
fruit  "  bimaro  "  and  affirm  that  it  possesses  the  same  properties 
as  "  datura."  The  bruised  leaves  are  used  locally  for  hepatic 
eruptions ;  the  bark  is  used  for  the  same  purpose  and  is  pur- 
gative. 

The  use  of  the  plant  is  dangerous  and  is  condemned  by  the 
Pharmacopoeia  of  India. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  shrub  with  forked 
branches.  Leaves  (overlapping)  at  ends  of  branches,  lanceo- 
late, entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  in  umbellate  spikes.  Calyx,  5 
14 


162          THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

caducous  lobules.  Corolla  white,  twisted,  cylindrical,  with 
salver-shaped  limb  divided  in  5  rhomboid  lobes,  throat  stellate 
and  woolly.  Stamens  5.  Filaments  joined  to  the  corolla,  their 
ends  thickened.  Anthers  arrow-shaped.  Ovary,  2  uniovulate 
locules.  Style,  same  length  as  stamens.  Stigma  thick,  conical, 
lobulate.  Two  drupes  joined  at  the  base  (one  usually  aborted), 
brown,  large,  oval,  fleshy,  with  woody  fibrous  nut  of  a  single 
flattened  seed. 

HABITAT. — Luzon.     Blooms  in  July. 

Plumeria  acutifolia,  Poir.     (P.  alba,  Blanco.) 
NOM.  YULG. — Calachuche,  Sp.-FiL;  Kalatsutei,  Kalasusi,  Tag. 
USES. — This  tree,  beloved  for  its  fragrant  flowers,  has  a  wide 
therapeutic  use  in   India  and  the  Philippines.     The  bark  is  a 
bitter  hydragogue  cathartic  and  is  given  in  decoction  (5-10 
grams  to  200  water)  principally  for  dropsy  ;  however  the  milky 
juice  of  the  trunk  is  preferable  for  this  purpose,  given  in  emul- 
sion in  doses  of  0.50-0.80  grams.     The  bark  and  the  tips  of 
the  branches  are  given  as  an  emmenagogue. 

The  bark  of  the  root  and  of  the  trunk  is  an  excellent  remedy 
for  blenorrhagia.  The  fresh  bark  is  thoroughly  comminuted 
and  mixed  with  sweetened  water  in  the  proportion  of  60  grams 
to  4  liters  ;  this  mixture  is  put  in  the  sun  for  4  days,  and 
shaken  from  time  to  time.  It  is  then  strained  and  given  in 
doses  of  4-5  glassfuls  a  day,  at  the  same  time  with  refresh- 
ing and  emollient  drinks,  and  prolonged  tepid  baths.  At  first 
this  preparation  exerts  a  purgative  action,  but  later  acts  upon 
the  urinary  organs,  rapidly  lessening  the  suppurative  process  in 
urethritis.  The  bark  may  also  be  associated  with  wine  or  beer, 
in  the  proportion  of  30  grams  to  the  liter,  the  dose  being  2-4 
small  cupfuls  a  day  and  Dr.  Grosourdy  employs  the  extract  of 
the  bark  in  doses  aggregating  0.20-0.25  gram  a  day,  gradu- 
ally increased  till  at  the  end  of  a  week  6  grams  are  taken  daily 
(Dr.  J.  Amadeo). 


ALSTONIA    SCHOLARIS  163 

The  bruised  leaves  are  applied  locally  to  contusions  to  re- 
duce the  swelling.  The  juice  is  used  externally  as  a  rubefa- 
cient  in  rheumatic  affections  of  the  joints.  In  Concan  they 
use  a  decoction  of  the  root  for  diarrhea.  The  flower  buds  are 
chewed  with  buyo,  for  intermittent  fever  and  the  juice  is  ap- 
plied locally  for  itch. 

Peckolt  and  Geuther  isolated  from  the  bark  the  glucoside, 
agoniadin  (C10HUO6),  which  crystallizes  in  silky  crystals  fusible 
at  155°,  slightly  soluble  in  water,  alcohol,  bisulphuret  of  car- 
bon, ether  and  benzine  ;  soluble  in  nitric  or  sulphuric  acids. 
In  solution  it  is  a  golden  yellow  soon  changing  to  green. 
Boiled  in  a  dilute  acid  it  splits  into  glucose  and  an  undeter- 
mined substance.  Oudeman  obtained  plumieric  acid  (C10H10O5) 
from  the  milky  juice  deprived  of  its  resin  ;  the  acid  exists  as 
microscopic,  needle-like  crystals,  soluble  in  boiling  water,  alco- 
hol and  ether.  It  melts  and  decomposes  at  130°. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  12-18°  high,  commonly 
cultivated  for  ornament,  well  known  in  the  islands,  almost 
constantly  bearing  fragrant  flowers,  but  rarely  bearing  fruit. 
Branches  forked  and  peculiarly  stumpy  at  the  ends.  Leaves 
alternate,  broad  lanceolate,  entire,  glabrous,  the  apices  curved 
downward.  Petioles  short.  Flowers  creamy  white,  light  yel- 
low in  the  throat.  Calyx  5-toothed.  Corolla  twisted,  funnel- 
form,  5-lobed.  Stamens  5,  hidden  in  depths  of  the  tube. 
Anthers  dart-  or  arrow-formed.  Style  very  short,  thickened 
above.  Stigma  2-parted.  Two  horizontal,  cylindrical  and 
long  follicles  joined  at  their  bases,  with  numerous  seeds  in  hol- 
low receptacles,  each  seed  encircled  by  a  wing. 

Alstonia  scholaris,  Br.     (Echites  schokiris,  L.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Dita,  Tag.;  Dallopawen,  Hoc.;  Dita  or 
Alstonia  Tree,  Eng. 

USES. — The  trunk  bark  is  a  febrifuge  of  great  importance; 
it  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  and  is  widely  used 


164         THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

in  the  Philippines.  Personally  I  have  had  occasion  to  use  it 
in  several  cases  of  malarial  fever  in  the  town  of  San  Mateo 
near  Manila.  It  is  astringent,  anthelmintic  and  antiperiodic, 
highly  useful  in  chronic  diarrhoea  and  dysentery,  not  only  for 
its  astringent  effects  but  for  its  tonic  and  restorative  action. 
As  a  tonic  it  gives  as  good  results  as  quinine.  The  dry 
powdered  bark  is  given  internally  in  wafers  of  20-30  centi- 
grams. The  infusion  is  prepared  from  15  grams  of  the  dry 
comminuted  bark  to  300  of  water.  The  dose  is  30-60  grams 
2  or  3  times  a  day. 

Another  convenient  preparation  is  the  tincture,  75  grams  of 
the  powdered  bark  macerated  7  days  in  500  grams  of  alcohol, 
shaking  from  time  to  time.  It  is  then  filtered  and  enough 
alcohol  added  to  make  up  the  500  cc.  The  dose  is  4-8  grams 
a  day. 

I  have  often  used  the  following  wine  as  a  tonic  for  con- 
valescents and  patients  suffering  from  general  debility  :  Finely 
powdered  bark,  25  grams,  muscatel  or  dry  sherry  one  bottle ; 
macerate  a  week,  shaking  every  day,  and  filter  ;  dose  \  wine- 
glass with  equal  parts  water  a  few  minutes  before  each  meal ; 
children  or  very  weak  patients  should  take  it  after  eating ;  it 
should  always  be  diluted. 

G.  Grupe,  a  Manila  pharmacist,  treating  the  bark  in  1883 
by  the  same  process  as  that  used  in  the  preparation  of  quinine, 
obtained  a  bitter  substance  which  he  named  Ditaine.  Accord- 
ing to  Grupe  Dr.  Pina  used  this  substance  with  great  success 
in  the  treatment  of  malarial  fevers,  but  neither  Grupe' s  report 
nor  Pina's  experiment  are  of  any  scientific  value,  inasmuch  as 
they  have  neglected  to  mention  the  doses  in  which  the  so-called 
alkaloid  was  employed.  Later  analyses  by  Hesse  and  Jobst  re- 
vealed several  principles  :  two  alkaloids  ditamine  (C16H19NO2), 
soluble  in  ether ;  Ditaine  or  Echitamine  (C22H28NO4  +  H2O) 
insoluble  in  ether,  soluble  in  water ;  acetic  acid  and  two  amor- 
phous substances  dextrogyrous  in  ethereal  solution,  one  of  them 


NERIUM     ODORUM  165 

a  resin,  Echicauchina  (C25H40O2),  the  other  neutral,  Echiretin 
(C3f)H56O2) ;  two  crystal! izable  principles,  dextrogyrous :  Echi- 
cerin  (C3()H48O2),  Echitein  (C42H70O2)  and  Echitin  (C32H52O2). 

Ditaine  is  employed  under  the  same  circumstances  and  in  the 
same  dose  as  quinine.  (The  Hindoo  writer,  K.  L.  Dey,  states 
that  the  plant  yields  an  inferior  quality  of  gutta-percha.) 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  50  or  more  feet  high,  the 
trunk  covered  with  small  eminences  resembling  the  scars  of 
thorns.  Branches  radiating.  Leaves  radiating,  5,  6  or  more, 
somewhat  elliptical  in  form,  pointed  at  the  apex.  Petioles  very 
short,  with  a  pointed  glandule  on  the  inner  surface  of  the  base. 
Flowers  white,  terminal,  in  umbellate  racemes.  Calyx  very 
short,  5-toothed.  Corolla  twisted,  tubular,  the  limb  5-lobuled  ; 
throat  open,  encircled  with  down.  Stamens  5,  hidden  within 
the  throat  and  inserted  on  the  tube.  Filaments  almost  want- 
ing. Anthers  arrow-shaped.  Style  as  long  as  the  stamens, 
somewhat  flattened,  a  scarcely  visible  line  throughout  its  length. 
Stigma  bifid,  placed  above  a  cylindrical  zone,  two  follicles,  1° 
long  and  V  thick,  twisted  like  a  string,  containing  the  seeds  in 
a  row.  Seeds  cylindrical  with  a  hairy  awn  at  both  ends. 

HABITAT. — In  the  forests  of  Luzon,  especially  in  Batangas. 
Blooms  in  April. 

Nerium  odorum,  Aiton.     (N.  oleander,  L.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Add/a,  Sp.;  Baladri,  Tag.;  Sweet-scented  Ole- 
ander, Eng. 

USES. — In  the  Philippines  and  in  Spain  this  plant  is  well 
known  to  be  poisonous.  The  bark  and  the  leaves  of  both  the 
red-flowered  and  white-flowered  varieties  are  boiled  in  cocoanut 
oil  and  the  product  is  used  for  inunction  in  itch  and  other  skin 
diseases.  The  bruised  root  is  a  useful  application  for  chancroids. 

We  have  stated  that  the  plant  is  poisonous,  and  indeed  it  is 
actively  so  in  the  tropics.  It  is  now  recognized  as  an  energetic 
cardiac  poison,  comparable  with  strophauthus,  destined  to  play 


166          THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

an  important  part  in  therapeutics.  Dr.  Pouloux  has  made  a 
study  of  the  hydro-alcoholic  extract  of  oleander  and  reports 
that  it  exerts  a  marked  effect  on  the  heart  of  frogs  and  rabbits, 
arresting  them  in  systole.  Where  there  is  asystolia,  such  as 
we  encounter  in  Bright' s  disease,  without  compensation,  it 
stimulates  the  heart  and  increases  the  urine  in  the  same  manner 
as  digitalis.  No  contraindications  to  its  use  are  as  yet  known. 
It  occasions  no  disagreeable  symptoms  and  may  be  used  many 
days  consecutively  provided  that  the  daily  dose  does  not  exceed 
10-15  centigrams. 

The  poisonous  properties  of  the  plant  reside  in  two  alkaloids 
isolated  by  Lukowsky  from  the  leaves  :  oleandrine,  extremely 
toxic  and  pseudo-curarine,  as  its  name  indicates,  resembling 
curare  in  its  action.  Oleandrin  is  yellow,  semicrystalline,  sol- 
uble in  water,  alcohol,  ether,  chloroform  and  olive  oil  ;  fusible 
at  70-75°  and  changing  to  a  greenish  oil.  With  HC1  it  forms 
a  crystalline  salt.  It  is  a  violent  irritant  of  the  mucous  mem- 
branes and  given  internally  it  causes  emesis,  diarrhoea,  tetanic 
convulsions  and  death.  It  arrests  the  cardiac  movements  in 
doses  of  25  milligrams. 

Loiseleur-Deslongchamps  experimented  with  the  drug  on  his 
own  person,  using  a  solution  of  30  grams  of  the  extract  in  120 
grams  of  wine.  He  began  by  taking  three  drops  of  this  prepara- 
tion four  times  a  day,  adding  a  drop  to  each  dose  every  day,  so 
that  at  the  end  of  12  days  he  was  taking  48  drops  between  6  a. 
m.  and  9  p.  m.  He  reached  a  maximum  of  64  drops  a  day  but 
was  forced  to  abandon  his  experiment  at  that  point  on  account 
of  the  unpleasant  symptoms  induced — loss  of  appetite,  great 
weakness  and  muscular  pains.  His  deduction  was  that  the 
plant  contained  a  "  destructive  and  irritant  principle."  The 
experiment  is  of  interest  as  demonstrating  the  maximum  dose 
of  the  drug. 

The  active  principles  of  the  plant  reside  principally  in  the 
leaves  and  bark,  but  that  they  are  abundantly  present  in  other 


CALOTROPS   GIGANTEA  167 

parts  is  proved  by  the  death  of  several  soldiers  in  Corsica  from 
having  eaten  meat  roasted  on  a  spit  of  oleander  wood. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree,  about  6°  high. 
Leaves  coriaceous,  lanceolate,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  in  ter- 
minal cymes,  rose-color  or  white,  single  or  double.  Calyx  5- 
parted.  Corolla  1 5  petals,  the  inner  ones  larger,  disposed  in  3 
groups  of  5.  Stamens  10,  fixed  on  receptacle  ;  filaments  short. 
Style  shorter  than  stamens.  Two  follicles,  sharp-pointed, 
channeled,  containing  many  imbricated  seeds  each  with  an 
awn. 

ASCLEPIADACE-E. 

Milkweed  Family. 

Calotrops  gigantea,  R.  Br.     (Asdepias  gigantea,  Willd.  and 

Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG.  —  Kapal-kapal,  Tag.;  Swallow-Wort,  Eng.; 
MudaTj  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — This  plant  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  as 
an  alterative,  tonic,  diaphoretic  and  emetic.  J.  J.  Durant,  hav- 
ing observed  that  the  natives  used  it  for  dysentery,  experi- 
mented with  it  quite  successfully  in  that  disease.  For  adults 
he  gradually  raised  the  dose  from  1.10  to  4  grams,  preferring 
smaller  doses,  however,  for  mild  cases.  To  children  he  pre- 
scribed 5-10  centigrams  for  each  year  of  age,  3  or  4  times  a 
day.  He  remarked  that  the  effects  produced  were  identical 
with  those  of  ipecac  administered  in  Brazilian  fashion. 

The  part  of  the  plant  used  is  the  dry  root  powdered.  The 
usual  dose  is  15—50  centigrams  3  times  a  day,  gradually  in- 
creased ;  as  an  emetic  2-4  grams. 

The  milky  juice  that  escapes  from  the  stem  on  the  slightest 
abrasion  is  a  drastic  purgative,  given  commonly  in  dropsy,  lum- 
bricoids,  etc.  Pledgets  of  cotton  impregnated  with  the  juice 
and  packed  in  the  cavities  of  carious  teeth,  relieve  toothache. 


168          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

It  is  applied  locally  for  various  skin  diseases,  including  syphi- 
litic ulcers,  and  as  a  depilatory. 

Some  races  of  India,  such  as  the  Rajputs  of  the  districts  of 
Allahab  and  of  Khangor,  use  this  milk-juice  to  poison  their 
female  infants  whom  they  are  accustomed  to  regard  as  a  vexa- 
tious burden.  Therapeutically  they  use  it  with  honey,  locally 
for  sore  throat. 

The  dry  and  powdered  juice  has  been  used  in  small  doses  as 
an  alterative  in  the  treatment  of  tuberculous  leprosy,  but  it  has 
not  given  results  any  better  than  many  other  drugs.  In  syphilis 
and  mercurial  cachexia  its  results  are  less  doubtful. 

In  1881  Dr.  Riddell  obtained  a  sort  of  gutta-percha  from  the 
juice,  previously  observed  by  Professor  Redwood. 

Mooden  Sheriff  states  that  the  most  active  parts  of  the  plant 
are  the  root  bark  and  the  dried  juice.  He  adds  that  the  action 
of  the  juice  is  irregular  and  even  dangerous,  and  that  the  bark 
is  active  in  direct  proportion  to  its  age.  He  recommends  that 
the  inert  tuberous  layer  of  the  bark  be  removed ;  prepared  thus 
and  powdered  it  is  emetic  in  doses  of  2.50-3  grams. 

Duncan  claims  to  have  isolated  from  the  bark  an  active 
principle  which  he  called  mudarm  from  "mudar,"  the  Indian 
name  of  the  plant.  Following  the  same  process  Fliickiger 
was  unable  to  obtain  the  substance,  but  did  isolate  1 J  r/o  of  an 
acrid  resin,  soluble  in  ether  and  in  alcohol ;  a  mucilage  and  a 
bitter  principle  decolorized  by  chloroform  and  ether.  It  is 
probable  that  this  is  the  active  principle  of  the  "  Calotropis 
gigantea." 

Warden  and  Waddell  in  1881  isolated  a  substance  crystalli- 
zable  in  nodular  masses,  with  the  formula  C17H28O,  analogous  to 
the  albana  of  gutta-percha. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree,  7-8°  high,  with 
straight  stem,  branched  and  woody.  Leaves  sessile,  opposite, 
cleft  at  the  base,  oval,  fleshy  and  woolly.  Flowers  lateral  in 
simple  umbels  of  3  or  more  flowerets.  Calyx  5-cleft.  Corolla 


TYLOPHORA    ASTHMATICA  169 

monopetalous,  5  acute  lobes,  white,  of  rare  and  beautiful  form. 
Nectaries  5,  united  throughout  their  length  with  the  receptacle, 
their  bases  curved  like  the  sides  of  the  fleur  de  lis. 

Above  the  nectaries  is  a  5-angled  crown,  the  extremity  of 
the  receptacle  ;  in  each  angle  a  black  anther.  Two  large  folli- 
cles narrowed  at  the  ends,  woolly,  the  apex  somewhat  curved 
to  one  side,  containing  many  imbricated  seeds,  each  with  a  tuft 
of  long  hairs. 

HABITAT. — Bauang,  Taal  and  the  volcanic  island  of  Taal. 
Blossoms  in  April. 

Tylophora  asthmatica,  Wight,    (Asdepias  asthmatica,  Roxb.) 

NOM.  VULG.— (?) 

USES. — We  are  ignorant  of  the  uses  the  Filipinos  make  of 
this  plant.  It  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India,  the  dry 
powdered  leaf  being  the  part  employed,  and  its  emetic,  dia- 
phoretic and  expectorant  properties  are  well  known  in  that 
country.  Roxburgh  has  used  the  root  as  an  emetic  and  Ander- 
son has  employed  it  in  the  same  manner  as  ipecac  in  dysentery. 
Later  the  experience  of  Anderson  was  confirmed  by  O'Shaugh- 
nessy ;  though  in  place  of  the  root  he  used  the  leaf,  the  prop- 
erties of  which  he  regards  as  more  certain  and  uniform. 

Dr.  J.  Kirkpatrick  has  noted  that  the  juice  of  the  root  and 
its  powder  are  used  by  the  natives  of  Mysore  as  an  emetic, 
and  adds  that  he  himself  has  used  it  for  that  purpose  in  a 
thousand  cases  with  good  results.  In  its  effect  on  dysentery 
as  well  as  in  its  emetic  effect  it  resembles  ipecacuanha.  He 
used  the  powder  in  doses  of  1.20-1.80  gr.,  to  which  he 
added  3-6  centigrams  of  tartar  emetic  when  lie  desired  to 
obtain  an  energetic  emetic  action.  Like  O'Shaughnessy  he 
prefers  the  powdered  leaves.  He  considers  it  a  good  sub- 
stitute for  ipecac,  not  only  as  an  emetic,  but  as  a  remedy  in 
asthma,  dysentery  and  catarrhal  affections  ;  Drs.  Oswald  and 
Mooden  Sheriff  have  made  the  same  observations.  The  latter 


170          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

advises  the  administration  of  the  juice  of  the  plant  for  snake 
bites  till  vomiting  is  produced ;  then  follow  with  diffusible 
stimulants. 

The  emetic  dose  of  the  powdered  leaves  is  1.20-1.80  grams, 
the  expectorant  and  diaphoretic  dose  10-30  centigrams.  The 
concentrated  infusion  of  the  leaves  has  an  acrid  taste.  Tannic 
acid,  the  neutral  acetate  of  lead  and  caustic  potash  produce  with 
it  an  abundant  precipitate ;  the  perchloride  of  iron  colors  it  a 
dark  green.  Broughton,  of  Ootaemund  (India),  informed  Han- 
bury  and  Fliickiger,  from  whom  we  quote,  that  in  1872  he 
obtained  a  very  small  quantity  of  crystals  from  a  large  quan- 
tity of  leaves.  He  had  not  enough  to  make  an  analysis,  but 
injected  a  solution  of  the  crystals  into  a  dog  with  resulting 
vomiting  and  diarrhoea. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  vigorous  plant  with  scandent 
stem  2-4  meters  long,  the  more  recent  growth  woolly.  Leaves 
opposite,  entire,  5-12  centimeters  long  and  2-6  broad,  oval  or 
rounded.  Petiole  striated  and  short.  Flowers  in  umbelliferous 
cymes,  compound,  axillary,  solitary  and  alternate,  with  woolly 
peduncles ;  hermaphrodite,  regular,  small,  of  a  pale  green  color 
inside  and  a  light  purple  outside.  Calyx  gamosepalous,  with  5 
lobules.  Corolla  gamopetalous,  5  oval,  twisted  lobules.  Stam- 
inal  crown  composed  of  5  fleshy  scales,  joined  to  the  staminal 
tube.  Stamens  5,  inserted  on  the  throat  of  the  corolla,  fila- 
ments joined  to  form  a  very  short  tube  with  anthers  straight, 
short  and  crowned  by  a  membranous  bilocular  appendix. 
The  gynoecium  consists  of  2  unilocular  ovaries  each  containing 
an  indefinite  number  of  ovules.  Style  with  a  pentagonal 
stigma  which  bears  in  each  angle  a  glandular  body.  Fruits 
compound  with  two  separate  follicles,  large,  lanceolate,  smooth, 
8—10  centimeters  long  and  5  in  circumference.  Each  encloses 
a  seed,  hairy,  albuminous  with  straight  embryo  and  flattened 
cotyledons. 

HABITAT. — Mountains  of  San  Mateo. 


STRYCHNOS    IGNATII  171 

LOGANIACEJE. 

Logania  Family. 

Strychnos  Ignatii,  Berg.     (8.  Philippensis,  Blanco;  Ignatia 
amara,  L.;  Ignatia  Philippinea,  Lour.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Pepita  Fruta,  Sp.-Fil.;  Pepita  sa  katbalogan, 
Kabalogan,  Tag.,  Pam.;  Pangaguason,  Aguason,  Kanlara, 
Mananaog,  Dankagi,  Kataloga,  Igasud,  Vis.;  St.  Ignatius  Bean, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  part  of  the  plant  employed  is  the  seed,  known 
in  addition  to  the  above  common  names  as  Pepita  de  San 
Ignacio  and  Pepita  de  Cabalonga  (for  katbologan).  The  na- 
tives handle  it  with  the  greatest  imprudence,  selling  everywhere 
in  the  markets  and  in  the  Chinese  shops,  called  tindag-bayag.  It 
is  not  only  a  remedy  among  them,  but  a  sort  of  panacea,  to 
which  they  attribute,  among  other  virtues,  that  of  expelling 
evil  spirits,  simply  worn  about  the  neck.  They  grate  it  with  a 
piece  of  earthen  pot,  mix  with  a  little  "  tuba "  vinegar  and 
apply  it  to  the  temples  for  headache.  In  bites  of  poisonous 
animals  they  advise  the  application  of  the  powdered  seed  over 
the  wound,  a  treatment  which  instead  of  being  beneficent 
might  easily  be  harmful  to  the  patient.  Before  proceeding 
further,  let  us  give  the  chemical  composition  of  the  seeds  in 
order  that  their  uses  may  be  the  better  understood. 

Strychnine  is  found  in  them  in  the  proportion  of  J— IJ^J  and 
bnicine  ffi—IAfi.  Fliickiger  and  Han  bury  by  drying  it  over 
sulphuric  acid  and  burning  it  with  "  cal  sodica  "  obtained  1.7 8/0 
of  nitrogen  which  represents  10^>  of  albuminoid  material. 
Strychnine  and  brucine  exist  in  combination  with  igasuric  acid 
discovered  by  Ludwig  in  1873.  The  proportion  of  both  the 
alkaloids  is  greater  than  in  the  seeds  of  nux  vomica  which 
contain  only  .25-.50J6  strychnine  and  .12-.05^  brucin,  al- 
though some  authors  give  it  as  high  as  1.01J&.  Strychnine  can 
be  obtained  more  readily  and  in  larger  proportions  from  St. 


172          THE    .MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

Ignatius  bean,  but  it  is  generally  obtained  from  mix  vomica 
seeds  on  account  of  the  cheapness  of  the  latter. 

It  is  more  energetic  than  mix  vomica  and  its  use  in  medicine 
should  be  condemned,  preference,  however,  being  given  to  the 
official  preparations  among  which  the  best  known  is  that  com- 
monly called  "Bitter  Drops  of  Beaurne,"  of  which  the  follow- 
ing is  the  composition  : 

Grated  St.  Ignatius'  beans  ...........     500  grams. 

Potassium  carbonate  ................         5        " 

Soot(?)  ..........................         1        " 

alcohol  ......................  1,000       " 


Macerate  for  10  days,  strain,  express  and  filter.  Dose,  1-16 
drops  in  a  little  water  or  wine  before  each  meal,  for  dyspepsia, 
anaemia,  convalescence  from  fevers,  and  other  conditions  in 
which  a  tonic  is  indicated.  The  indications  for  the  use  of  this 
drug  are  the  same  as  those  for  uux  vomica,  keeping  in  mind 
the  difference  in  dose. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION.  —  This  plant  grows  in  the  deep 
forests  of  Samar  and  Masbate.  That  industrious  and  distin- 
guished botanist,  D.  Regino  Garcia,  found  it  growing  abun- 
dantly in  Paranas,  Island  of  Samar.  It  is  a  robust  vine,  the 
trunk  sometimes  as  thick  as  a  man's  thigh,  climbing  to  the  tops 
of  the  highest  trees,  apparently  without  preference  as  to  its  host, 
inasmuch  as  he  saw  it  growing  indifferently  on  Ficus,  D'lpicro- 
carpti*,  L/7.sY/ea,  etc.  The  seed  which  most  interests  us  and  is 
very  common,  is  about  the  size  of  an  olive,  round  and  convex 
on  one  side,  angulose  and  flattened  on  the  other  by  being  com- 
pressed with  many  others  within  the  fruit  which  contains  50  of 
them.  Its  surface  is  blackish  with  a  gray-blue  tinge.  It  is 
hard  and  corneous.  Its  taste  is  extremely  bitter. 

Branches  opposite,  smooth,  the  ends  square.  Leaves  oppo- 
site, oval,  much  pointed  at  the  apex,  entire,  glabrous,  with  3 
prominent  nerves.  Petioles  very  short.  Flowers  in  panicles 


EHRETIA    BUXIFOLIA  173 

of  many  flowerets.  Calyx  inferior,  5-cleft,  very  short.  Corolla 
6-7  times  longer  than  the  calyx,  funnel-form,  5-lobed.  Anthers 
5,  sessile,  fixed  in  the  throat  of  the  corolla.  Ovary  very  small. 
Style  filiform,  same  length  as  the  stamens.  Stigma  truncate 
and  thick.  Drupe  globose,  often  oval,  large,  smooth,  with 
thick,  woody  shell  of  a  single  compartment  containing  seeds  as 
described  above. 

BORAGINACEJE. 

Borage  Family. 
Ehretia  buxifolia,  Roxb.     (Carmonea  heterophylla,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VuLCr. — Mayitj  Alayityit,  Tag.,  Vis. 

USES. — The  leaves  dried  in  the  shade  are  used  in  some 
Visayan  towns,  in  infusion  to  take  the  place  of  tea.  The  root 
is  used  by  the  Hindoo  physicians  as  an  alterative.  Dr.  R. 
Ross  has  employed  it  for  that  purpose  in  a  decoction  of  60 
grams  to  500  cc.  of  water ;  60  cc.  a  day  of  this  preparation 
gave  him  good  results  in  secondary  and  constitutional  syphilis. 
The  Mohammedans  of  India  consider  the  root  an  antidote  for 
vegetable  poisons. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Small  tree,  5-6°  high,  trunk 
straight.  Leaves  alternate  or  bunched  in  37s  or  47s  at  the 
nodes,  lanceolate  or  spatulate,  3-toothed  at  apex,  sometimes 
serrate  toward  the  apex,  set  with  short,  stiff  hairs.  Petioles 
very  short.  Flowers  axillary,  in  racemose  panicles  of  a  few 
flowers  each.  Common  peduncle  long,  pedicel  short.  Calyx 
free,  bell-shaped,  persistent,  divided  almost  to  base  into  5  nar- 
row, downy  parts.  Corolla  bell-shaped,  5  oval  lobules.  Sta- 
mens 5.  Ovary  oval,  within  the  flower.  Style  bifid.  Stig- 
mas simple,  truncate.  Drupe  globose,  with  hard,  slightly 
furrowed  putamen  of  6  locules  and  solitary  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Malinta  and  many  other  parts  of  the  Visayas. 
Blooms  in  January. 


174        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

CONVOLVULACEJE. 

Convolvulus  Family. 

Ipomcea  hederacea,  Jacq.     (I.  nil,  Roth.;  Convolvulus  nil, 
L.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Bulakan,  Tag.;  Kcda-Danah,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — This  plant  is  not  used  as  a  medicine  by  the  Fili- 
pinos, but  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  from  which 
we  copy  its  indications  and  official  preparations. 

The  seed  is  the  part  employed,  its  cathartic  properties  being 
much  like  those  of  jalap,  though  less  energetic.  An  excellent 
substitute  for  th'e  latter  is  2  or  3  grams  of  Jcala-danah  seeds  in 
powder  form,  and  no  unpleasant  effects  attend  its  operation. 

The  official  preparations  are  : 

EXTRACT  OF  KALADANA. — Dose,  30-60  centigrams  in  pill. 

Powdered  seeds 500  grams. 

Alcohol 2  liters. 

Water 4J  «• 

TINCTURE  OF  KALADANA. — Dose,  8-12  grams. 

Seeds 75  grams. 

Alcohol 500       " 

COMPOUND  POWDER  OF  KALADANA. — Dose,  3-3 J  grams. 

Powdered  seeds 150  grams. 

Acid  tartrate  of  potassium 270      " 

Powdered  ginger 30      a 

The  last  is  an  excellent  substitute  for  the  corresponding  prep- 
aration of  jalap. 

RESIN  OF  KALADANA. — Dose,  30-50  centigrams.  It  is 
prepared  like  resin  of  jalap  and  is  a  safe  and  sure  purgative. 
In  mass  it  has  a  dark  color,  but  is  gray  when  powdered.  The 
odor  is  rather  unpleasant,  the  taste  sweetish  and  then  acrid, 
nauseous,  persistent,  exciting  the  saliva  and  irritating  the 
fauces.  It  was  introduced  into  practice  by  Dr.  G.  Vidie. 


IPOMCEA    PES-CAPRJS  175 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  twiner  with  round,  downy 
stem.  Leaves  heart-shaped,  3-lobed,  the  middle  one  broad- 
Tanceolate,  the  lateral  ones  rather  rectangular  with  petioles  of 
equal  length  with  the  leaves.  Flowers  large,  rose  color  or  pale 
blue,  in  axillary  cymes  of  2  or  3  flowers  each.  Calyx,  5  long, 
downy  parts.  Corolla  bell-shaped,  5  faint  lobes.  Stamens  5, 
free,  inserted  in  the  corolla.  Ovary  free,  3  biovulate  locules. 
Style  simple.  Stigma  trilobed.  Seed  vessels  globose  with  3 
locules  each  containing  2  seeds.  Seeds  convex  on  dorsum,  J 
cm.  broad  by  1  cm.  long,  testa  black. 

HABITAT. — Manila.     Blooms  in  August. 

Ipomoea  pes-caprae,  Roth.     (Convolvulus  pes-caprce 
L.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Katagkatag,  Lagayray,  Lampayog,  Bagasoa, 
Kamigag,  Daripay,  Tagaray,  Arodayday,  Lambayog,  Tag., 
Vis.;  Lambayog,  Hoc. 

USES. — The  dry,  powdered  leaves  are  dusted  over  bruises 
and  ulcers.  The  entire  plant  is  very  mucilaginous  and  the 
bruised  fresh  leaves  are  applied  like  poultices  to  cancers  and 
ulcerating  tumors.  In  India  the  boiled  leaves  are  applied  lo- 
cally in  colic  and  in  rheumatism  ;  the  juice  is  given  internally  in 
dropsy  as  a  diuretic,  the  pounded  leaves  at  the  same  time  serv- 
ing as  a  poultice  to  the  oedematous  parts. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  that  creeps  extensively, 
the  stem  taking  root.  Leaves  with  2  well-marked  lobules. 
Flowers  rose-lilac  color,  in  axillary  panicles  with  long  pedicels. 
Corolla  very  large,  bell-shaped,  the  limb  5-angled  and  5-nerved. 
Stamens  5,  unequal  in  height.  Stigma  globose,  marked  by  a 
line ;  later  it  divides  in  two.  Seed  vessel  ovate,  2-celled,  in 
each  cell  2  downy  seeds  convex  on  one  side,  angular  on  the 
other. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  on  the  seashore.  Blooms  in  Jan- 
uary. 


176         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

Ipomoea  Turpethum,  R.  Br.     (Convolvulus  Turpethum,  L.; 
C.  maximus,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Albohol,  Sp.;  Turpelh  Root,  Indian  Jalap,  Eng. 

USES. — The  root,  known  in  the  Philippines  as  "  turbita,"  is 
a  purgative  and  is  a  component  part  of  the  tincture  of  jalap, 
one  of  the  most  positive  and  active  of  known  cathartics.  But 
turpeth  root  is  seldom  used  alone,  for  its  action  is  so  uncertain 
that  Sir  W.  O'Shaughnessy  pronounced  the  plant  unworthy  of 
a  place  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India.  The  dose  of  the  pow- 
der is  1-4  grams,  the  resin  40-50  cgms.,  the  decoction  of  the 
root  4—12  grams.  The  active  principle  is  a  resin  soluble  in 
ether  and  a  glucoside,  turpetkin,  C34H56O16. 

In  the  east  of  India  they  make  offerings  of  the  flowers  to  the 
god  Shiva,  and  also  put  them  to  more  practical  use  by  apply- 
ing them  to  the  head  for  neuralgic  headache. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. —  A  vine  with  quadrangular 
stem.  Leaves  heart-shaped.  Flowers  axillary,  numerous,  in 
umbels.  Calyx  deeply  cleft  in  5  imbricated,  ovate,  fleshy 
parts.  Corolla  bell-shaped,  folded.  Stamens  -r)?  unequal  in 
height.  Ovary  inserted  on  an  hypogynous  disk,  with  2 
biovulate  compartments.  Style  same  length  as  stamens. 
Stigma  bilobulate,  globose.  Seed  vessel  square,  encircled  by 
calyx,  2  locules  each  with  2  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Bauang  and  Pasig.  Blooms  in 
November. 

SOL  AN  ACE  1£. 

Nightshade  Family. 

Solanum  nigrum,  L. 

NOM.  VULO. — Hicrba  mora,  Sp.;  Konti/,  Out//,  Gamagamati- 
*(ti),  Tag.;  Lagpakon,  l>ola(jtob,  LubUubi,  Vis.;  J\i<ty,  .Lnbilubi, 
Bic.;  Black  or  Common  Ni<jli1xh(i<le,  Eng. 

USES. — In  the  Philippines  the  entire  plant  is  boiled  and 
used  for  food,  with  the  precaution  of  pouring  off  the  first  2  or 


CAPSICUM    FASTIGIATUM  177 

3  waters  in  which  it  is  cooked,  which  contain  an  active  princi- 
ple capable  of  causing  such  disagreeable  symptoms  as  vertigo 
and  nausea.  A  decoction  of  the  leaves  serves  to  cleanse 
chronic  sores  and  in  fact  improves  their  condition  ;  it  is  also 
used  as  a  lotion  for  various  forms  of  dermatitis,  for  erysipelas 
and  old  burns. 

The  plant  is  narcotic,  antispasmodic  and  like  belladonna  it 
dilates  the  pupil. 

In  India  the  decoction  is  given  internally,  200-250  grams, 
for  hypertrophy  of  the  liver,  and  it  is  considered  a  good  diuretic 
and  alterative.  For  such  uses  they  heat  the  above  dose  in  a 
clay  vessel  till  the  color  changes  from  green  to  brown,  when 
it  is  cooled  and  given  next  day.  Its  action  is  diuretic  and 
hydragogue-cathartic.  Mooden  Sheriff  recommends  this  treat- 
ment highly,  and  for  dropsy  further  advises  the  aqueous  extract, 
12  grams  during  the  day  divided  into  3  or  4  doses.  Small 
doses  of  30-60  grams  of  the  decoction  prepared  as  above  de- 
scribed, are  of  use  in  some  chronic  skin  diseases  such  as  psori- 
asis. 

In  1821  Defosses,  of  Besan£on,  obtained  sola/nine  from  the 
fruit,  previously  isolated  from  the  8.  Dulcamara. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  about  2°  high,  stem 
straight,  3— 4-angled,  with  white  dots.  Leaves  lanceolate. 
Flowers  white,  in  2-ranked  racemes.  Calyx  inferior,  5  per- 
sistent teeth.  Corolla,  5  petals  somewhat  down-curved.  Berry 
small,  black  when  ripe. 

HABITAT. — Universally  common.     Blooms  in  January. 

Capsicum  fastigiatum,  Bl.     (C.  minimum,  Roxb.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Chili  picante,  Sp.-Fil. ;  Sili,  Tag.  ;  Capsicum* 

Red  Pepper,  etc.,  Eng. 

USES. — The  fruit  of  this  species  of  pepper  plant  is  called 
agi  in  Cuba  and  Porto  Rico  ;  it  is  in  common   use  as  a  condi- 
ment in   the   Philippines.     As   a  tonic  and  stimulant  it  is  a 
15 


178         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

useful  article  of  food  in  hot  countries  where  the  digestive  func- 
tions become  sluggish.  Used  in  moderation  it  prevents  dyspep- 
sia and  consequent  diarrhoea.  It  is  used  as  a  gargle  for  hoarse- 
ness, decreasing  the  congestion  of  the  larynx  and  vocal  cords. 

GARGLE. — 

Tincture  of  capsicum 8  grams. 

Water 160       " 

Mix. 

Recently  capsicum  in  powder,  extract,  or  tincture,  has  been 
recommended  internally  in  the  treatment  of  incipient  hemor- 
rhoids. The  dose  is  .50  to  3  grams  of  the  powder  in  pills  or 
capsules  ;  watery  extract,  0.30-0.60  ;  tincture,  10-30  drops. 

The  C.  annuum,  L.,  and  other  varieties  of  red  pepper  serve 
the  same  uses  as  the  above. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Stem  4-angled.  Leaves  oppo- 
site, ovate-lanceolate,  entire.  Petioles  short.  Flowers  green- 
ish-white in  little  clusters,  drooping.  Corolla  wheel-shaped. 
Fruit  straight,  conical,  slender,  scarcely  V  long. 

HABITAT. — Universally  common  in  the  islands.  Blooms  at 
all  times. 

Datura  alba,  Nees.     (D.  Mdd,  Roxb.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Talamponay,  Tag.,  Pam.;  Takbibug,  Vis.; 
Dhatura,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  applications  of  this  species  are  identical  with 
those  of  D.  Stramonium  and  it  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia 
of  India.  It  is  antispasmodic,  narcotic  and  toxic,  and  is  used 
quite  commonly  with  criminal  intent  in  India  and  Indo-China. 
The  cooked  and  bruised  leaves  make  an  efficient  poultice  in 
articular  rheumatism. 

The  symptoms  of  poisoning  by  "  dhattira"  are  :  dilatation  of 
the  pupil,  general  malaise,  dryness  of  the  fauces  and  skin,  hal- 
lucinations, rapid  pulse,  coma  and  death  or  permanent  mania. 


DATURA    ALBA  179 

The  dry  leaf  is  smoked  to  abort  asthma,  and  though  its  ac- 
tion is  uncertain,  it  is  one  of  the  many  remedies  that  should  be 
tried,  which  though  ineffective  in  one  case  may  in  another  af- 
ford positive  relief  in  this  distressing  disease.  Not  more  than 
1.50  grams  should  be  smoked  in  one  day  and  their  use  should 
be  discontinued  if  any  symptom  of  intoxication  supervenes.  The 
Pharmacopoeia  of  India  contains  a  tincture  made  from  75  grams 
of  the  ground  seeds  and  500  grams  of  alcohol.  Dr.  Waring 
states  that  20  drops  of  this  tincture  are  equivalent  to  6  centi- 
grams of  opium  and  that  in  some  cases  it  has  given  him  better 
narcotic  results  than  the  opium.  The  extract  is  made  from 
500  grams  of  the  powdered  seeds,  500  cc.  ether,  500  cc.  al- 
cohol and  500  cc.  water.  Dose,  5-20  centigrams  a  day  in  4 
doses. 

The  D.  fastuosa,  L.,  known  in  Manila  by  the  common  name 
of  Talamponay  na  itim,  Tag.,  possesses  the  same  properties  as 
the  above.  The  Filipino  physician,  Sr.  Zamora,  successfully 
employed  a  poultice  of  bruised  leaves  cooked  in  vinegar  and  ap- 
plied to  the  forehead  and  backs  of  the  hands  to  reduce  the  fever 
of  tuberculous  patients. 

Neither  the  leaves  nor  seeds  of  these  two  varieties  of  Datura 
have  been  studied  from  a  chemical  standpoint,  but  there  is  little 
doubt  that  the  active  principle  is  the  daturine  (atropine  and 
hyoscyamine)  that  exists  so  abundantly  in  D.  Stramonium. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Plant   5-6°  high,  with  nodose 
branches,  forked.     Leaves    ovate,   angled,   somewhat   downy. 
Flowers   large,    white,  axillary,   solitary.     Calyx    tubular,  5- 
toothed.     Corolla  funnel-shaped,  the  limb  5-angled  and  5-folded. 
Stamens    5,  same    length   as  calyx.    Anthers  long,  flattened. 
Stigma  thick,  oblong,  divisible  in  2  leaves.     Seed  vessel  globose, 
thorny,  4-valved  over  the  base  of  the  calyx.     Seeds  numerous, 
flattened,    kidney-shaped.     (Resembles    closely    the    common 
Jamestown  Weed  of  America,  though  much  taller  with  much 
larger  flowers.) 


180        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

HABITAT. — Common  on  the  shores  of  the  sea.  The  D.  f<txht- 
osa  is  differentiated  by  its  violet  flowers  and  double  corolla. 

Nicotiana  Tabacum,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Tabaco,  Sp.;   Tobacco,  Eng. 

USES. — Tobacco  is  a  powerful  sedative  and  antispasmodic, 
but  owing  to  the  accidents  it  may  give  rise  to,  its  use  in  thera- 
peutics is  very  limited.  Like  all  the  active  SolanaceaB  it  is 
effective  against  neuralgia  and  spasm  of  the  muscular  tissues 
and  is  therefore  indicated  in  strangulated  hernia  and  in  intes- 
tinal obstruction.  In  these  conditions  the  infusion  of  1-5 
grams  of  the  dried  leaf  to  250  grams  of  water  is  given  by  enema. 
Trousseau  advises  non-smokers  who  suffer  from  chronic  consti- 
pation to  smoke  a  cigarette  fasting,  a  practice  which,  according 
to  him,  stimulates  defecation.  For  the  same  condition  the 
people  of  southern  India  are  accustomed  to  apply  a  poultice  of 
the  bruised  leaves  to  the  anal  region. 

Tobacco  has  been  used  by  enema  to  combat  tetanus  ;  Dr. 
Lesth,  of  the  General  Hospital  for  Europeans,  Bombay,  claims 
to  have  obtained  excellent  results  by  applying  a  poultice  over 
the  entire  length  of  the  spinal  column.  Dr.  Dymock  has  con- 
firmed this  practice. 

A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  as  a  lotion  to  destroy 
"  pediculi  capitis  and  pubis,"  and  to  wash  gangrenous  ulcers. 

The  daily  increasing  practice  of  smoking,  like  all  other  sub- 
jects, divides  mankind  into  two  camps,  one  for  and  one  against 
the  habit.  Both  parties  exaggerate  their  arguments.  The 
abuse  of  the  plant  without  doubt  sets  up  disturbances  of  the 
digestion,  the  heart  and  the  nervous  system.  It  is  furthermore 
positive  that  persons  of  a  certain  disposition  and  with  certain 
ailments  are  injured  by  even  a  moderate  use  of  tobacco.  The 
above  facts  serve  as  arms  for  the  opponents  of  the  habit ;  the 
robust  who  smoke  and  drink  to  excess  and  meet  with  an  acci- 
dental death  on  a  railroad  or  from  an  acute  disease  that  over- 


NICOTIANA    TABACTJM  181 

takes  them  in  the  midst  of  perfect  health,  serve  as  arguments 
for  the  defenders,  to  prove  the  innocence  of  the  custom.  The 
antiseptic  qualities  of  the  smoke  and  of  the  entire  plant  also 
lend  the  smoker  a  defensive  argument,  as  he  may  uphold  the 
habit  as  hygienic  and  highly  useful  in  preventing  microbic  in- 
fection. The  antiseptic  power  of  tobacco  smoke  is  undoubted, 
but  it  is  intolerable  that  a  physician  under  the  pretext  of  avoid- 
ing self  infection  should  enter  the  house  of  his  patient  and  con- 
tinue smoking  at  the  bedside. 

Chronic  nicotine  poisoning  is  the  result  of  a  gradual  intoxi- 
cation by  the  absorption  of  the  active  principle  of  tobacco,  the 
alkaloid  nicotine.  Excessive  smoking  conduces  to  nicotism, 
more  common  in  Europe  than  in  the  tropics,  because  the  na- 
tives of  Europe  smoke  the  pipe  and  being  confined  in  closed 
dwellings,  breathe  continuously  an  atmosphere  of  smoke ;  in 
the  Philippines,  on  the  contrary,  the  pipe  is  almost  unknown 
and  owing  to  the  nature  of  the  dwellings  the  smoking  is  car- 
ried on  practically  in  the  open  air.  An  injurious  practice  of 
the  Filipino  smokers  is  that  of  "  swallowing  the  smoke,"  and 
this  is  a  fitting  point  to  call  attention  to  an  error  of  Dujardin- 
Beaumetz,  who  states  that  "  in  those  who  habitually  swallow 
the  smoke  the  nicotine  acts  directly  upon  the  stomach."  The 
expression  "  swallow  smoke  "  (tragar  el  humo)  does  not  mean 
to  force  it  into  the  stomach  by  an  act  of  deglutition,  and  I  am 
sure  no  one  attempts  to  dispose  of  it  in  that  way ;  but  to  in- 
spire or  breath  it  into  the  air  passages.  It  is  evident  that  this 
latter  habit  does  not  involve  the  stomach,  but  those  who  prac- 
tice it  expose  themselves  more  to  nicotism  than  those  who  keep 
the  smoke  in  the  mouth  or  expel  it  through  the  nose. 

The  first  cigar  causes  symptoms  familiar  to  nearly  everybody  ; 
dizziness,  malaise,  cold  sweat,  vomiting,  diarrhrea,  dilatation 
of  the  pupils  and  rapid  heart  action — an  acute  intoxication. 
Chronic  intoxication  or  nicotism  manifests  itself  by  disturbances 
of  digestion,  vision  and  especially  circulation.  It  has  been  as- 


182         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

signed  as  one  of  the  causes  of  early  atheroma  and  of  angina 
pectoris.  It  should  therefore  be  proscribed  in  persons  who 
present  symptoms  of  gastro-intestinal  or  of  heart  disease,  and 
in  every  patient  who  complains  of  slight  precordial  pains,  com- 
monly attributed  to  flatus,  but  in  reality  cardiac  neuralgia,  a 
fugitive  symptom  announcing  the  possibility  of  that  grave  acci- 
dent, angina  pectoris,  capable  of  ending  the  life  of  the  patient 
with  one  stroke. 

Nicotine  (C10H14"N"2)  is  an  oleaginous  liquid  heavier  than 
water,  colorless,  changing  to  dark  yellow  on  contact  with  the 
air.  Nicotianin  or  "  camphor  of  tobacco "  is  another  sub- 
stance found  in  the  leaves,  crystalline,  tasteless,  with  an  odor 
resembling  tobacco.  Nicotinic  acid  is  a  product  of  the  combus- 
tion of  nicotine. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  tobacco  plant  is  so  familiar 
to  all  Americans  that  its  description  here  would  be  superfluous. 
It  grows  in  all  parts  of  the  islands,  the  best  qualities  being 
cultivated  in  the  northern  provinces  of  Luzon,  especially  Caga- 
yan  and  La  Isabela. 

SCROPHULARIACEJE. 

Figwort  Family. 
Limnophila  menthastrum,  Benth.     (Tala  odomta,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Tala,  Taramhampam,  Tag.;  Tahitala,  Pam.; 
Taratara,  Hoc. 

USES. — An  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  given  as  a  diuretic  and 
digestive  tonic.  The  plant  is  aromatic.  It  is  seldom  used,  but 
is  given  for  the  same  troubles  and  in  the  same  doses  as  chamo- 
mile  and  Eupatorium  Ayapana. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  1°  high,  with  leaves 
opposite,  lanceolate,  ovate,  serrate,  hairy,  many  small  pits  on 
the  lower  face.  Flowers  rose  color,  solitary,  sessile.  Calyx, 
5  sharp  teeth.  Corolla  tubular,  curved,  compressed,  downy 


OROXYLUM    INDICUM  183 

within,  limb  cleft  in  4  unequal  lobes.     Stamens  didynamous. 
Ovary  conical.     Style  shorter  than  the   stamens.     Stigma  3- 
lobuled.     Seed  vessel,  2  multiovulate  chambers. 
HABITAT. — Known  universally.     Blooms  in  June. 

BIGNONIACE.ffi. 

Bignonia  Family. 

Oroxylum  Indicum,  Vent.     (Bignonia  Indica,  L.;  E.  quadri- 
pinnata,  Blanco ;   Colosanthes  Indica,  Bl.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Pinkapinkahan,  Pinkapinka,  Taghilaw,  Abag- 
abag,  Tag.;  Abagabag,  Vis. 

USES. — The  Hindoos  consider  the  trunk  bark  an  astringent 
and  tonic  and  use  it  commonly  in  diarrhoea  and  dysentery.  In 
Bombay  it  has  a  wide  use  in  veterinary  practice  as  an  applica- 
tion for  the  sore  backs  of  the  domestic  cattle.  Sarangadhara 
recommends  for  diarrhoea  and  dysentery  the  infusion  of  the 
roasted  bark  mixed  with  infusion  of  Bombax  malabaricum. 

Dr.  Evers  experimented  with  the  powder  and  an  infusion  of 
the  bark  obtaining  a  strong  diaphoretic  action.  He  obtained 
the  same  effect  with  baths  containing  the  bark  and  reported 
successful  results  in  thus  treating  24  cases  of  rheumatism. 
The  dose  of  the  powder  was  0.30—1  gram  a  day  in  3  doses ; 
the  infusion  (30  grams  bark  to  300  boiling  water),  90  grams  a 
day  in  3  doses.  Combined  with  opium  it  had  more  pronounced 
diaphoretic  effects  than  the  compounds  of  opium  and  ipecac. 
The  plant  possesses  no  febrifuge  properties. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  5-6  meters  high,  trunk 
straight,  hollow,  the  hollow  space  containing  many  thin  parti- 
tions covered  with  small  points  ;  branches  opposite.  Leaves  4 
times  odd  pinnate.  Leaflets  obliquely  ovate,  acute,  entire, 
glabrous.  Flowers  in  racemes  with  long,  primary  peduncles, 
large,  fleshy,  lurid,  violet  color,  odor  mawkish.  Calyx  inferior, 
cylindrical,  monophyllous,  entire.  Corolla  much  longer  than 


184         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

calyx,  fleshy,  bell-shaped,  5-lobed.  Stamens  5,  all  fertile,  fixed 
on  the  corolla,  nearly  equal  in  height.  Style  longer  than 
stamens,  flattened.  Stigma  cleft  in  2  flat  leaves.  Silique  or 
pod  about  3°  long  and  2'  wide,  flattened,  borders  grooved  and 
curved  downward,  containing  a  great  number  of  seeds  encircled 
by  a  broad,  flat,  imbricated  wing. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  many  parts  of  Luzon,  in  Mindanao, 
Cebu  and  Paragua. 

PEDALIACEJE. 

Pedalium  Family. 
Sesamum  Indicum,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Ajonjoli,  Sp.;  Liyu,  Tag.;  Loyd,  Vis.;  Lciyis, 
Pam.;  Sesame,  Indo-Eng.  (Benne  Oil,  Til  Oil,  Jinjili  Oil.) 

USES. — The  leaves  are  emollient  and  in  the  Philippines, 
India  and  the  Southern  States  of  North  America  they  are  com- 
monly used  to  make  poultices,  as  a  substitute  for  linseed. 

The  decoction  is  prescribed  internally  as  an  emmenagogue 
and  demulcent  and  externally  as  a  lotion.  It  has  the  reputa- 
tion of  stimulating  the  growth  of  the  hair  and  is  used  for  this 
purpose  quite  commonly  by  the  women  of  India. 

The  seeds  are  emollient,  laxative,  diuretic  and  emmenagogue ; 
they  contain  an  oil  to  which  we  shall  refer  presently.  In  some 
countries  they  form  an  article  of  diet ;  in  the  Philippines  they 
are  much  used  as  a  condiment.  Waring  reports  good  results 
in  amenorrhoea,  adding  a  handful  of  the  bruised  seeds  to  a  hot 
sitz-bath.  Two  or  3  dessert-spoonfuls  of  the  seeds  eaten  fast- 
ing and  washed  down  with  a  glass  of  water,  are  very  efficient 
in  chronic  constipation,  both  by  their  mechanical  effect  and  the 
oil  they  contain  ;  being  non-irritant  they  are  especially  indi- 
cated in  cases  of  constipation  with  hemorrhoids. 

The  seeds  contain  up  to  45J6  of  oil  known  in  the  Philippines 
under  the  name  of  lana,  an  Ilocano  word  meaning  "  oil."  It 


ACANTHUS    ILICIFOLIUS  185 

is  bright  yellow,  viscid,  does  not  easily  become  rancid  and  is 
used  for  illuminating  purposes  in  some  Philippine  provinces. 
In  Japan  and  among  the  poor  of  India  it  serves  as  a  food ;  in 
the  latter  country  it  is  also  very  commonly  used  as  a  cosmetic, 
perfumed  with  various  essences  and  used  to  anoint  the  hair  and 
the  body  after  the  bath.  In  America  it  is  given  in  place  of 
castor  oil  in  doses  of  30-60  grams.  In  pharmacy  it  may  be 
properly  substituted  for  olive  oil,  especially  in  Linimentum 
Calcis  prepared  for  burns. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  2-4°  high,  stem 
straight,  square,  grooved.  Leaves  trifoliate.  Leaflets  lanceo- 
late, serrate,  slightly  downy.  Common  petiole  long  ;  secondary 
petiole  very  short.  Flowers  pinkish  white,  in  spikes,  each 
flower  bearing  2  small  glands.  Calyx  with  2  bracts  at  the 
base,  top-shaped,  monophyllous,  5  lanceolate  teeth.  Corolla 
large,  5-lobed,  bell-shaped,  expanded  in  the  middle  where  it  is 
spattered  with  small  spots.  Stamens  didynamous.  Anthers  long. 
Ovary  downy,  quadrangular.  Style  same  length  as  stamens. 
Stigma  bifid.  Seed  vessel  quadrangular,  elongated,  4  opposite 
grooves,  4  chambers  each  containing  many  small  ovoid  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Universal.     Blooms  in  October. 

ACANTHACEJE. 

Acanthus  Family. 
Acanthus  ilicifolius,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Diliwariw,  Dolo-ariw,  Tiglog,  Lagiwlagiw, 
Tag.;  TitiWy  Vis.;  Dulawari,  Pam. 

USES. — We  are  not  familiar  with  the  medicinal  uses  of  this 
plant  in  the  Philippines,  but  believe  that  its  sole  use  is  in  the 
soap-making  industry  ;  the  ash  of  the  plant  is  rich  in  soda  and 
potash  salts  and  lye  is  prepared  from  it. 

In  Goa  the  leaves,  rich  in  mucilage,  are  used  locally  in 
fomentations  for  rheumatism  and  neuralgia.  Rheede  mentions 
16 


186         THE   MEDICINAL   PLANTS   OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

as  useful  the  application  of  the  bruised  sprouts  to  snake  bites. 
Bontius  attributes  expectorant  properties  to  the  plant.  The 
natives  of  Siam  and  Cochin  China  use  it  as  a  cordial  and  as  a 
medicine  for  paralysis  and  asthma. 

In  Concan  the  sweetened  decoction  of  the  plant  with  a  little 
cumin  seed  is  given  for  dyspepsia  with  pyrosis. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  about  3°  high,  stem 
straight,  beset  with  sharp  eminences.  Leaves  opposite,  mem- 
branaceous,  lanceolate,  pinnatifid,  large  teeth  ending  in  prick- 
les. Petioles  very  short,  2  thorns  at  the  base.  Flowers  pur- 
plish white  in  spikes.  Calyx  double ;  the  outer  one  of  2  parts, 
the  inner  4.  Corolla  bell-shaped,  lower  lip  broad,  keeled, 
fleshy,  notched  above.  Upper  lip  wanting,  a  notch  in  its 
place.  Stamens  4,  didynamous.  Ovary  superior,  conical. 
Style  of  equal  length  with  stamens.  Stigma  bifid.  Seed  ves- 
sels 2-celled,  each  cell  with  2  heart-shaped,  flattened,  rough  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  regions  inundated  by  salt 
water. 

Barleria  Prionitis,  L.     (Barrdiera  Prionitis,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kokoymanok,  Kulanta,  Tag. 

USES. — This  plant  is  not  used  medicinally  in  the  Philip- 
pines. The  natives  of  Bombay  are  accustomed  to  use  its  juice 
to  anoint  the  soles  of  their  feet  during  the  rainy  season  in 
order  to  toughen  the  skin  and  prevent  fissures  due  to  prolonged 
maceration. 

The  leaf  juice  is  bitter  and  acid ;  it  is  a  favorite  with  the  na- 
tives of  India  in  the  treatment  of  the  catarrhal  fevers  common 
among  their  children,  administered  in  doses  of  2  tablespoonfuls 
a  day  mixed  with  sweetened  water. 

In  Concan  the  dry  bark  is  given  for  whooping-cough  and  the 
juice  of  the  fresh  bark  in  doses  of  2  "  tolas  "  (7.60  grams)  for 
anasarca.  Dr.  Bidie  states  that  the  action  is  diaphoretic  and 
expectorant. 


JUSTICIA    GENDARUSSA  187 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  2-3°  high,  stem  creep- 
ing, the  ends  rising ;  enlarged  at  the  joints,  glabrous.  Leaves 
smooth,  opposite,  lanceolate,  finely  serrate,  fringed,  somewhat 
downy  below,  glabrous  above.  Petioles  short,  4  axillary  spines. 
Flowers  straw-color,  axillary,  sessile,  solitary.  Calyx  deeply 
cleft  in  4  parts,  ovate,  ending  in  spines.  Corolla  funnel-shaped, 
tube  short,  throat  nude,  limb  5-lobed.  Stamens  4,  didynamous, 
Ovary  2-celled.  Style  same  length  as  stamens.  Seed-vessel 
ovate,  flattened  and  sharp-pointed,  2-celled,  each  cell  with  a  flat, 
heart-shaped  seed. 

HABITAT. — In  Guadalupe,  Mandaloyon  and  San  Juan  del 
Monte.  Blooms  in  April. 


Justicia  Gendarussa,  L.     (Gandarussa  vulgaris,  Nees.;  Dian- 
thera  subserrata,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kapanitulotj  Tag.;  Bunlaw,  Vis. 

USES. — In  the  Philippines  this  plant  has  the  same  applica- 
tions as  the  Lagundi  or  Vitex,  soon  to  be  described.  In  India 
they  give  a  decoction  of  the  leaves  for  chronic  rheumatism, 
the  action  probably  being  diaphoretic.  The  juice  is  employed 
for  the  coughs  of  childhood  and  externally  as  a  resolvent 
for  enlarged  cervical  glands.  The  bark  of  the  young  branches 
has  a  purplish  color ;  in  Java  it  is  considered  a  good 
emetic. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  5-6°  high,  stem  straight, 
branches  smooth,  obscurely  4-angled.  Stems  and  leaves  violet 
color,  emitting  a  disagreeable  odor  (Blanco).  Leaves  opposite, 
lanceolate,  acute,  glabrous,  obtusely  serrate.  Flowers  terminal, 
white-green,  in  racemes  of  3  sessile  flowers  with  lanceolate 
bracts.  Calyx,  5  long  teeth.  Corolla,  short  tube,  2-lipped, 
upper  lip  notched,  lower  lip  broad  with  palate,  ending  in  3 
lobules.  Seed  vessel  with  4  seeds  in  its  lower  part. 

HABITAT. — Luzon,  Mindanao,  Panay. 


188         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Adhatoda  vasica,  Nees.     (Jmticia  Adhatoda,  L.) 

NOM.  YULG.— (?) 

USES.— The  Filipinos  are  but  slightly  familiar  with  this 
plant  and  it  has  no  place  in  their  therapeutical  armamentarium. 
In  India,  however,  it  is  very  common  and  enjoys  much  repu- 
tation in  the  treatment  of  catarrhs,  the  grip,  asthma  and  non- 
febrile,  especially  chronic,  bronchial  affections.  The  flowers, 
leaves  and  roots,  but  especially  the  flowers,  possess  antispas- 
modic  properties  and  are  prescribed  in  certain  forms  of  asthma  ; 
they  are  bitter  and  slightly  aromatic,  and  are  given  in  infusion 
or  electuary. 

Drs.  Jackson  and  Dott  have  testified  from  their  own  experi- 
ence to  the  usefulness  of  the  drug  in  chronic  bronchitis,  asthma 
and  afebrile  catarrh.  Dr.  Watt  states  that  the  natives  of  Ben- 
gal find  relief  for  asthma  in  smoking  the  leaves.  In  Bombay 
its  expectorant  action  is  commonly  known  and  its  juice  is  used, 
mixed  with  borax  and  honey. 

The  dose  of  the  aqueous  extract  made  by  evaporating  the 
juice  of  the  leaves,  is  .25—1  gram.  The  tincture  is  preferable, 
made  by  dissolving  this  extract  in  alcohol ;  dose  2-4  grams. 
Its  efficiency  is  increased  by  the  addition  of  pepper  seeds  (War- 
ing). The  Sanscrit  writers  recommend  for  cough,  3.80  grams 
of  the  leaf  juice  with  honey.  "It  is  very  desirable  that  further 
trials  be  made  to  test  the  value  of  this  remedy." — Pharmaco- 
poeia of  India. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  with  straight,  smooth, 
ashy-gray  trunk.  Branches  of  same  color  but  smoother. 
Leaves  opposite,  lanceolate,  acute,  smooth  on  both  faces,  12-15 
cm.  long  by  3-4  broad,  petioles  short.  Flowers  irregular  and 
hermaphrodite  in  axillary  spikes  with  long  peduncles,  opposite, 
large,  white,  covered  with  rusty  spots,  the  lower  part  of  the  2 
lips  purple.  Calyx  gamosepalous,  regular,  five  deep  clefts. 
Corolla  gamopetalous,  irregular,  short  tube,  limb  2 -lipped,  the 


RHIN  ACANTHUS    COMMIJNIS  189 

lower  lip  ending  in  a  spur.     Ovary  free,  2-celled,  each  cell 
containing  2  ovules.     Style  filiform,  long,  inserted  in  a  sort  of 
canal  formed  by  the  upper  lip  of  the  corolla.     Stigma  bilobu- 
late.     Seed  vessel  depressed,  4  flattened,  lenticular  seeds. 
HABITAT. — Luzon  and  Pauay. 

Rhinacanthus  communis,  Nees.     (Justicia  nasuta,  L.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Tagaktagak,  Tag.;  Naganmlli,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  plant  has  much  reputation  in  India  in  the  treat- 
ment of  skin  diseases,  and  indeed  its  efficiency  is  great  in  the 
stubborn  Tinea  circinata  tropica,  known  throughout  the  Orient 
as  "  dhobie-itch."  In  this  disease  it  is  applied  for  several  days 
to  the  affected  part  in  the  form  of  a  paste  composed  of  the 
bruised  leaves,  the  juice  of  the  leaves  and  lemon  juice.  The 
fresh  root  also  may  be  employed.  The  Hindoo  physicians 
state  that  the  root  decoction  in  milk  is  aphrodisiac  ;  the  root 
is  also  regarded  as  an  antidote  for  the  bite  of  the  "  cobra  da 
cabelho/'  but  its  virtue  is  purely  imaginary.  Of  late  years 
the  plant  has  been  used  in  Europe  under  the  name  of  "  tong- 
pang-chong,"  to  treat  chronic  eczema. 

Liborius  made  an  analysis  of  the  root  in  the  laboratory  of 
Dorpat,  separating  13.51J&  ash  and  1.87Jfc  rhinocanthin,  as  well 
as  other  ingredients.  Rhinocanthin  (C14H18O4)  is  supposed  to 
be  the  active  principle  of  the  root.  It  is  analogous  to  quinon 
and  resembles  in  many  particulars  chrysophanic  and  frangulic 
acids.  It  forms  a  resinous,  amorphous  mass,  cherry  red, 
odorless  and  tasteless,  slightly  soluble  in  water,  forming  a 
mildly  alkaline  solution  in  alcohol.  It  does  not  yield  glucose 
when  boiled  with  dilute  hydrochloric  acid.  Liborius  believes 
that  it  exists  only  in  the  intercellular  spaces  of  the  "  root  bark." 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub,  about  4°  high,  stem 
ash-colored,  no  spines.  Leaves  lanceolate,  undulate,  downy. 
Flowers  white  in  spikes.  Calyx  gamosepalous,  5-toothed. 
Corolla  long,  filiform,  limb  4-lobed,  the  3  lower  lobes  ovate, 


190         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

the  upper  pointed.  Stamens  2.  Ovary  free,  2  biovulate 
locules.  Style  simple.  Stigma  bifid.  Seed  vessel  club-shaped, 
4  seeds  in  the  upper  part. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  the  gardens  of  Manila. 

VERBENACE-ffi. 

Vervain  Family. 

Lippia  nodiflora,  Rich.     (Verbena  nodiflora,  L.;    V.  capitata, 

Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Tsatsatsatsahan,  Chachachachahan,  Tag. 

USES. — The  Filipinos  drink  an  infusion  of  the  leaves  in 
place  of  tea,  the  long  Tagalog  name  meaning  "  resembling 
tea."  In  India  they  drink  the  hot  infusion  to  aid  digestion. 
In  some  places  the  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  given  internally 
as  an  emollient  and  diuretic  for  gonorrhoea. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  plant  with  creeping 
stem  taking  root  where  it  touches  the  ground,  obscurely  an- 
gular, covered  with  short  down.  Leaves  opposite,  smooth, 
clasping  the  stem,  inversely  ovate,  serrate  only  above,  slightly 
downy.  Flowers  white,  slightly  purplish,  axillary  on  a  com- 
mon peduncle,  in  a  rough  conical  head.  Corolla  somewhat 
bowed,  funnel-form,  gaping,  throat  narrow,  limb  4-lobed, 
one  lobe  shorter  than  the  rest.  Stamens  4,  2  longer.  Fila- 
ment almost  wanting.  Anthers  4,  fertile.  Ovary  superior, 
style  very  short.  Stigma  semi-globose.  Fruit,  2  seeds  cov- 
ered by  the  pellicle  of  the  ovary. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  the  rice  fields. 

Tectona  grandis,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Teca,  Sp.;  Tilda,  Tag.;  Dalondon,  Yate, 
Kalayati,  Vis.;  Teak  Tree,  Eng. 

USES. — The  powdered  wood  made  into  a  paste  with  water  is 
undoubtedly  a  useful  application  in  acute  dermatitis,  especially 


TECTONA   GRANDIS  191 

that  due  to  contact  with  the  caustic  oleo-resin  of  the  cashew  nut 
(Anacardium).  A  decoction  of  the  powder  gives  good  results 
as  a  gargle  for  aphthae,  gingivitis,  and  other  inflammations 
within  the  buccal  cavity.  In  India  they  give  internally  6—12 
grams  as  a  vermifuge,  and  for  dyspepsia  with  "  heartburn." 

The  flowers  are  diuretic  according  to  Endlicher ;  the  bark  is 
astringent;  the  leaves  and  the  seeds  are  purgative,  the  latter 
yielding  an  oil  which  they  use  in  India  to  stimulate  the  growth 
of  the  hair.  Gibson  considers  the  seeds  diuretic  and  quotes  two 
cases  where  abundant  diuresis  immediately  followed  by  the  ap- 
plication of  a  poultice  of  the  bruised  seeds  over  the  pubis.  In 
Concan  they  make  a  sort  of  extract  from  the  wood  and  apply  it 
to  the  yoke  sores  of  the  cattle  to  prevent  the  growth  of  maggots. 
This  disinfectant  action  marks  the  plant  as  worthy  of  further 
experiment. 

Rumphius  is  authority  for  the  statement  that  the  infusion  of 
the  leaves  is  used  in  cholera.  The  Chinese  make  vessels  of  the 
wood  to  preserve  their  drinking  water  at  sea ;  the  first  and 
second  waters  are  bitter  and  are  thrown  away,  but  after  that 
the  water  has  no  disagreeable  taste  and  is  said  to  aid  digestion. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  wood  was  poisonous  because  at  one 
time  several  workmen  died  from  the  effects  of  wounds  caused 
by  splinters  of  the  wood,  but  the  statement  has  not  been  con- 
firmed by  later  cases  and  the  deaths  were  most  probably  due  to 
a  septic  infection  independent  of  the  chemical  composition  of 
the  splinters. 

R.  Romania  has  extracted  a  resin  from  the  wood  by  alcohol ; 
it  is  soft,  and  on  distillation  yields  a  crystalline  body  called  by 
the  author  tectoquinon  (C18H10O2),  on  account  of  its  resemblance 
to  the  quinons.  It  melts  at  171°  and  volatilizes  slightly  at 
ordinary  temperature. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  with  leaves  almost  round, 
oval,  entire,  30-60  centimeters  by  20-40,  the  under  surface 
covered  with  hoary  down.  Petioles  very  short,  flattened. 


192         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Flowers  in  panicles.  Primary  peduncle  square.  Calyx  in- 
ferior, bell-shaped,  very  large  when  ripe,  5-cleft.  Corolla 
white,  longer  than  calyx,  covered  with  a  mealy  substance,  bell- 
shaped,  5-lobed.  Stamens  5  or  6,  inserted  in  the  corolla. 
Filaments  flattened,  somewhat  longer  than  the  corolla.  Anthers 
semi-globose,  a  yellow  zone  below  and  a  black  circle  above. 
Ovary  free,  rounded,  4  locules  each  with  1  seed.  Style 
same  length  as  stamens.  Stigma  bilobulate.  Drupe  globose, 
woolly,  spongy,  depressed,  covered  by  the  membranous  inflated 
calyx  ;  contains  one  nut,  very  hard,  4  apartments  each  contain- 
ing one  seed. 

HABITAT. — The  mountains  of  Morong  and  Tanay  (of  La 
Laguna  Province)  bear  some  specimens.  Very  common  in  the 
island  of  Negros  and  in  Mindanao.  It  also  grows  in  the 
Visayas,  Mindora  and  Paragua.  Blooms  in  September. 

Vitex  trifolia,  L.     (  V.  repens,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Lagundi,  Tag. ;  Gapasgapas,  Vis. ;  Dangla, 
Hoc. 

Vitex  Negundo,  L.     (V.  Leucoxylon,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Lagundi,  Malawin,  Tag. 

USES. — Both  species  are  used  medicinally  in  the  Philippines 
and  both  enjoy  high  repute.  A  variety  of  the  first  that  seems 
to  possess  the  same  virtues  is  the  V.  repens,  Blanco,  called 
lagundiy  gapag  by  the  Tagalos. 

V.  trifolia  is  regarded  in  India  as  the  most  powerful  species 
and  Boutins  has  extolled  it  highly,  calling  attention  to  the  ano- 
dyne, diuretic  and  emmenagogue  properties  of  the  leaves. 
These  are  very  effective  applied  in  fomentation  to  rheumatic 
joints  and  their  use  is  extensive  both  in  India  and  the  Malay 
Archipelago.  A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  locally  and  as 
a  vapor-bath  in  the  treatment  of  beriberi.  A  large  earthen 
pot  is  filled  with  leaves  and  water  and  brought  to  a  boil ;  the 
pot  is  then  placed  under  a  chair  in  which  the  patient  sits  en- 


VITEX    NEC  UNDO  193 

veloped  in  a  sheet  or  blanket.  If  necessary  the  pot  may  be  re- 
moved 2  or  3  times,  heated  and  replaced  until  abundant  sweating 
is  induced.  An  apparatus  to  conduct  the  steam  under  the  chair 
would  be  much  handier,  but  it  is  unsafe  to  place  a  small  stove 
or  lamp  under  the  chair  for  fear  of  setting  fire  to  the  cloth. 

In  India  and  the  Philippines  there  is  a  peculiar  inflamma- 
tion localized  in  the  soles  of  the  feet  and  characterized  by  an 
intense  burning  rather  than  pain,  not  described  in  the  text- 
books, but  called  by  the  natives  "  burning  of  the  feet  "  ("  quema- 
dura  del  pie"  or  "ignipedites");  in  our  own  experience  and 
according  to  the  consensus  of  the  physicians  of  India,  the  ap- 
plication of  these  leaves  3  or  4  times  a  day  to  the  soles  of  the 
feet  has  afforded  marked  relief.  The  leaves  are  heated  in  an 
earthen  pot  without  the  addition  of  water,  and  when  suffi- 
ciently hot  are  applied  and  held  in  place  by  a  bandage. 

Dr.  W.  Ingledew  states  that  the  natives  of  Mysore  (south  of 
India)  treat  rheumatism  and  febrile  catarrhs  by  steam  baths  of 
the  decoction  of  vitex.  A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  in  common 
use  in  the  Philippines,  Malay  Islands  and  India  as  a  bath  for 
women  in  the  puerperal  state. 

The  dry  leaves  are  smoked  for  headache  and  catarrh.  Ac- 
cording to  creditable  authority  the  application  of  the  heated 
leaves  in  orchids  produces  good  results.  The  root  is  tonic,  feb- 
rifuge and  expectorant  and  the  fruit  nervine  and  emmenagogue 
according  to  the  Sanscrit  writer. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. —  V.  trifolia  is  a  small  tree,  3-4 
meters  high.  The  fruit  and  leaves  are  said  to  emit  the  odor  of 
rosemary.  Leaves  ternate.  Leaflets  oval,  entire,  hoary  be- 
low, no  secondary  petioles.  Flowers  purplish  in  forked  pan- 
icle. Corolla  bell-shaped  with  palate.  The  lower  lip  3-lobed, 
the  middle  lobe  larger  ;  upper  lip  smaller,  2-lobed.  Stamens 
4,  free,  didynamous.  Ovary  free.  Style  simple,  with  stigma- 
bearing  lobules.  Berry-like  drupe,  with  4-celled  nut,  one  seed 
in  each  cell. 


194        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

HABITAT. — Common  on  the  seashore.    Blooms  in  June. 

The  V.  Negundo  is  a  small  tree  like  the  preceding,  but  when 
it  grows  in  the  forest  it  develops  to  a  tree  of  the  first  order, 
yielding  a  valuable  building  wood  called  molave  (Sp.)  or  more 
properly  molawin.  Leaves  compound  with  5  leaflets.  Secon- 
dary petioles  short.  Flowers  in  dichotomous  panicle.  Fruit 
like  that  of  the  foregoing  species. 

Clerodendron  infortunatum,  L.      (C.  forlunatum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Kasupayit,  Gubat,  Tag.;  Salig-wak,  Vis. 

USES. — The  fresh  juice  of  the  leaves  is  used  in  India  as  a 
vermifuge,  according  to  K.  L.  Dey  ;  it  is  also  used  as  a  bitter 
tonic  in  malarial  fever,  especially  of  children.  As  a  tonic  and 
antipyretic  it  is  certainly  worthy  of  recommendation. 

Dr.  Bholanauth  Bose  calls  attention  to  this  plant  as  a  good 
substitute  for  Ophelia  chirata,  DC.  as  a  tonic  and  antipyretic. 

The  infusion  of  the  bruised  leaves  (10  grams  to  water  300 
cc.)  is  given  up  to  200  cc.  a  day  in  3  or  4  doses ;  the  tincture 
(leaves  60  grams,  alcohol  90  Jfc,  500  cc.)  is  given  up  to  10 
grams  a  day  in  5  or  6  doses. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  shrub  with  nearly  round 
stem;  leaves  opposite,  ovate,  oblong;  acute,  entire,  slightly 
downy.  Flowers  terminal  in  umbellate  panicles,  the  umbellets 
opposite  and  each  bearing  3  flowerets.  Calyx  bluish,  long, 
tubular,  somewhat  expanded  in  the  middle,  divided  in  5  parts. 
Corolla  twice  as  long  as  the  calyx,  tube  filiform,  limb  5-lobed. 
Stamens  didynamous,  their  lower  parts  grown  to  the  tube  of 
the  corolla.  Filaments  longer  than  the  corolla.  Ovary  con- 
ical. Style  of  same  length  as  the  stamens.  Stigma  bifid. 
Berry  dry,  quadrate,  depressed,  the  shell  hard,  4  grooves,  4 
cells,  each  containing  a  seed. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  Manila  and  in  the  forests. 


OCIMUM    SANCTUM  195 

LABIATE. 

Mint  Family. 
Ocimum  basilicum,  L.     (0.  Americanum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Solasi,  Tag.,  Pam.;  Bonak,  Vis.;  Sweet  Basil, 
Eng. 

Ocimum  gratissimum,  L.     (0.  virgatum  Blanco.) 
NOM.  VULG. — Lokoloko,  Tag.,  Pam.;  Kolonkogon,  Vis. 

Ocimum  sanctum,  L.     (O.flexuosum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Balanoy,  Tag.;  Sacred  Basil,  Eng. 

USES. — All  three  species  possess  a  characteristic  camphora- 
ceous  odor  and  are  commonly  grouped  under  the  one  name, 
albahacas  (sweet  basil).  Some  natives  call  them  solasi  and  others 
balanay,  but  many  are  able  to  distinguish  the  various  species 
correctly.  All  three  have  analogous  properties,  but  the  most 
widely  used  is  the  0.  basilicum.  These  properties  are  stimu- 
lant, diaphoretic,  and  expectorant,  and  the  infusion  is  used  com- 
monly for  flatulent  colic  and  painful  dyspepsia.  The  dry 
powdered  leaves  of  the  0.  sanctum  are  taken  as  snuff  by  the 
natives  of  India  in  the  treatment  of  a  curious  endemic  disease 
characterized  by  the  presence  of  small  maggots  in  the  nasal 
secretion ;  this  disease  is  called  peenash,  and  possibly  exists  in 
the  Philippines  though  I  have  never  encountered  it. 

Martins  states  that  in  Brazil  they  use  a  decoction  of  the 
mucilaginous  leaves  of  the  0.  gratissimum  in  the  treatment  of 
gonorrhoea  and  Dr.  Waitz  highly  recommends  a  strong  de- 
coction of  these  leaves  for  the  aphthae  of  children,  which  he 
claims  to  have  cured  by  this  means  after  all  European  drugs 
had  failed.  This  fact  and  the  action  of  the  snuff  above 
mentioned,  demonstrate  the  antiseptic  properties  of  the  plant, 
due  doubtless  to  its  abundant  aromatic  principles. 

0.   basilicum  contains  a  green   essential   oil,  very  aromatic, 


196         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

becoming  solid ;  it  is  a  sort  of  camphor  (C21)H1(.6HO,  Raybaud) 
and  crystallizes  in  4-faced  prisms. 

All  the  plants  are  used  to  prepare  aromatic  baths  for  cases 
of  atrophy  and  debility  in  children  (Waitz)  and  for  the  treat- 
ment of  rheumatism  and  paralysis. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — 0.  gratissimum  is  a  plant  2-3° 
high,  stem  straight,  downy.  Leaves  medium  lanceolate,  finely 
serrate  from  the  middle  upwards,  with  short  hairs  and  trans- 
parent dots.  Flowers  in  long  terminal  racemes.  Calyx, 
upper  lip  horizontal,  round ;  lower  lip  3  pointed  parts,  the 
middle  one  subdivided  in  two.  Corolla  yellowish,  inverted, 
one  lip  cleft  in  4  obtuse  lobes ;  the  other  longer,  narrow,  ser- 
rate. Stamens  didynamous,  2  shorter.  Anthers  semilunar. 
Stigma  bifid.  Seeds  4. 

The  0.  Americanum  has  leaves  lanceolate,  ovate,  acute,  full 
of  pores,  somewhat  downy.  It  is  more  fragrant  than  the  other 
species  and  its  flowers  are  bluish-white  in  racemes. 

The  0.  sanctum  is  the  most  sacred  plant  of  the  Hindoos,  dedi- 
cated to  Vishnu ;  its  branches  are  wavy  or  cauliflexuous, 
leaves  obliquely  ovate,  obtuse,  serrate,  nearly  glabrous. 

HABITAT. — All  species  are  very  common  and  universally 
known. 

Coleus  aromaticus,  Benth.     (C.  suganda,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Oregano,  Sp.-FiL;  Suganda,  Tag.;  Mar- 
joram, Eng.  (The  Sp.  and  Eng.  names  are  incorrect.) 

USES. — The  fleshy,  aromatic  leaves  of  this  plant  are  bruised 
and  applied  locally  for  the  bites  of  centipedes  and  scorpions. 
They  are  also  applied  to  the  temples  and  forehead  for  head- 
ache, held  in  place  by  a  bandage.  In  Cochin  China  they  are 
used  in^  asthma,  chronic  bronchitis,  epilepsy  and  other  convul- 
sive diseases.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  a  carminative  and  is 
given  to  children  suffering  with  wind  colic.  Dr.  Wight  claims 
to  have  observed  occasional  intoxicating  effects  following  its 


ROSMARINUS   OFFICINALIS  197 

use,  but  Dymock  states  that  he  has  never  observed  such  effects. 
The  plant  contains  a  coloring  matter,  colein  (C10H10O3),  red,  in- 
soluble in  ether,  soluble  in  alcohol,  slightly  soluble  in  water. 
On  the  addition  of  ammonia  the  solution  changes  to  purple, 
then  violet,  indigo,  green,  and,  finally,  greenish-yellow. 

Another  species,  the  C.  atropurpureus,  Benth.  (C.  grandifo- 
UuSj  Blanco),  well  known  in  the  Philippines  by  its  common 
name  mayana,  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  bruises,  the  bruised 
fleshy  leaves  being  the  part  employed  ;  these  leaves  are  downy 
and  dark  violet  in  color. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Leaves  opposite,  nearly  sessile, 
cordate,  obtuse,  downy  and  very  fleshy.  Flowers  in  a  quad- 
rangular raceme,  each  group  of  these  flowerets  having  a  con- 
cave scale  at  the  base.  Calyx  bell-shaped,  2-lipped ;  the  upper 
lip  longer  and  entire ;  the  lower  with  4  narrow  teeth.  Corolla 
a  pale  violet,  5  times  longer  than  the  calyx.  Stamens  didyn- 
amous,  straight,  longer  than  the  corolla.  Style  bifid.  Seeds  4. 

HABITAT. — Universally  abundant. 

Rosmarinus  offieinalis,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Romero,  Sp. ;  Rosemary,  Eng. 

USES. — This  is  one  of  the  plants  most  valued  by  the  Filipi- 
nos. Its  infusion  is  used  as  an  eye-wash  for  slight  catarrhal 
conjunctivitis,  applied  3  or  4  times  a  day.  It  is  one  of  the 
aromatic  plants  used  so  commonly  to  bathe  women  in  the  puer- 
peral state,  and  in  vapor  baths  for  rheumatism,  paralysis  and 
incipient  catarrhs.  The  entire  plant  is  a  stimulant  and  car- 
minative but  little  used  internally ;  in  atonic  dyspepsia  it  has 
given  good  results  taken  in  the  same  form  as  the  infusion  of 
manzanilla. 

It  contains  a  large  per  cent,  of  an  essential  oil  which  gives 
the  plant  its  agreeable  odor.  This  oil  enters  into  the  composi- 
tion of  "  Cologne  Water ";  it  is  said  to  arrest  falling  of  the 
hair  and  is  a  diffusible  stimulant  which  may  be  given  internally 


198        THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

in  doses  of  3-5  drops.  It  is  colorless  and  liquid  when  fresh, 
but  in  time  becomes  dark  and  viscid.  It  combines  freely  with 
alcohol  and  its  density  is  0.885. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  from  2  to  3°  high. 
Leaves  sessile,  linear,  obtuse,  margins  revolute,  white-hoary 
beneath.  Calyx  tubular,  2-lipped.  Corolla  rose- violet  color, 
gaping  ;  the  upper  lip  concave,  2-lobed  ;  the  lower  lip  longer, 
3-lobed.  Stamens,  2  fertile  and  2  sterile.  Style,  same  length 
as  the  stamens.  Stigma  simple.  Fruit,  4  seeds  in  the  depths 
of  the  calyx. 

HABITAT. — It  is  carefully  cultivated  throughout  the  Phil- 
ippines. 

Anisomeles  ovata,  R.  Br.     (PUomis  alba,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Taligharap,  Tag.;  Jerusalem  Sage,  Eng. 

USES. — The  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  bitter  and  aromatic 
and  is  used  in  catarrhal  inflammations  of  the  stomach  and  in- 
testines and  in  intermittent  fevers.  Used  as  a  vapor-bath  it 
produces  abundant  diaphoresis,  and  the  infusion  given  internally 
has  a  like  effect.  The  leaves,  when  distilled,  yield  an  oil  which 
is  used  as  an  external  application  in  rheumatism. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  6°  or  more  high. 
Root  fibrous,  trunk  and  branches  enlarged  at  the  joints. 
Leaves  opposite,  ovate,  obtusely  serrate,  soft  and  downy. 
Flowers  pink,  verticillate,  in  opposite  clusters  around  the  stem, 
with  several  linear  and  hairy  involucres  at  the  base  of  each 
cluster.  Calyx,  5  sharp  teeth.  Corolla,  2-lipped  ;  the  lower 
much  larger,  downy  within,  3-lobed,  the  middle  lobe  larger 
and  broader,  notched  at  the  extremity,  and  its  borders  turned 
downward  ;  the  other  2  lateral  lobes  very  small,  narrow;  the 
upper  lip  much  shorter  and  smaller,  entire,  enveloping  the  sta- 
mens. Stamens  didynamous.  Style  about  the  same  length  as 
the  stamens.  Stigma  bifid.  Fruit,  4  small  seeds. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  on  the  fields  of  Manila  Province. 


MIRABILIS    JALAP  A  199 

Leucas  aspera,  Spreng.     (Phlomis  Zeylaniea,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Pansipansi,  Solasolasian,  Karultansoli,  Tag.; 
Pansipansi,  Paypaysi,  Vis. 

USES. — The  bruised  leaves  are  applied  to  the  bites  of  ser- 
pents or  poisonous  insects.  In  India  they  are  similarly  used. 
The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  very  useful  in  the  treatment  of  certain 
skin  diseases,  especially  psoriasis. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  about  2°  high,  very 
well  known  to  the  natives.  Leaves  sessile,  lanceolate,  finely 
serrate  and  covered  with  short  hairs.  Flowers  terminal,  white, 
verticillate,  with  the  characteristics  of  the  mint  family. 

PLANTAGINACEJE. 

Plantain  Family. 
Plantago  erosa,  Wall.     (P.  crenata  and  media,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Llanten,  Sp.-Fil.;  Lantm,  Tag.;  Plantain, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  leaves  of  this  popular  plant  are  the  commonest 
remedy  in  the  Philippines  for  abscess  of  the  gums.  They  are 
bruised  and  applied  with  a  little  lard  over  the  swollen  cheek. 
It  is  emollient  and,  in  decoction,  is  used  as  a  substitute  for  flax- 
seed. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — This  plant  is  so  universally 
known  that  there  is  no  fear  of  confusing  it  with  others.  It 
flourishes  as  a  common  weed  in  the  U.  S.  as  well  as  the  Phil- 
ippines. 

NYCTAGINACEJE 

Four-0'Clock  Family. 

Mirabilis  Jalapa,  L.     (M.  longiflora,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Mamvtilas,  Suspiros,  Sp.-Fil.;  Gilalas,  Tag.; 
Four  O'Clock,  Marvel  of  Peru,  Eng. 

USES. — The  root  is  purgative  and  possesses  the  same  active 


200         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES. 

principles,  the  same  properties  and  is  given  in  the  same  dose  as 
jalap.  According  to  the  experience  of  Shoolbred,  Hunter,  W. 
O'Shaughnessy  and  Ainslie,  its  purgative  action  is  weak  and  un- 
certain and  therefore  unworthy  of  use  as  a  substitute  for  jalap. 
The  bruised  leaves  are  used  as  poultices  to  hasten  suppuration, 
but  according  to  Waring  they  are  capable  of  causing  dermatitis. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  flowers  open  toward  the  end 
of  the  day  and  close  again  at  sunrise.  The  root  is  blackish  and 
spindle-shaped.  The  stem  smooth,  branches  forked.  Leaves 
opposite,  lanceolate-cordate,  acute,  somewhat  downy  along  the 
borders  and  the  upper  surface.  Petioles  short.  Flowers  fra- 
grant, almost  constantly  blooming,  of  different  colors  even  in 
the  same  plant,  terminal,  in  umbels.  Pedicels  very  short. 
Calyx  persistent,  5-toothed.  Corolla  superior,  very  long,  its 
tube  downy,  funnel-form,  limb  5-lobed.  Stamens  5,  longer 
than  the  corolla.  Style  longer  than  the  stamens.  Stigma  glo- 
bose. Nut  small,  black,  globose,  many-ribbed,  full  of  a  mealy 
substance. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  gardens. 

AMARANTHACEJE. 

Amaranth  Family. 
Amaranthus  spinosus,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Kilitis,  Omyi,  Tag.;  Ayantoto,  Pam.;  Kali- 
tis,  TiliteSj  Bayag-bayag ,  Vis.;  Kuanton,  Hoc.;  Thorny  Amar- 
anth, Eng. 

USES. — The  entire  plant  is  emollient  and  its  principal  use  is 
as  a  poultice  for  inflammations,  bruises,  etc.  The  decoction  of 
the  root  is  diuretic  and  antiphlogistic  and  is  used  in  Mauritius 
(30  grams  root  to  750  cc.  water)  as  an  internal  remedy  for 
gonorrhoea  ;  indeed  it  is  there  regarded  as  a  specific  for  that  dis- 
ease, checking  the  discharge  and  the  "  ardor  urinse."  It  should 
be  continued  till  the  cure  is  complete. 


ACHYRANTHES   OBTUSIFOLIA  201 

The  bruised  leaves  are  used  locally  for  eczema. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  2-3°  high  of  a  reddish 
color.  Leaves  alternate,  lanceolate,  broad,  notched  at  the  apex, 
wavy,  glabrous.  Petioles  with  a  pair  of  spines  in  their  axils. 
Flowers  small,  yellow-green,  in  round  axillary  clusters  and  in 
long  terminal  spikes.  The  pistillate  flowers  are  sometimes  sep- 
arated from  the  staminate,  sometimes  mixed  with  them  in  the 
lower  part  of  the  spike.  Staminate :  No  corolla,  calyx  2-5 
parts,  stamens  4-5.  Pistillate  :  Style  and  stigma  2  or  3,  other- 
wise the  same  as  the  staminate.  Seed  vessel  with  1  seed. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts.     Blooms  in  October. 

Achyranthes  obtusifolia,  Lam.     (A.  aspera,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VuLGr. — Hangoi-j  Hangot,  Dokotdekot,  Libay,  Tag.; 
Angod,  Pam. 

USES. — The  plant  has  astringent  and  diuretic  properties  ;  the 
latter  were  observed  by  Dr.  Cornish,  who  communicated  the 
facts  to  Waring,  calling  special  attention  to  the  good  service  the 
drug  had  afforded  him  in  dropsy.  Other  physicians  in  India 
have  confirmed  these  observations  of  Cornish.  The  decoction 
is  made  of  60  grams  of  the  entire  plant  to  750  cc.  water,  boiled 
till  reduced  one-half  and  strained  under  pressure.  Dose,  60  cc. 
every  2  hours  till  diuresis  is  induced. 

The  ashes  of  this  plant,  like  those  of  the  Amaranthus  spi- 
nosus,  L.,  contain  a  large  quantity  of  potassa,  and  are  used  for 
washing  clothes ;  on  this  account  it  has  received  its  Sanscrit 
name  Apamarga  (the  washer).  The  ashes  are  also  mixed  in  an 
infusion  of  ginger  and  given  internally  in  dropsy. 

The  flowers  are  bruised  and  applied  to  the  bites  of  snakes  and 
other  poisonous  animals.  In  India  there  is  a  superstition  that 
carrying  these  flowers  about  the  person  will  keep  off  scorpions. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  about  3°  high,  the 
stem  angular  and  downy.  Leaves  opposite,  downy,  clasping 
the  stem,  lanceolate,  very  obtuse  and  wavy.  Flowers  bent 
17 


202          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

downward  in  a  long  spike  bearing  many  flowerets.  Calyx,  5 
tough  scales.  Corolla  wanting.  Nectary  much  smaller  than 
the  calyx,  monophyllous,  5-lobed.  Stamens  5.  Ovary  top- 
shaped,  upper  part  somewhat  concave.  Style  same  length  as 
stamens.  Stigma  coarse,  bifid.  Fruit,  a  seed  covered  with  2 
membranes,  one  enveloping  it  completely,  the  outer  one  adher- 
ent in  only  one  part. 

HABiTAT.-^Common  in  Luzon.     Blooms  in  November. 

CHENOPODIACEJE. 

Goosefoot  Family. 
Chenopodium  ambrosioides,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Alpasotes,  Sp.-Fil.;  Pasotis,  Apasotis,  Tag.; 
American  Worm-seed,  Mexican  Tea,  Eng. 

USES. — This  plant  is  a  native  of  Mexico.  It  has  a  peculiar, 
somewhat  offensive  odor  and  an  acrid,  aromatic  taste  due  to 
an  essential  oil  resembling  peppermint  (?).  According  to  Padre 
Mercado,  "  When  the  seeds  are  taken  with  wine,  sensation  is  so 
dulled  that  the  drinker  may  be  whipped  without  feeling  the 
lashes,  and  even  if  put  to  the  torment,  does  not  feel  it."  These 
properties,  if  true,  make  this  plant  one  of  the  most  useful  in  the 
Philippines.  The  entire  plant  is  stimulant.  The  infusion, 
given  internally,  causes  sweating,  excites  the  circulation,  is 
diuretic,  tonic,  stomachic,  and  useful  as  well  as  an  antispas- 
modic  in  nervous  troubles.  The  leaves  are  employed  in  making 
the  infusion,  8  grams  to  200  of  boiling  water.  It  is  widely  used 
in  bronchial  catarrhs  and  in  asthma  on  account  of  its  sudorific 
and  expectorant  action.  It  seems  also  to  possess  emmenagogue 
properties.  The  seeds  yield  on  distillation  a  yellow  essential 
oil  with  a  strong  and  disagreeable  odor,  density  0.908.  Both 
seeds  and  flowers  are  vermifuge,  and  are  used  as  such  in  Brazil 
in  doses  of  8  grams  in  infusion  or  with  an  equal  dose  of  castor 
oil.  The  anthelmintic  dose  of  the  essential  oil  is  5—15  drops 
with  powdered  sugar. 


ARISTOLOCHIA    INPICA  203 

Rilliet  and  Barthez  recommend  the  following  potion  for  in- 
fantile chorea  : 

Leaves  of  chenopodium 4  grams. 

Water 500       " 

Make  an  infusion  and  add  syrup  of  orange  flowers  50  grams. 
Dose,  several  tablespoonfuls  a  day. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  2°  high;  stem  beset 
with  hairs,  many-angled.  Leaves  lanceolate,  varying  from  en- 
tire to  cut-pinnatifid.  Flowers  green,  sessile,  axillary,  in  small 
clusters.  Calyx  5-parted.  Corolla  wanting.  Stamens  5. 
Filaments  flattened,  inserted  near  the  center  of  the  flowers  op- 
posite the  parts  of  the  calyx.  Anthers  in  2  globose  parts. 
Ovary  superior,  globose,  depressed,  unilocular,  uniovulate. 
Style  none.  Stigmas,  2,  3  or  4,  short,  divergent.  Fruit  a 
lenticular  seed  covered  by  the  membrane  of  the  ovary. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  gardens  and  fields.     Blooms  in  May. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEJE. 

Birth-wort  Family. 
Aristolochia  Indica,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Timbagan,  Malaubi,  Tag.;  Indian  Birthwort, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  root  has  a  wide  use  in  medicine  in  the  Philip- 
pines ;  it  is  bitter,  of  a  nauseating  odor  and  has  the  reputation 
of  being  a  powerful  antidote  for  the  bites  of  poisonous  serpents 
and  insects.  It  has  further  use  in  the  treatment  of  malarial 
fever,  in  dyspepsia,  and  in  the  flatulent  colic  of  teething  chil- 
dren. It  is  regarded  as  tonic  and  emmenagogue.  In  various 
forms  of  diarrhea  it  appears  to  be  effective  and  Dr.  Gibson 
states  that  it  is  useful  in  intestinal  disorders.  In  the  Philip- 
pines it  is  not  only  given  internally  but  also  externally  applied 
over  the  abdomen,  mixed  with  hot  cocoanut  oil  (10  grams  of 
the  powdered  root  to  100  oil). 


204          THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

The  first  Portuguese  settlers  in  India  called  the  drug  "  Cobra 
Root/'  because  the  natives  regarded  it  as  an  antidote  for  the 
bite  of  the  terrible  "Cobra  da  Capello."  This  reputation, 
however,  seems  not  to  have  been  deserved,  judging  from  the 
fearful  mortality  in  India  and  Ceylon  due  to  the  bite  of  the  cobra, 

Dr.  Imlach,  a  surgeon  of  Singapore,  states  that  in  one  season 
in  one  collectorate,  Shikapore,  no  less  than  306  cases  of  snake 
bites  were  officially  reported,  the  mortality  being  63,  or  about 
20.58  per  cent.  Other  reports  make  it  safe  to  conclude  that  in 
the  entire  province  during  the  year  no  less  than  300  deaths 
were  due  to  this  cause  alone.  Dr.  Waring  believes  that  if  an 
antidote  for  snake  bite  exist  in  the  vegetable  kingdom  it  will 
most  probably  be  found  in  the  natural  order  Aristolochiacese. 

In  North  India  this  drug  is  used  as  emmenagogue  and  anti- 
arthritic,  and  in  Banda  for  intermittent  fevers  and  intestinal 
disorders.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  emetic.  The  dose  of  the 
powdered  root  is  3-5  grams  daily. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  twining  shrub,  with  leaves 
heart-shaped,  ovate,  acute,  glabrous.  Petioles  short.  Flowers 
dark  reddish-gray,  in  panicles.  Calyx  wanting.  Corolla  glo- 
bose below,  the  tube  cylindrical,  expanding  at  the  top.  Anthers 
6,  in  pairs.  Filaments,  none.  Styles  6,  very  coarse,  a  mem- 
brane at  the  base  including  all.  Stigmas  simple.  Seed  vessel 
inferior,  6-ribbed,  6  cells  and  many  winged  seeds.  The  seed 
vessel  after  casting  the  seeds  resembles  a  pair  of  balance  scales 
with  its  little  plates  or  pans.  Hence  the  Tagalo  name  Tim- 
bagan  meaning  "  balance.77 

HABITAT. — In  Luzon  and  Panay.     Blooms  in  November. 

PIPERACEJE. 

Pepper  Family. 
Piper  Betle,  L.     (Chaviea  Betle  and  C.  auriculata,  Miq. ; 

Piper  Betel,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Hojas  de  buyo,  Sp.-Fil.  ;  Itmo,  Tag.;  Mamin, 
Bic. ;  Buyo,  Mamon,  Vis. ;  Samat,  Pam. ;  Betel  Pepper,  Eng. 


PIPER    BETLE  205 

USES. — A  masticatory,  used  all  over  the  extreme  Orient,  is 
composed  of  the  leaves  of  this  plant,  a  little  slaked  oyster-shell 
lime  and  a  rounded  slice  of  the  bonga  or  areca  nut ;  the 
Filipinos  call  this  combination  bayo,  though  the  name  is 
not  of  native  origin ;  the  Tagalos  call  it  hitsu.  The  use  of 
buyo  by  careless  persons  is  decidedly  repugnant,  for  the  mix- 
ture of  the  lime  and  the  pigment  of  the  bonga  imparts  a  blood- 
red  or  rather  brick-red  color  to  the  saliva  which  they  spit  in 
mouthfuls  into  the  streets  and  other  public  places  with  no 
thought  of  the  feelings  of  others.  Unless  the  mouth  is  carefully 
cleaned  the  teeth  become  encrusted  with  a  sort  of  black  enamel 
and  the  breath  assumes  a  detestable  odor.  When  used  in  small 
quantities  and  with  proper  toilet  of  the  mouth,  and  this  is  the 
common  practice  among  the  Filipinos,  buyo  seems  to  be  a  very 
useful  preservative  of  the  teeth  and  a  gingival  and  stomachic 
tonic.  These  properties  are  readily  understood  when  we  con- 
sider that  the  lime  is  antacid,  the  bonga  astringent  and  tonic 
and  the  betel  aromatic  and  stimulant. 

The  buyo  leaf  plays  a  very  important  part  in  the  therapeutics 
of  the  infant  of  the  Philippines  :  in  its  indigestions,  colics  and 
diarrhoeas  the  heated  leaves  are  applied  to  the  abdomen  pre- 
viously anointed  with  hot  cocoanut  oil.  In  bronchitis  and 
laryngitis  the  heated  leaves  are  applied  over  the  chest  or  neck 
after  rubbing  the  parts  with  oil.  It  undoubtedly  produces  good 
effects  and  the  physicians  of  India  recommend  it  in  the  same 
cases  and  in  the  same  form  as  in  the  Philippines.  Applied  to 
the  breasts  of  parturient  women  it  dries  up  the  milk  and  in  the 
same  way  tends  to  reduce  any  glandular  enlargement. 

Dr.  Kleinstiick  of  Java  recommends  the  essence  of  the  leaves 
in  all  sorts  of  catarrhs  and  as  an  antiseptic  in  doses  of  one  drop 
to  140  of  the  vehicle.  This  essence  is  obtained  by  distillation  ; 
it  is  dark  in  color,  has  an  acrid  taste  and  an  odor  resembling 
that  of  tea.  Its  density  is  1.020.  The  dried  leaves  contain 
one-half  per  cent,  of  the  essence  and  it  is  probable  that  the 
fresh  ones  contain  a  greater  proportion. 


206          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  with  yellow  flowers 
and  scandent  stem,  climbing  straight  up  trees  or  artificial  sup- 
ports. Leaves  cleft  at  the  base,  acute,  entire,  glabrous,  dark 
green.  According  to  Blanco  it  is  cultivated  best  in  somewhat 
sandy  soil.  Pasay,  near  Manila,  and  Bauang,  in  Batangas, 
furnish  a  leaf  most  highly  appreciated. 

Piper  nigrum,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Pimienta,  Sp.;  Paminta,  Malisa,  Tag.;  Black 
Pepper,  Eng. 

USES. — The  berry-like  fruit  of  the  pepper  is  more  extensively 
used  as  a  condiment  in  cooking  than  in  the  treatment  of  dis- 
ease. Used  in  moderation,  however,  it  is  of  considerable  value 
as  a  convenient  stomachic  and  aid  to  digestion  in  tropical 
countries  where  the  digestive  functions  readily  become  sluggish. 
Its  abuse  may  lead  to  serious  consequences,  such  as  inflamma- 
tion of  the  gastro-intestinal  mucous  membrane,  of  the  portal 
system  and  the  liver  itself. 

Pepper  is  used  as  a  febrifuge  in  the  various  forms  of  malarial 
fevers,  in  the  form  of  granules  of  8  or  10  berries  in  a  cup  of 
brandy  and  anise  (Spanish)  ;  this  is  taken  by  the  patient  in  one 
dose  at  the  beginning  of  the  cold  stage  and  followed  by  large 
quantities  of  water  to  relieve  the  thirst  caused  by  the  pepper. 
This  treatment  causes  the  cold  stage  to  rapidly  subside  and 
more  rapidly  induces  and  intensifies  the  sweating  stage.  It  is 
said  that  no  further  attack  of  fever  follows. 

Piperin  (C17H19NO3)  is  febrifuge  and  is  given  in  pill  form 
internally  in  doses  of  30-60  centigrams  ;  the  action  of  the  crude 
drug  is  evidently  due  to  this  neutral  principle. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  plant  is  a  perennial,  climb- 
ing shrub.  Leaves  oval,  tapering  at  both  extremities,  7-nerved. 
Flowers  yellow,  in  a  spike.  Stigmas  2,  bifid.  Fruit  globose, 
with  one  seed. 


CHLORANTHUS    OFFICINALIS  207 

HABITAT. — The  dried  fruit  of  the  pepper  is  universally 
familiar.  It  was  at  one  time  cultivated  in  the  Philippines, 
especially  in  Batangas,  and  Gen.  Basco  promulgated  a  series  of 
orders  to  encourage  its  cultivation.  Padre  Gainza,  afterward 
Bishop  of  Nueva  Caceres,  wrote  a  report  about  its  cultivation, 
but  since  then  the  subject  has  entirely  disappeared  from  notice. 

CHLORANTHACE^I. 

Chloranth  Family. 

Chloranthus  officinalis,  Bl.     (C.  Indicus,  Wight.;  C.  incon- 
spicuus,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Unknown. 

USES. — All  parts  of  the  plant  are  aromatic.  The  leaves 
and  stems  lose  this  property  after  drying,  but  the  roots,  if 
properly  dried,  preserve  it  for  a  long  time.  They  have  a  cam- 
phoraceous  odor  and  bitter,  aromatic  taste,  reminding  one  of 
that  of  Aristolochia  Serpentaria.  The  mountaineers  of  Java 
use  an  infusion  of  the  powdered  root  and  the  bark  of  the 
Cinnamomum  Culilowan  to  treat  puerperal  eclampsia.  Com- 
bined with  carminatives  like  anise  and  onion,  they  use  it  with 
some  success  in  virulent  small-pox  of  children.  The  infusion 
seems  to  be  efficacious  in  fevers  accompanied  by  debility  and 
suppression  of  the  function  of  the  skin.  It  has  also  been  pre- 
scribed in  the  intermittent  fevers  of  Java,  mixed  with  an  in- 
fusion of  the  leaves  of  the  Cedrela  Toona.  Blume  states  that 
it  is  one  of  the  most  powerful  stimulants  known. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  3-4°  high.  Stem  quad- 
rangular. Leaves  opposite,  broad,  lanceolate,  serrate,  with  stiff- 
pointed  teeth  and  somewhat  scaly  beneath.  Petioles  very  short, 
clasping  the  stem  at  their  base,  with  2  intermediate  stipules 
ending  in  two  awl-shaped  points.  Flowers  compound  in  axil- 
lary spikes,  which  bear  the  flowerets  in  2  ranks,  each  flower 
with  a  keeled  bract.  The  corolla  (if  it  may  be  so  called)  a 


208          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

fleshy,  3-lobed  lamina.  Perianth  wanting.  Receptacle  dome- 
shaped.  Anthers  4,  inserted  on  the  surface  of  the  lamina,  2- 
valved.  Ovary  1-celled,  with  1  ovule.  Style  short.  Berry- 
like  fruit,  globose,  with  1  seed  covered  by  a  somewhat  brittle 
membrane. 

HABITAT. — La  Laguna  and  other  provinces  of  Luzon. 
Blooms  in  September. 

LAURACE^l. 

Laurel  Family. 

Cinnamomum  pauciflorum,  Nees.     (Lauras  culilaban,  Var., 

Blanco.) 

C.  tamala,  Nees.     (L.  culilaban,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG.  (of  both). — Kaligag,  Makaligag,  Tag.,  Vis.; 
Kandaroma,  Hoc;  Cassia  Lignea  or  Cassia,  Eng. 

USES. — The  bark  of  both  species  is  known  in  pharmacy  as 
Chinese  cassia  or  Chinese  cinnamon  (cassia  cinnamon).  In- 
deed it  is  very  like  the  cinnamon  of  Ceylon,  comes  in  curled 
quills,  has  the  same  odor  and  taste  though  not  so  delicate  ;  but 
it  is  darker  in  color,  with  a  surface  less  clean  and  smooth.  Its 
chemical  composition  is  identical  with  that  of  the  latter  and 
nowadays  it  forms  an  important  article  of  commerce. 

Cinnamon  renders  good  service  in  therapeutics  as  a  stim- 
ulant of  the  digestive  tract  and  a  heart  tonic.  In  the  atonic 
diarrhoeas  so  common  in  the  Philippines  a  tincture  of  cinnamon 
in  doses  of  8—10  grams  a  day,  or  the  powder  in  cases  where 
alcohol  was  contraindicated,  have  given  me  unhoped-for  re- 
sults. 

In  Spain  and  the  Philippines  it  is  very  popular  as  a  condi- 
ment in  the  kitchen  of  the  confectionery  and  as  a  flavor  for 
chocolate ;  in  fact  in  those  countries  it  takes  the  place  of 
vanilla  in  France.  It  enters  into  the  composition  of  several 
elixirs  and  compound  tinctures,  such  as  "Botot's  Water " 


CASSYTHA    FILIFORMIS  209 

(dentifrice),  " Elixir  of  Garus  "  (tonic  stimulant),  "Balsam  of 
Fioraventi"  (external  stimulant),  laudanum  and  the  elixir  of 
the  Grande  Chartreuse  (diffusible  stimulant). 

Lately  it  has  been  demonstrated  that  the  essence  is  a  power- 
ful antiseptic,  in  the  presence  of  which  typhoid  fever  bacilli 
cannot  develop. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  15-20°  high.  Leaves 
opposite,  lanceolate,  3-nerved,  entire,  glabrous.  Flowers  yel- 
low, paniculate,  umbellate.  Common  peduncles  very  long, 
those  of  the  flowerets  long.  Calyx  none.  Corolla,  6  ovate, 
hairy  petals.  Stamens  9  ;  6  external  to  the  rest  and  bearing 
the  anthers,  4  on  each  filament,  2  below  the  others  ;  the  3  inner 
stamens  bear  2  anthers  each. 

Ine  th  second  species  the  flowers  form  loose,  terminal  pan- 
icles. Stamens  9 ;  6  filaments  inserted  on  the  receptacle, 
spatulate,  each  bearing  4  anthers  on  the  inferior  face ;  the  other 
3  filaments  thick,  each  bearing  4  anthers.  Between  the  last 
filaments  are  8  nearly  globose  glandules. 

HABITAT. — Both  species  are  common  in  the  forests  of  Luzon. 
The  first  species  blooms  in  May,  the  second  in  January. 

Cassytha  filiformis,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Mcddbohok. 

USES. — This  plant  has  no  therapeutical  uses  in  the  Philip- 
pines. In  Senegal  it  is  employed,  according  to  Dujardin-Beau- 
metz,  mixed  with  lard  to  treat  urethritis ;  its  action  is  to  decrease 
the  ardor  urinse.  It  is  not  stated  whether  this  mixture  is  used 
internally  or  externally. 

In  Cochin  China  the  same  writer  states  that  it  is  used  as  an 
antisyphilitic.  In  India  it  is  used  for  the  piles  and  as  an  alter- 
ative for  bilious  disorders.  It  possibly  acts  as  a  circulatory 
stimulant. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  slender,  thread-like,  cylin- 
drical vine,  without  leaves,  that  covers  the  trees  like  a  mantle, 
18 


210         THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

so  luxuriant  is  its  growth.  Flowers  yellow,  in  axillary  spikes. 
Calyx  small,  3  sepals.  Corolla,  3  fleshy  concave  petals.  Sta- 
mens 12  in  4  verticils,  9  fertile  and  3  inner  sterile.  Ovary 
1 -celled,  1-ovuled.  Style  cylindrical.  Drupe  globose,  1-2" 
in  diameter,  covered  by  a  fleshy  envelope,  formed  by  the  recep- 
tacle. Seeds  without  albumen. 

HABITAT. — Luzon,  Mindanao,  Cebu,  on  the  seashore. 

EUPHORBIACEJE. 

Spurge  Family. 
Euphorbia  pilulifera,  L.    (E.  capitata,  Lam.;  E.  hirta,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Gkdondrina,  Sp.-Fil.;  Gatasgatas,  Batobato- 
nis,  Sayikan,  Tag.;  Buyayawa,  Tawawa,  Bowi,  Vis.;  Malismalis, 
Sisiwhan,  Bolobotones,  Magatas,  Pam. 

USES. — This  plant  has  a  reputation  in  the  Philippines  as  a 
haemostatic  of  great  efficiency,  for  which  purpose  the  whole 
plant  is  crushed  and  applied  as  a  poultice  over  the  wound. 
Like  all  members  of  this  family  it  abounds  in  milky  juice.  We 
have  had  no  occasion  to  employ  it  as  a  haemostatic,  but  do  not 
doubt  its  action  in  view  of  the  effect  that  it  exercises  on  the 
circulation  and  the  heart  when  given  internally.  In  toxic 
doses  experiment  has  demonstrated  that  it  kills  animals  by  sus- 
pension of  the  respiratory  movements  and  those  of  the  heart, 
which  at  first  beats  faster  but  gradually  more  slowly.  It  has 
no  effect  upon  any  other  organ  and  is  eliminated  by  the  liver. 

Matheson  recommends  it  as  an  antispasmodic  and  has  em- 
ployed it  also  in  dyspnoea  of  cardiac  origin.  I  have  used  it  in 
both  these  conditions  in  Manila  with  highly  satisfactory  re- 
sults. I  have  found  the  most  convenient  form  of  administra- 
tion to  be  the  tincture  in  doses  of  15-40  drops  a  day  given  in 
an  infusion  of  althaea  every  3  or  4  hours ;  the  vehicle  should 
be  used  liberally  as  it  diminishes  the  irritant  action  of  the 
euphorbia  on  the  stomach.  A  decoction  of  15  grams  of  the 


EUPHORBIA    PILULIFERA  211 

plant  to  2  liters  of  water  may  be  given  in  doses  of  from  6  to  12 
tablespoonfuls  daily.  A  proper  dose  of  the  alcoholic  extract 
is  10  centigrams  in  24  hours.  Dr.  Daruty,  of  Mauritius,  gives 
the  following  formula  : 

Euphorbia  pilulifera  dried  in  the  shade ....  30  grams. 

Water 1 1.  liters. 

Boil  till  reduced  to  1  liter,  cool  and  add  : 

Rum  or  cognac 30  grams. 

DOSE. — 1  wineglassful  3  times  a  day. 

This  decoction  relieves  the  most  obstinate  asthma,  as  well  as 
cough  and  bronchial  irritation.  It  is  necessary  to  use  the  en- 
tire plant.  The  decoction  is  usually  given  in  the  morning, 
fasting,  in  the  middle  of  the  afternoon  and  at  bedtime.  In 
very  stubborn  cases  another  dose  may  be  given  in  the  middle 
of  the  night.  Frequently  the  relief  is  immediate  and  in  some 
cases  a  liter  of  the  decoction  is  enough  to  effect  a  cure.  If  the 
symptoms  return,  it  is  easy  to  abort  them  ;  they  are  less  dis- 
tressing and,  according  to  the  statements  of  patients,  the  medi- 
cine <(  gives  them  air." 

Dr.  Hicks  Bunting  found,  in  an  analysis  of  the  drug,  60  per 
cent,  of  insoluble  residue,  wax,  "  caucho,"  resin,  tannin,  sugar, 
albuminoids,  oxalate  of  calcium  and  other  salts. 

Dr.  Marsset  states  that  the  active  principle  is  soluble  in 
water,  in  dilute  alcohol ;  insoluble  in  ether,  chloroform,  bisul- 
phide of  carbon,  and  turpentine,  but  does  not  give  the  reaction. 

The  toxic  dose  is  1  gram  of  dried  plant  for  each  kilogram  of 
weight  of  the  animal. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  creeping  plant  with 
milky  juice.  Stem  1-2°  high,  cylindrical,  hairy  and  reddish 
in  color.  Leaves  opposite,  obliquely  ovate,  rhomboid,  serrate, 
hairy.  Petioles  very  short.  Two  pointed  stipules  at  the  base. 
Flowers  yellowish  in  hemispherical  umbels  of  5  divisions,  each 
subdivided  in  2.  •  Involucre  universal.  Calyx  bell-shaped, 


212         THE    MEDICINAL  PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

laciniate,  in  5  parts.  Corolla,  5  petals,  inserted  on  the  divisions 
of  the  calyx,  fleshy,  orbicular,  with  an  orbicular  appendix  at 
the  base,  concave  and  differing  from  the  corolla  in  color. 
Stamens  8,  inserted  on  the  base  of  the  calyx  ;  filaments  unequal 
in  length,  each  bearing  2  anthers.  Four  filaments  lacking 
anthers.  Ovary  with  stalk  longer  than  the  flower,  curved 
downward.  Styles  3,  bifid.  Stigmas  simple.  Seed  vessels  3, 
united,  hairy,  3-angled,  each  bearing  1  red  globose  seed  with  a 
wrinkled  surface. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands  and  well 
known  to  the  natives.  The  name  by  which  it  is  best  known  in 
Manila  is  "  golondrina." 

Euphorbia  neriifolia,  L.     (E.  ligularia,  Roxb.; 
E.  pentagona,  Blanco.) 

JSToM.  VULG. — Sorosoro,  Sorog-sorog,  Bait,  Tag.,  Pam.; 
Karambauayci)  Hoc.;  Lengua  de  perro,  Sp.-Fil. 

USES. — The  principal  medicinal  use  of  this  plant  in  the 
Philippines  is  the  introduction  of  the  hot  juice  of  its  fleshy 
leaves  into  the  external  auditory  canal  in  cases  of  otorrhoea  or 
of  simple  earache,  whatever  its  cause. 

The  root  is  regarded  in  India  as  an  antidote  for  snake  bite 
and,  indeed,  the  plant  is  sacred  to  Munsa,  the  snake  divinity. 
During  the  months  of  July  and  August  in  some  parts  of  India 
the  natives  make  offerings  of  rice,  milk  and  sugar  to  this  sacred 
tree  every  Tuesday  and  Thursday,  praying  for  protection  from 
the  bites  of  serpents. 

The  leaves  contain  an  abundance  of  milky  juice,  acrid  and 
very  active,  used  in  the  treatment  of  several  skin  diseases. 
Like  the  species  E.  pilulifera  it  possesses  antiasthmatic  proper- 
ties ;  Dr.  S.  C.  Amcobury  reports  6  cases  treated  with  satisfac- 
tory results.  Owing  to  the  acrid  quality  of  the  juice  great 
care  should  be  maintained  both  in  its  internal  and  external  use. 
The  Sanscrit  authors  regard  it  as  purgative  and  usually  admin- 


EUPHORBIA    TIRUCALLI  213 

ister  it  with  other  drugs  of  the  same  action  to  increase  its  effect. 
Ainslie  states  that  the  native  herb-doctors  of  India  give  the 
juice  in  intestinal  obstruction  and  in  the  oedema  of  malarial 
cachexia.  The  dose  is  1.25  grams  in  24  hours  given  in  300 
cc.  of  sweetened  water  in  divided  doses.  This  dose  is,  in 
my  opinion,  dangerous ;  40—60  centigrams  a  day  is  more 
prudent. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree,  from  5  to  6°  high. 
Trunk  erect,  jointed,  5-sided,  at  the  angles  2  rows  of  thorns. 
Leaves  spatulate,  fleshy.  Flowers  yellowish.  Calyx  bell- 
shaped,  5-lobed.  Corolla,  numerous  imbricated,  spatulate 
petals  with  ravelled  or  fringed  ends.  Stamens  in  groups. 
Styles  3.  Stigma  coarse.  Seed  vessel,  3  carpels  on  a  stalk. 

HABITAT. — In  all  parts  of  Luzon. 

Euphorbia  Tirucalli,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — GmsuMa,  Sp.-Fil.;  Katwit,  Suelda,  Tag. 

USES. — The  milky  juice  of  this  species  is  very  caustic.  It 
is  used  chiefly  in  India  mixed  with  oil  as  an  embrocation  for 
rheumatism  ;  given  internally  it  is  regarded  as  an  antisyphilitic. 
Dr.  J.  Shortt  states  that  it  is  an  excellent  alterant  in  syphilis 
in  dose  of  30  centigrams,  morning  and  evening.  It  is  further 
employed  in  malarial  hypertrophy  of  the  spleen,  in  asthma  and 
as  a  purgative ;  in  a  word  the  same  virtues  are  attributed  to  it 
as  to  the  foregoing  species. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Small  trees,  9-12°  high.  Trunk 
erect.  Branches  cylindrical,  stumpy  (not  tapering),  several 
very  small  leaves  at  the  ends.  Flowers  yellowish,  in  umbels. 
Calyx,  5  rounded,  fleshy  sepals.  Corolla,  5  groups  of  woolly 
hairs  on  the  divisions  of  the  calyx.  Stamens  5,  inserted  on  the 
sepals,  with  double  or  irregular  anthers.  Seed  vessel,  3  carpels 
each  with  one  seed. 

HABITAT. — Very  common,  especially  in  the  suburbs  of  Ma- 
nila where  they  serve  as  hedges. 


214        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE    PHILIPPINES 

Phyllanthus  reticulatus  Mull.     (Cica  decandra,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. —  Tinatinaan,  Tintatintahan,  Malinta,  Tag.; 
Sugot-olag,  Vis. 

USES. — The  natives  eat  the  little  berries  of  this  species,  which 
are  dark  purple  before  and  black  after  maturity,  and  use  their 
juice  for  ink.  The  leaves  are  diuretic  and  refreshing ;  the  bark 
alterant.  In  the  bazaars  of  India  the  bark  is  sold  commonly  in 
pieces  1  °  long  and  as  thick  as  the  wrist ;  its  taste  is  slightly 
sweet,  color  dark  and  the  alterative  dose  of  its  decoction  is 
120-150  grams  a  day.  In  Concan  they  make  a  compound  pill 
of  the  leaf-juice,  powdered  cubebs  and  camphor,  to  be  dissolved 
in  the  mouth  for  ulcerated,  bleeding  or  scorbutic  gums.  The 
juice  is  also  given  internally  for  urticaria. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Small  trees,  12°  or  more  high, 
with  leaves  pinnate,  oval,  entire,  alternate,  glabrous,  downy 
when  young.  Common  petiole,  2  stipules  at  the  base.  Flowers 
monoecious.  Staminate  :  calyx,  5  colored  sepals  ;  no  corolla  ; 
filaments  4,  coarse,  somewhat  shorter  than  the  calyx,  the  mid- 
dle one  thicker  and  2-parted ;  anthers  10,  4  on  the  middle  fila- 
ment and  two  on  each  of  the  others.  Pistillate  :  calyx  and 
corolla  same  as  staminate ;  nectary,  5  glandules  on  the  base  of 
the  ovary.  Fruit,  a  black  berry  seated  within  the  calyx, 
crowned  with  2  erect  styles,  6  or  8  compartments  each  with  a 
single  seed. 

HABITAT. — Grows  everywhere  and  is  well  known. 

Phyllanthus  Niruri,  L. 
P.  urinaria,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Hierba  de  San  Pablo,  de  San  Pedro,  Sp. 

USES. — This  species  is  not  used  medicinally  in  the  Philip- 
pines, but  in  India  is  given  for  its  diuretic  effect  and  has  great 
repute  in  the  treatment  of  genito-urinary  diseases,  dropsy  and 
gonorrhoea.  The  infusion  of  the  leaves  of  P.  Niruri  with 


JATROPHA    CURCAS  215 

Fenugreek  seeds  is  a  highly  prized  remedy  for  chronic  dysen- 
tery, mentioned  by  Ainslie.  The  leaves  are  bitter  and  tonic 
and  in  Bombay  they  are  in  common  use  in  gonorrhoea  to  cor- 
rect the  acidity  of  the  urine.  Bruised  and  mixed  with  salt  they 
make  a  sort  of  jelly  frequently  used  as  an  application  for  itch; 
without  salt  the  same  is  used  for  contusions. 

The  dose  of  the  leaf  juice  of  both  species,  for  internal  use, 
is  15  grams  a  day  in  divided  doses. 

A  decoction  of  the  entire  plant  well  dried  and  powdered,  is 
given  for  jaundice  in  doses  of  5  grams  a  day. 

The  milky  juice  of  the  stem  is  useful  in  the  local  treatment 
of  ulcers.  The  bruised  root  is  employed  in  Concan  for  neu- 
ralgia. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — P.  Niruri  is  an  herb  with  straight 
stem.  Leaves  alternate,  pinnate  with  stylet  in  place  of  the 
odd  leaflet.  Leaflets  nearly  oval,  glabrous,  2  stipules  at  the 
base.  Flowers  monoacious,  greenish,  axillary;  the  staminate 
growing  along  the  common  petiole  above  the  pistillate.  Stami- 
nate :  Calyx,  5  lanceolate,  entire  sepals  ;  no  corolla;  1  filament 
with  1  anther.  Pistillate :  Calyx  and  corolla  as  above ;  ovary 
free,  3  biovulate  cells ;  style  with  2  stigma-bearing  branches. 
Fruit  capsular,  globose. 

P.  urinaria  may  be  distinguished  by  its  sessile  flowers  and 
reddish  stem. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  Manila  and  all  over  Luzon. 

Jatropha  Curcas,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Tuba,  Tag.;  Kasla,  Vis.;  Tawatawa,  Hoc. 
(Seeds  called  "  English  Physic  Nuts  "  in  India.) 

USES. — The  milky  juice  of  the  trunk  and  branches  is  a 
drastic  purgative,  too  active  for  safety  as  a  physic.  Mixed  with 
water  it  is  used  as  a  wash  for  atonic  ulcers. 

The  seeds  yield  25—30  per  cent,  of  a  yellowish  oil,  more 
active  than  castor  oil  as  a  purgative  but  less  certain.  Ten  or 


216         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

twelve  of  the  former  equal  in  effect  30  to  40  drops  of  the 
latter.  Its  density  is  0.919,  and  it  differs  from  castor  oil  in 
being  only  slightly  soluble  in  absolute  alcohol.  In  some  parts 
of  the  Philippines  it  is  used  for  purposes  of  illumination,  and 
it  is  exported  to  Europe  to  adulterate  soaps  and  candles.  It 
contains  a  little  stearin  which  begins  to  be  deposited  at  9°  and 
is  entirely  solidified  at  0°. 

The  fruit  is  strongly  purgative,  and  this  action  is  not  due  to 
the  oil  but  to  a  peculiar  resin  so  active  that  3  fruits  produce 
drastic  effects.  Whatever  purgative  action  the  oil  possesses  is 
due  to  the  resin  which  it  contains  in  solution.  It  seems,  there- 
fore, preferable  to  treat  the  seeds  with  alcohol,  thus  dissolving 
the  resin,  and  use  the  tincture  thus  obtained  in  place  of  the 
oil. 

The  natives  use  the  plant  to  intoxicate  the  fish  in  ponds  and 
sluggish  streams. 

The  seeds  of  the  species  /.  multifida,  L.,  also  called  tuba 
in  Tag.,  and  mana,  are  likewise  purgative  in  their  action.  Dr. 
Waring  saw  a  case  of  poisoning  with  the  fruit ;  the  patient,  a 
young  man,  suffered  violent  vomiting,  intense  pain  in  the 
stomach  and  head,  and  marked  prostration.  He  recovered 
under  the  use  of  lime  juice  and  stimulants. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  J.  Curcas  is  a  small  tree 
growing  as  high  as  9°.  Leaves  alternate,  cordate,  glabrous, 
3—5  cut-lobed.  Flowers  yellowish-green,  monoecious,  in  ter- 
minal umbels,  staminate  and  pistillate  flowers  mingled  without 
order.  Staminate :  Calyx,  5  unequal  sepals ;  corolla  bell- 
shaped,  5  petals,  woolly  within,  a  small  notch  at  the  end,  bent 
downward ;  stamens  10,  in  2  whorls  of  5.  Pistillate  :  Calyx 
and  corolla  as  above ;  several  tongue-like  staminodes  replace 
the  stamens  ;  ovary  free,  oblong,  3-celled,  1  ovule  in  each  cell ; 
style  3 -branched.  Seed  vessel  fleshy,  of  3  capsules,  each  bear- 
ing 1  oval,  coriaceous  seed. 

HABITAT. — Luzon  and  Visayas. 


ALEURITES  MOLUCCANA  217 

Aleurites  Moluccana,  Willd.     (A.  triloba,  Forst.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Lumbdn,  Kapili,  Tag.;  Belgaum  or  Indian 
Walnut,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  kernels  are  rich  in  oil  which  is  used  for  illumi- 
nation and  the  manufacture  of  soap.  For  industrial  purposes 
it  is  superior  to  linseed  oil,  according  to  the  report  of  the  Mad- 
ras Drug  Committee. 

Dr.  O'Rocke  states  that  in  doses  of  1-2  ounces  it  acts  as  a 
gentle  and  sure  purgative,  producing  copious  bilious  evacua- 
tions after  3-6  hours,  without  causing  nausea,  colic  or  other 
similar  effects.  The  municipal  physician  of  Sampaloc,  Seilor 
Xerez,  states  that  he  has  frequently  used  this  oil  in  Manila,  as 
a  purgative,  and  he  agrees  perfectly  with  Dr.  O'Rocke  as  to 
its  effect. 

D.  Anacleto  del  Rosario,  the  distinguished  Filipino  chemist, 
tells  me  that  he  once  witnessed  a  case  of  poisoning  by  the  fruit 
of  the  lumbdn,  the  patient  being  a  native  boy.  Doubtless  the 
milky  juice,  so  active  in  all  the  Euphorbiacea3,  was  the  cause 
of  the  symptoms.  It  is  true  that  the  kernel  causes  colic  and 
copious  alvine  discharges. 

Nellino's  chemical  analysis  of  the  seeds  is  as  follows  : 

Water 5.25 

Fatty  matter 62.97 

Cellulose 28.99 

Mineral  matter 2.79 

The  ashes  contain  the  following  matters  : 

Lime 28.69  % 

Magnesia 6.01  " 

Potash 11.23  " 

Phosphoric  acid 20.30  " 

The  oil  is  yellow,  syrupy,  transparent,  odorless,  insipid. 
BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  with  leaves  bunched  or 
clustered,  3-5  lobulate  with  as  many  nerves.     Petioles  about 


218         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

as  long  as  the  leaves.  Flowers  white,  terminal  in  panicles,  the 
pistillate  mixed  with  the  more  numerous  staminate  flowers. 
Staminate :  Calyx  monophyllous,  cylindrical,  2-toothed;  corolla, 
5  linear  petals  twice  as  long  as  the  calyx  ;  stamens  20  or  more, 
joined  in  a  column  at  their  bases.  Pistillate :  Calyx  and  corolla 
as  above ;  ovary  of  2  or  3  uniovulate  locules,  encircled  by  a  disk  ; 
style  2-  or  3-branched.  Seed  vessel  large,  ovate,  compressed, 
fleshy,  2  sutures  at  right  angles,  2  compartments,  in  each  a  hard 
nut. 

HABITAT. — Grows  all  over  Luzon  and  is  well  known  to  the 
natives. 

Croton  Tiglium,  L.     ( C.  glandulosum,  C.  muricatum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Tuba  kamaisa,  Tag.;  The  Purging  Croton, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  fruit  is  used  by  the  Filipinos  to  intoxicate  the 
fish  in  ponds  and  sluggish  streams.  The  seeds  contain  an  oil 
that  is  official  in  all  Pharmacopoeias  as  one  of  the  most  powerful 
hydragogue  cathartics.  As  it  is  intensely  irritating  it  should 
never  be  administered  alone  but  combined  with  other  substances, 
such  as  castor  oil,  or  in  pill  form.  The  internal  dose  is  1  to  2 
drops.  It  is  considered  a  specific  for  lead  colic  and  is  indicated 
when  not  only  purgation  but  active  irritation  of  the  digestive 
canal  is  desired. 

Applied  to  the  skin  it  is  a  strong  irritant  causing  rapid  and 
painful  vesication.  Great  care  should  be  exercised  not  to  raise 
the  hands  to  the  eyes  after  touching  the  oil,  as  serious  inflamma- 
tion might  result. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree,  8-9°  high,  with 
rough  trunk.  Leaves  alternate,  ovate,  acute,  minutely  serrate, 
both  surfaces  beset  with  sharp  hairs.  Flowers  yellowish-white, 
monoecious.  Staminate  :  Fewer  than  the  pistillate,  growing 
above  them ;  calyx  5-toothed ;  corolla,  5  woolly  petals ; 
stamens  16,  joined  in  the  center.  Pistillate  :  Calyx  5-toothed ; 


ACALYPHA    INDICA  219 

corolla  much  less  developed  than  in  the  staminate  ;  ovary  free, 
3  uniovulate  locules;  styles  3,  bifid.  Seed  vessel  dry,  with 
thin  envelope  bristling  with  stiff  hairs;  3  carpels  each  contain- 
ing a  seed. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon. 

Acalypha  Indica,  L.     (A.  Caroliniana,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Not  known. 

USES. — This  plant  is  not  used  medicinally  in  the  Philip- 
pines, but  is  very  common  in  India.  Dr.  G.  Bidie,  of  Madras, 
states  that  the  expressed  juice  of  the  leaves  is  in  great  repute, 
wherever  the  plant  grows,  as  an  emetic  for  children  and  is  safe, 
certain  and  speedy  in  its  action.  Like  ipecacuanha  it  seems 
to  have  little  tendency  to  act  on  the  bowels  or  depress  the  vital 
powers,  and  it  decidedly  increases  the  secretion  of  the  pulmonary 
organs.  Probably  an  infusion  of  the  dried  leaves  or  an  extract 
prepared  from  the  green  plant  would  retain  all  its  active  prop- 
erties. The  dose  of  the  expressed  juice  fo'r  an  infant  is  a  tea- 
spoonful. 

Dr.  A.  E.  Ross  speaks  highly  of  its  use  as  an  expectorant, 
ranking  it  in  this  respect  with  senega  ;  he  found  it  especially 
useful  in  the  bronchitis  of  children.  He  also  makes  favorable 
report  of  a  cataplasm  of  the  leaves  as  a  local  application  to 
syphilitic  ulcers  and  as  a  means  of  relieving  the  pain  attendant 
on  the  bites  of  venomous  insects. 

The  alleged  purgative  action  of  the  root  noticed  by  Ainslie 
is  confirmed  by  Dr.  H.  E.  Busteed,  who  reports  having  used 
the  expressed  juice  of  the  root  and  leaves  as  a  laxative  for 
children. 

Langley,  a  military  surgeon,  states  that  in  Ganara  the  natives 
employ  the  leaf  juice  in  congestive  headache,  soaking  pledgets 
of  cotton  with  it  and  introducing  them  into  the  nasal  fossae  ; 
the  resultant  nose  bleed  relieves  the  headache.  The  powder  of 
the  dry  leaves  is  dusted  on  ulcers  and  putrid  sores.  In  asthma 


220         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

and  bronchitis,  both  of  children  and  adults,  Langley  has  used 
this  plant  with  good  results,  and  he  recommends  1.25—3.50 
grams  of  the  tincture  (100  grams  of  the  fresh  plant  to-  500  of 
alcohol,  90°)  repeated  several  times  a  day;  the  effect  is  ex- 
pectorant, nauseant  and,  in  large  doses,  emetic. 

It  must  be  noted  that  only  the  young,  growing  plants  are 
active. 

The  flowers  of  another  species,  A.  hispida,  Burm.,  called 
bugos  in  Tag.  and  Vis.,  is  used  in  India  for  the  dysentery. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  little  plant,  about  3°  high. 
Leaves  alternate,  broad,  lanceolate,  5-nerved,  serrate  from 
middle  to  apex.  Petioles  much  longer  than  the  leaves,  2 
stipules  at  their  bases.  Flowers  greenish,  monoecious  in  axil- 
lary spikes,  pedunculate,  as  long  as  the  leaves,  crowned  by  a 
prolongation  of  the  axis  in  the  form  of  a  cross.  Staminate  : 
Numerous,  in  upper  part  of  spike ;  calyx  4  parts ;  no  corolla ; 
stamens  8—1 6,  small,  free.  Pistillate  :  Less  in  number,  at  the 
base  of  the  spike ;  perianth  of  3  imbricated  leaflets ;  ovary,  3 
uniovulate  locules ;  style,  3  branches  which  also  subdivide. 
Capsule  3-celled,  each  cell  containing  a  globose  seed  with  cica- 
trix. 

HABITAT. — Luzon,  Panay  and  Mindanao.  Blooms  in 
October. 

Echinus  Philippensis,  H.  Baillon.    (Oroton  Philippense,  Lamk.; 
jRottlera  tinctoria,  Roxb.;  Mallotus  Philippensis,  Mull.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Banato,  Tag.;  Buas,  Vuas,  Hoc.;  Monkey-face 
Tree,  Kamela  or  Kamala  Dye,  Indo-Eng. 

USES. — The  capsular  fruit  of  this  plant  is  thickly  beset  with 
reddish  glands  and  hairs,  which,  when  brushed  off  and  gathered 
in  powder  form,  constitute  the  kamala  dye  of  the  Hindoos.  It 
was  mentioned  by  the  Arabian  physicians  of  the  tenth  century 
under  the  names  of  Kanbil  and  Wars.  In  India  the  powder 
is  highly  valued  as  a  yellow  dye-stuff  for  silk.  Medicinally  it 


ECHINUS    PHILIPPENSIS  221 

is  used  as  an  anthelmintic,  the  English  physician  Mackinnon, 
of  the  Bengal  Hospital,  having  been  the  first  to  scientifically 
prove  this  property ;  he  reported  that  it  was  successful  in  ex- 
pelling the  tape-worm.  It  is  now  official  in  the  Pharmacopeia 
of  India  and  also  in  the  U.  S.  P.  as  an  anthelmintic  and  purga- 
tive ;  in  Switzerland  it  is  commonly  given  to  expel  the  bothri- 
ocephalus  which  abounds  there,  the  lake  fish  acting  as  hosts. 

The  dose  recommended  by  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India  is 
8-12  grams,  divided  in  3  or  4  doses.  This  amount  sometimes 
causes  nausea  and  colic ;  in  the  third  or  fourth  stool  the  taBnia  is 
commonly  expelled  in  a  lifeless  condition.  Dujardin-Beaumetz 
advises  a  dose  of  30  grams  of  castor  oil  in  case  the  tsenia  has 
not  been  expelled  2  hours  after  the  last  dose  of  kamala.  The 
powder  is  efficacious  but  the  tincture  seems  to  be  surer;  the 
dose  is  6  grams  for  children  and  20  for  adults,  given  in  divided 
doses  in  aromatic  water  every  hour  for  6  hours.  This  tincture 
is  prepared  by  macerating  200  grams  of  kamala  in  500  cc. 
alcohol  for  7  days ;  then  filtering  with  expression  and  adding 
enough  alcohol  to  complete  the  500  cc. 

The  powder  is  also  used  in  India  as  a  local  application  in 
herpes  circinata.  It  is  insoluble  in  water;  in  ether  and  alcohol 
it  yields  80J&  of  a  red  resin.  Anderson  noted  that  a  concen- 
trated ethereal  solution  of  kamala  after  a  few  days  formed  a 
solid  crystalline  mass,  yellow,  very  soluble  in  ether;  this  sub- 
stance he  named  rottlerm.  CLH1AO». 

/          ftl        IV      9 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  6-8  meters  high,  covered 
with  stellate  groups  of  short  yellow  hairs.  Leaves  alternate, 
petiolate,  rhomboid-oval  or  lanceolate,  acuminate,  3-nerved, 
entire  or  slightly  dentate,  upper  surface  glabrous,  lower  surface 
covered  with  woolly  hairs  and  powdery  red  glands.  Flowers 
yellowish-green,  small,  dioecious,  apetalous,  in  spikes.  Stami- 
nate:  By  3's  in  the  axil  of  each  bract;  perianth,  3  or  5 
deeply  cut,  lanceolate  lobules  ;  stamens  15-25,  free,  inserted  in 
the  center  of  the  flower.  Pistillate  :  In  the  axil  of  each  bract; 


222        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

ovary,  3  locales  each  with  1  ovule,  covered  like  the  leaves  with 
hairs  and  yellow,  granular  glands.  Seed  vessel  globose,  3- 
celled,  like  ovary  covered  with  hairs  and  glands. 

HABITAT. — Mountains  of  Morong,  San  Mateo,  Tarlak, 
Bosoboso,  Ilocos  Norte,  Albay  and  Batangas. 

Ricinus   communis,  L.    (Variety  microcarpus,  Mull.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Tayantagan,  Ligasina,  Tag.;  Taycmtagan, 
Tawatawa$iga}  Hoc.;  Castor  Oil  Plant,  Eng. 

USES. — A  purgative  oil  is  expressed  from  the  seeds,  called 
"  Aceite  dc  Ricino  "  (castor  oil).  It  operates  mechanically  in 
the  intestinal  tract  and  its  action  is  rapid  and  is  indicated 
whenever  it  is  desired  simply  to  empty  the  intestines  without 
producing  any  irritating  effect ;  it  is,  therefore,  a  purgative 
indicated  in  diseases  of  children,  in  pregnancy,  and  in  hemor- 
rhoidal  congestions  where  a  non-irritating  evacuation  of  the 
rectum  is  desired.  It  is  an  anthelmintic,  though  not  ordinarily 
given  alone,  but  in  combination  with  other  drugs  of  a  purely 
anthelmintic  action,  the  object  being  to  expel  the  worms  which 
have  been  attacked  by  the  specific. 

Oil  extracted  simply  by  expression  is  less  purgative  than 
that  obtained  by  treating  the  seeds  with  bisulphide  of  carbon 
and  absolute  alcohol ;  also  less  purgative  than  the  seeds  them- 
selves, because  it  contains  only  a  very  small  proportion  of  a  dras- 
tic principle  existing  exclusively  in  the  seeds  ;  this  principle 
is  completely  dissolved  in  the  oil  extracted  by  chemical  process. 

It  is  pale  yellow  in  color,  very  viscid,  with  a  characteristic 
mouldy  odor.  The  purgative  dose  is  10-30  grams.  A  small 
dose  may  purge  as  actively  as  a  larger  one  provided  that 
the  patient  drink  abundantly  after  the  administration  of  the 
drug.  The  best  method  of  disguising  its  taste  is  by  giving  it 
in  half  a  cup  of  very  strong,  hot  coffee.  Just  before  the  dose, 
take  a  swallow  of  coffee  to  disguise  the  taste  even  more  effec- 
tually. 


ARTOCARPUS    INTEGRIFOLIA  223 

Castor  oil  enters  into  the  composition  of  elastic  collodion 
(simple  collodion,  30  grams,  castor  oil,  2  grams).  The  leaves 
pounded  and  boiled  are  applied  as  a  poultice  to  foul  ulcers. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — There  are  two  forms  of  this 
variety  in  the  Philippines,  possessing  the  same  properties  and 
known  by  the  same  common  name  :  R.  viridis,  Mull.  (R.  corn- 
munis,  Blanco)  and  R.  subpurpurascens,  Mull.;  the  former  is  the 
more  common  and  has  a  glabrous,  fistular  stem.  Leaves  pel- 
tate, palmately  cleft  in  7  or  9  lobules,  lanceolate,  serrate.  Pet- 
ioles long.  Flowers  greenish,  mono3cious,  the  staminate  ones 
in  large  panicled  clusters  below  the  pistillate.  Filaments 
numerous,  subdivided  into  several  anther-bearing  branches. 
Pistillate  flowers,  3  sepals,  3  styles.  Seed  vessel,  3  prickly 
capsules,  containing  solitary  seeds. 

The  R.  subpurpurascens  is  distinguished  from  the  former  by 
bearing  2  glandules  at  the  base  of  the  leaves,  the  mulberry  color 
of  which  latter  suggests  its  common  name,  Tagantagan  net 
morado,  Tag.,  Vis. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  Luzon,  Mindanao  and  other 
islands. 

URTICACEJE. 

Nettle  Family. 
Artocarpus  integrifolia,  Willd. 

NOM.  VULG. — Nagka,  Tag.;  Jack  Fruit  Tree,  Eng. 

USES. — The  huge  fruit  of  this  tree  is  well  known  to  the 
Filipinos  and  well  liked  by  them  as  an  article  of  food,  eaten 
fresh  or  in  sweet  preserves.  The  arils  and  pulpy  envelopes  of 
the  seeds  are  the  parts  eaten,  also  the  seeds  themselves,  boiled 
or  roasted.  According  to  Padre  Mercado  the  roasted  seeds 
have  an  aphrodisiac  action. 

The  heated  and  powdered  leaves  are  applied  to  wounds  and 
given  internally  for  congestions.  The  resin  of  the  trunk  is  a 
useful  application  to  ulcers  and  in  India  they  give  it  inter- 


224         THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS   OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

nally  to  cure  la  melcna,  the  dose,  one  "tola"  mixed  with  the 
same  amount  of  manga  resin  and  a  little  lime  water.  The 
same  resin  if  heated  makes  an  excellent  cement  for  broken 
china. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree,  20°  or  more  in  height, 
with  abundant  milky  sap.  Leaves  alternate,  oval,  acute  at 
both  ends,  slightly  wavy  and  revolute  borders,  tough,  glabrous 
and  dark  green  upper  surface  ;  light  green,  slightly  rough  under 
surface.  Petioles  short.  Flowers  greenish,  mono3cious,  grow- 
ing on  root,  trunk  and  branches.  Calyx  very  small,  monophyl- 
lous,  of  about  7  deciduous  lobules.  Staminate :  On  a  club- 
shaped  receptacle,  3'  or  4'  long,  bristling  with  the  stamens ; 
filaments  very  short,  anthers  2-celled.  Pistillate  :  On  a  com- 
mon, oblong  receptacle  which  ripens  to  the  great  fruit ;  style 
1,  short;  rarely  2  divergent  styles;  stigmas  acute.  Fruit 
about  size  and  shape  of  a  small  watermelon,  beset  with  many 
sharp  eminences,  containing  many  seeds  enveloped  in  thick 
arils. 

HABITAT. — It  grows  in  all  parts  of  the  Archipelago  and  is 
commonly  known. 

Laportea  gaudichaudiana,  Wedd.     ( Urtica  umbdlata, 
U.fcrox,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Ligaton,  Lipa,  Apariagua  (f ),  Tag.,  Vis.; 
Lipagdoton,  Pam. 

USES. — The  Padre  Mercado  writes  as  follows  concerning  the 
properties  of  this  plant:  "The  leaves,  applied  with  salt  in  the 
form  of  a  plaster,  purify  dog  bites,  foul,  putrid,  malignant  and 
cankerous  ulcers  ;  they  cure  boils,  contusions  and  all  abscesses  ; 
mixed  with  wax  they  may  be  applied  for  obstruction  of  the 
spleen  ;  mashed  with  the  juice  and  inserted  in  the  nose  they  ar- 
rest nose-bleed  ;  cooked  with  snails  they  soften  the  stomach,  ex- 
cite the  secretion  of  urine  and  dissipate  flatus  ;  the  juice  given 
as  a  gargle  aborts  inflammation  of  the  epiglottis.  The  seeds 


CASUARINA    SUMATRANA  225 

mixed  with  wine  are  asexual  excitant  and  "  clear  out"  the  womb  ; 
taken  with  syrup  they  relieve  dyspnoea,  pain  in  the  side  and 
inflammation  of  the  lungs  and  force  up  the  humors  from  the 
chest ;  it  may  be  mixed  with  medicines  that  corrupt  the  flesh 
(sic).  The  grated  root  drunk  with  wine  relieves  painful  flatu- 
lence. I  myself  (continues  the  Padre  Mercado)  have  experi- 
mented with  a  woman  who  suffered  with  painful  flatulence  and 
this  remedy  relieved  her." 

We  repeat  that  all  the  foregoing  is  copied  from  the  writings 
of  Padre  Mercado  and  we  offer  it  as  a  therapeutic  curiosity. 

P.  Blanco  states  that  merely  to  touch  the  leaves  causes  an 
intolerable  itching. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  small  tree,  12-15°  high, 
trunk  richly  branched.  Leaves  opposite,  bunched  at  the  ends 
of  the  branches,  notched  at  the  base,  long,  ovate,  serrate,  hairy 
on  both  surfaces.  Flowers  yellowish-white,  dioecious.  Stami- 
nate  :  In  compound  racemes ;  calyx  4  parts ;  corolla  none ; 
stamens  4,  inserted  on  the  base  of  the  calyx.  Pistillate  : 
Flowers  in  2-forked  umbel,  flat,  very  large ;  calyx,  none  ; 
stamens  none  ;  stigma  1  ;  seed  heart-shaped. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  all  the  fields  and  in  the  moun- 
tains. Blooms  in  June. 

CASUARINEJE. 

Beefwood  Family. 
Casuarina  Sumatrana,  Jung.     (C.  equisetifolia,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  YULG. — Ayoho,  Tag.;  Malabokok,  Agoho,  Vis.;  Aro, 
Karo,  Agoo,  Hoc. 

USES. — The  bark  is  astringent  by  virtue  of  the  large  quan- 
tity of  tannin  it  contains.  Its  principal  use  is  in  decoction  in 
the  treatment  of  diarrhoea,  dysentery  and  haemoptysis  ;  it  is  also 
given  in  amenorrhoea,  though  it  is  apt  to  increase  the  pain. 
Externally  it  is  used  as  a  wash  for  contusions  and  ulcers. 
19 


226         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Another  species,  C.  equisetifoKa,  Forst.,  confounded  with  the 
former  species  by  the  natives,  has  the  same  therapeutic  appli- 
cations. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  with  stellately  arranged 
straight  branches.  Leaves  stellate,  long,  narrow,  linear,  4- 
grooved.  They  have  been  compared  to  the  tail  of  a  horse  and 
the  tail  of  a  certain  bird — the  casobar.  Staminate  and  pistil- 
late flowers  greenish,  on  different  parts  of  the  same  stalk. 
Staminate,  in  small  aments.  Pistillate  on  small  globose 
aments ;  calyx  proper  of  the  floweret,  a  coarse  scale  ;  corolla 
none ;  ovary  conical ;  styles  2,  flattened,  divergent ;  stigmas 
acute.  Fruit :  Each  floweret  produces  a  woody  seed-vessel, 
bivalved,  ovate,  glabrous,  with  a  small  seed  ending  in  an  oval 
wing  ;  all  these  seed  vessels  joined  form  a  small  cone  about  I' 
long. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  in  Ilocos,  Tarlak,  Binangonang 
of  Lampong  and  N.  Ecija. 


MONOCOTYLEDONS. 


MUSACE^. 

Banana  Family. 

Musa  paradisiaca,  L. 

M.  sapientum,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Pldtano,  Sp.;  Sotgig,  Tag.,  etc.;  Banana, 
Eng. 

USES. — The  fruit  produced  by  the  various  varieties  of  the 
banana  plant  constitutes  one  of  the  most  wholesome  and  de- 
licious of  foods,  appreciated  by  natives  and  Europeans  alike. 
According  to  Boussingaul  its  nutritive  value  is  greater  than 
that  of  the  potato  and  it  may  be  used  constantly  without  ill 
effects.  Bananas  contain  a  large  percentage  of  sugar  and  mu- 
cilage. In  India  they  dry  them  in  the  sun,  as  figs  and  grapes 
are  treated  in  other  countries  and  thus  preserve  them  for  long 
voyages  by  sea  or  land;  eaten  in  conjunction  with  animal  food 
they  are  a  strong  preventive  of  scurvy.  If  eaten  when  thor- 
oughly ripe  they  have  a  laxative  effect. 

The  young  and  tender  leaves  are  used  in  the  Philippines  as 
a  protective  dressing  for  ulcers,  dermatitis,  burns  and  can- 
tharidal  or  other  artificial  blisters.  Before  applying  to  the  af- 
fected surface  the  leaf  is  heated  to  make  it  more  flexible  and 
coated  with  a  thin  layer  of  cocoanut  oil  or  other  fatty  substance. 

In  the  dispensaries  of  India  they  also  use  the  leaves  in  this 
way,  thus  protecting  and  at  the  same  time  maintaining  the 
moisture  of  the  part.  Dr.  Waring  recommends  the  practice 
and  Dr.  Van  Someren  follows  it  in  the  application  of  water 
dressings,  having  substituted  banana  leaves  for  gutta-percha. 


228         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

In  Mauritius  the  fruit  is  used  for  dysentery,  and  the  flowers, 
together  with  an  equal  quantity  of  those  of  Spilanthes  Acmella. 
are  made  into  a  decoction  and  prescribed  for  dropsy. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  banana  plant  with  its  huge 
waving  leaves  and  succulent  stem  is  universally  familiar.  The 
flower  stalk  rises  through  the  center  developing  a  drooping 
spike,  the  flowers  in  short  rows  in  the  axils  of  its  large  pur- 
plish bracts.  According  to  Blanco  there  are  57  varieties  of 
this  plant  in  the  Philippines,  the  following  being  the  most 
common  edible  varieties :  bugulag,  lakatan,  letondag,  obispo, 
higo,  morado,  butuan,  bentikohol,  sabd,  tampuhig. 

HABITAT. — Common  everywhere  in  the  islands. 

ZINGIBERACEJE. 

Ginger  Family. 
Zingiber  officinale,  L.     (Amomum  zingiber,  L.  and  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VTJLG. — Ajengibre,  Jengibre,  Sp.;  Luya,  Tag.;  Laya, 
Bic.;  Ginger,  Eng. 

USES. — The  rhizome  is  used  principally  as  a  condiment  in 
the  Philippines.  Its  flavor  is  extremely  agreeable,  much  ap- 
preciated in  Europe  by  the  English  who  are  the  greatest  con- 
sumers of  the  condiment.  In  the  Philippines  a  decoction  is 
made  of  ginger  and  brown  sugar,  called  tahu  by  the  Chinese 
who  drink  it  regularly  as  we  do  coffee  in  the  early  hours  of  the 
morning.  It  is  an  excellent  drink,  aromatic,  tonic,  stomachic 
and  stimulant,  and  would  probably  be  highly  useful  as  well  as 
economical  as  a  part  of  the  ration  of  European  and  native 
troops  in  the  field.  Hot  tahu  or  tahu  is  an  active  diuretic,  and 
during  the  last  epidemic  of  cholera  in  Manila  some  physicians 
used  it  with  very  satisfactory  results. 

Ginger  is  a  good  carminative  and  is  official  in  the  pharma- 
copoeias of  Europe,  America  and  India.  It  is  used  with  good 
effect  in  flatulent  colic,  atonic  diseases  of  the  intestines  so  com- 
mon in  the  Philippines  and  in  chronic  rheumatism. 


CUKCUMA    LONG  A  229 

The  tincture  is  given  in  doses  of  2-4  grams.  The  official 
infusion  30-60  grams. 

The  rhizome  contains  a  volatile  oil1  (25  per  cent.),  a  pale  yel- 
low liquid,  specific  gravity  0.878,  the  odor  like  that  of  the  rhi- 
zome but  lacking  its  strong  and  piquant  taste.  Its  reaction  is 
not  acid ;  it  dissolves  slowly  in  alcohol.  The  burning  taste  is 
due  to  a  resin  that  produces  protocatechuic  acid  when  melted 
with  potassa. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  only  part  employed  is  the 
rhizome,  well  known  all  over  the  islands  and  found  in  all  their 
pharmacies  and  shops. 

Several  stems  rise  2—3°  directly  from  the  peculiar,  branched 
rhizome  ;  long-lanceolate,  acuminate,  entire,  glabrous,  alternate 
leaves  diverge  stiffly  from  the  sides  of  the  stem  ;  petiole  proper 
very  short,  its  broader  extension  ensheathing  the  stem ;  gen- 
eral appearance  of  a  single  stem  is  much  like  that  of  the  Sol- 
omon's seal  so  familiar  in  the  U.  S. 

Curcuma  longa,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — DilaWj  Tag.;  Dulaw,  Kalawaga,  Kinamboy, 
Vis.;  Agay,  Pam.;  Turmeric  Plant,  Eng. 

USES. — The  yellow  rhizome  called  by  some  azafrdn  (saffron), 
is  used  as  a  condiment ;  its  odor  is  remotely  suggestive  of  va- 
nilla. The  Philippine  herb-doctors  give  it  internally  for 
haemoptysis,  externally  as  a  plaster  or  in  infusion  for  acute 
dermatitis.  The  juice  is  prescribed  in  doses  of  30-60  grams  in 
bronchial  catarrh.  In  India  they  inhale  the  fumes  of  burning 
turmeric  paper  for  coryza,  and  with  good  effect  according  to  the 
testimony  of  Dr.  Waring. 

The  drug  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India.     It  is 

carminative,  stimulant  and  probably  antiseptic.     Its  decoction 

is  used  as  an  eye-wash  in  catarrhal  and  purulent  conjunctivitis. 

The   Mohammedans   of  Decan  use  it   for  jaundice  upon  the 

1  European  analyses  make  the  amount  1-2.2  per  cent. 


230         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

theory  that  the  yellow  color  of  the  skin  in  that  disease  is  an 
indication  for  a  remedy  of  the  same  color.  The  juice  is  also 
used  in  many  parts  of  India  to  stain  the  face,  nails  and  other 
parts  of  the  body. 

The  tincture  is  prepared  by  macerating  30  grams  of  bruised 
rhizome  in  200  cc.  alcohol  for  .seven  days,  then  filtering.  Tur- 
meric paper  is  prepared  by  impregnating  unsized  paper  with 
this  tincture,  and  then  drying.  Both  tincture  and  paper  are 
used  to  test  for  alkalies. 

The  rhizomes  contain  a  pigment  called  curcumin,  an  essen- 
tial oil  and  fsecula.  Curcumin  (C14H14O4)  is  crystalline,  yellow 
by  direct  light  and  blue  by  reflected  light ;  it  was  studied  by 
Jackson  and  Menke. 

In  the  Philippines  it  is  used  extensively  as  a  diaphoretic 
and  emmenagogue  and  in  icterus,  intestinal  colic  and  dysmen- 
orrhoaa;  externally  for  skin  diseases,  contusions  and  atonic 
ulcers. 

Gubler  regards  it  as  a  diffusible  stimulant.  Its  use  is  more 
extensive  in  England  than  in  France  and  Spain  ;  in  India  it 
forms  an  ingredient  of  curry,  called  carl  in  Manila.  Curcumin 
is  eliminated  by  the  urine,  which  it  colors  yellow,  and  if  at  the 
same  time  an  alkali  be  taken  by  the  patient,  especially  a  salt 
of  calcium,  the  urine  becomes  red  and  may  communicate  this 
stain  to  the  clothes.  This  fact  should  be  borne  in  mind  to 
avoid  embarrassing  mistakes  in  diagnosis  or  prognosis.  Dose 
of  powder,  2—5  grams. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — Leaves  2-4°  long,  rising  in 
bush-like  bunches  directly  from  the  rhizome,  broad-lanceolate, 
acuminate,  gradually  tapering  down  the  long  petioles ;  numerous 
prominent  nerves  give  a  ribbed  appearance  to  the  blade.  Rhi- 
zome cylindrical,  irregular,  bright  yellow  within. 

Elettaria  Cardamomum,  White. 
NOM.  VULG. — Lagkuas,  Lagkawas,  Vis.;  Cardamon,  Eng. 


CRINUM    ASIATICUM  231 

USES. — This  plant,  though  official  in  several  pharmacopoeias, 
is  not  used  as  a  medicine  in  the  Philippines,  probably  on  ac- 
count of  its  scarcity  here.  The  seeds  are  used  as  a  condiment; 
they  are  stimulant  and  carminative  and  yield  good  results  in 
atonic  dyspepsia,  nervous  depression  and  spasmodic  or  flatulent 
affections  of  the  intestine.  The  dose  of  the  powdered  seeds  is 
from  0.60-1.50  grams  in  pill  form;  the  tincture  is,  however, 
more  convenient  and  is  given  in  doses  of  from  4  to  8  grams. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  with  a  scaly  rhizome 
and  adventitious  roots  from  which  spring  the  stems,  some  of 
which  bear  leaves  and  others  flowers.  The  leaves  are  alternate, 
in  pairs;  extended,  lanceolate  blade,  with  a  short  petiole. 
Branches  bearing  flowers,  short,  flexible  and  scaly.  The  flowers 
spring  from  the  sheaths  of  the  leaves.  Calyx  tubular,  3-toothed ; 
second  calyx  with  limb  divided  into  3  unequal  lobules.  Stamens 
3.  Ovary  inferior,  3  many-ovuled  compartments.  Style  simple. 
Stigma  rounded.  Fruit  an  oblong,  ovoid  capsule,  3-celled, 
trivalvate.  Seeds  blackish,  albuminous. 

HABITAT. — Yisaya  Islands. 

AMARYLLIDACE.E. 

Amaryllis  Family. 
Crinum  Asiaticum,  L.    ((7.  giganteum,  Blanco.) 

NOM.  VULG. — Bakog,  Tag. 

USES. — The  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  in  the  Philippines 
as  an  expectorant.  The  plant  is  official  in  the  Pharmacopoeia 
of  India  as  an  emetic  and  in  small  doses  is  nauseant  and  dia- 
phoretic. As  an  emetic  the  dose  of  the  fresh  juice  of  the  root 
is  8-16  grams  every  10  minutes  till  vomiting  occurs.  Dr.  W. 
O'Shaughnessy,  writing  from  Bengal,  states  that  this  is  the  only 
indigenous  and  abundant  emetic  plant  of  which  he  has  experi- 
ence, which  acts  without  producing  griping,  purging,  or  other 
unpleasant  symptoms.  In  a  communication  to  Dr.  Waring  he 


232         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

remarks  that  it  is  a  good  emetic  and  diaphoretic  whenever 
ipecacuanha  is  not  at  hand  but  that  it  should  be  regarded  not 
so  much  as  a  substitute  for  that  article  as  a  resource  in  case  of 
need. 

The  leaf  juice  is  used  in  India  to  drop  into  the  ears  for 
disease  of  these  organs. 

One  of  the  infinite  remedies  used  by  the  Filipinos  under 
the  name  of  "  contrapoisons,"  without  specifying  or  knowing 
what  poison,  is  the  powdered  root  of  Crinum,  given  internally 
with  a  little  water.  They  also  use  the  leaves  locally  for  the 
itch,  bruising  them  and  rubbing  the  affected  parts  energetically 
with  them.  I  may  note  here  in  passing,  what  I  have  written 
before  :  that  the  Filipinos  have  from  time  immemorial  been 
familiar  with  the  sarcopt  of  scabies  (Kahaw)  which  they  pick 
out  with  a  needle  or  spine  of  some  fish  or  vegetable. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  plant  with  globose,  scaly 
root.  Leaves  keeled  or  ridged.  Flowers  white,  on  a  flattened 
stalk,  on  a  spathe  of  2  leaflets  and  several  dry  threads  enclos- 
ing 4  flowerets.  Corolla  funnel-form,  tube  long  and  triangular ; 
limb  cut  in  6  horizontal  lanceolate  lobes.  Stamens  6,  shorter 
than  corolla.  Anthers  long.  Stigma  with  3  points.  Seed 
vessel  inferior,  3-celled,  each  cell  containing  a  seed. 

HABITAT. — Very  common  on  the  seashore  and  in  groves  of 
mangrove  trees.  Blooms  in  July. 

LILIACEJE. 

Lily  Family. 

Aloes  Barbadensis,  Mill.     (A.  humilis,  Blanco;  A.  vera,  L.; 
A.  vulgaris,  Banck.;  A.  Indica,  Royl.) 

NOM.  VULG.— $«6i7a,  Tag.;  Dilag  boaya,  Vis.;  Aloes,  Eng. 

USES. — This  species  is  one  of  those  which  produce  the  sub- 
stance known  in  pharmacy  as  aloes,  which  is  the  juice  of  the 
leaf  evaporated  to  the  consistency  of  an  extract.  It  is  official 


ALLIUM    CEPA  233 

in  all  pharmacopoeias  and  its  properties  are  known  to  the 
Filipino  herb-doctors.  They  use  the  fresh  juice  of  the  leaves 
as  a  stimulant  of  the  scalp  in  baldness  and  locally  in  contu- 
sions. Aloes  is  a  slow  purgative  and  its  irritating  action  on  the 
lower  portion  of  the  large  intestine  extends  to  the  genito- 
urinary organs.  It  is,  therefore,  an  emmenagogue  and  its  pro- 
longed use  causes  hemorrhoids,  especially  in  man.  It  is  contra- 
indicated  where  there  is  disease  of  the  genito-urinary  organs  or 
rectum.  As  it  increases  the  secretion  of  bile  it  is  useful  in 
certain  hepatic  diseases.  It  is  used  in  small  doses  as  a  tonic 
in  dyspepsia.  The  tonic  dose  is  J— 20  centigrams ;  purgative, 
15-50  of  the  extract,  preferably  in  pill  form.  It  is  customary 
to  associate  it  with  other  purgatives. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  stemless  plant,  the  leaves 
springing  immediately  from  the  root  as  in  the  pineapple,  joined 
at  the  base,  straight,  ligulate,  very  fleshy  and  becoming  thinner 
toward  the  end,  with  stiff  thorns  along  the  edges.  Flowers 
between  yellow  and  red  outside  and  straw-colored  inside,  in 
racemes  on  a  cylindrical  scape  3°  or  more  high,  sometimes 
ramose,  peduncles  very  short.  Corolla  cylindrical,  somewhat 
incurved,  cleft  to  the  middle  in  6  parts,  3  external,  acute  and 
superposed  on  the  others,  obtuse  at  the  apex  and  of  different 
color.  Stamens  6,  inserted  at  the  nectiferous  base  of  the  ovary 
and  of  the  same  length  as  the  corolla.  Anthers  erect.  Ovary 
cylindrical  with  6  furrows.  Stigma  obtuse,  with  raveled  edges. 
The  seed  vessel  ovoid,  3-valved,  3-celled,  with  2  seeds  in  each, 
furnished  with  3  spongy  wings. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  gardens. 

Allium  sativum,  L. 
NOM.  VULG. — Ajo,  Sp.;  Baway,  Tag.;   Garlic,  Eng. 

Allium  Cepa,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Cebolla,  Sp.;  Lasuna,  Sibuyas,  Tag.;   Onion, 
Eng. 
20 


234         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

USES. — The  garlic  and  the  onion  are  used  to  excess  as  con- 
diments in  Philippine  as  well  as  Spanish  cooking.  Both  are 
difficult  of  digestion  and  communicate  a  very  disagreeable  odor 
to  the  breath,,  intolerable  to  those  who  are  unaccustomed  to  it. 
Garlic  possesses  the  singular  property,  familiar  to  many  stu- 
dents and  soldiers,  of  inducing  a  transient  fever  if  introduced 
within  the  anus.  When  bruised  and  applied  to  the  skin  it  has 
a  counter-irritant  action  which  makes  it  useful  in  the  treatment 
of  rheumatism,  but  the  odor  is  so  disagreeable  that  it  is  not 
worth  while  to  use  it  for  that  purpose  when  we  have  so  many 
other  medicines  which  produce  the  same  effect  without  being 
objectionable.  It  is  also  used  locally  for  the  bites  of  venomous 
animals. 

The  onion  is  used  cooked  as  a  poultice  over  the  bladder  and 
internally  for  various  catarrhs.  It  is  better  to  abstain  from 
the  therapeutic  and  culinary  use  of  products  so  indigestible 
and  so  malodorous. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — These  plants  are  so  well  known 
in  all  parts  of  the  world  that  a  description  of  them  would  be 
superfluous. 

PALMJE. 

Palm  Family. 
Areca  Catechu,  L. 

NOM.  VuLCr. — Boga,  Tag.;  Betel-nut  Palm,  Areca.,  Eng. 

USES. — The  seeds  form  part  of  a  masticatory  very  common 
throughout  the  extreme  Orient,  known  as  Buyo  and  composed 
of  a  betel  leaf,  a  little  slaked  lime,  and  a  slice  of  the  fruit  of 
the  bonga,  known  asSiri  in  Indo-Chinaand  among  the  Malays. 
It  is  so  common  that  it  is  hard  to  find  a  man  or  woman  who 
does  not  use  it.  The  saliva  of  those  who  use  it  is  red  and  of 
a  strong  odor,  and  its  careless  use  in  time  blackens  the  teeth 
and  makes  the  breath  extremely  disagreeable.  Habitual 
chewers  consider  it  a  tonic  of  the  mouth  and  -stomach  and  a 


ARECA    CATECHU  235 

general  stimulant  as  well.  It  probably  does  possess  these 
properties  but  they  are  reversed  in  the  case  of  persons  who  use 
it  immoderately  for  they  lose  appetite,  become  salivated,  and  the 
whole  organism  degenerates.  The  carbonized  and  powdered  fruit 
is  used  as  a  dentifrice  but  its  virtues  are  doubtless  identical 
with  those  of  any  vegetable  charcoal,  i.  e.,  absorbent  and  anti- 
septic. 

One  unaccustomed  to  the  use  of  bonga  and  chewing  it  for 
the  first  time,  usually  experiences  a  most  disagreeable  combi- 
nation of  symptoms ;  constriction  of  the  oesophagus,  a  sensation 
of  heat  in  the  head  and  face,  the  latter  becoming  red  and  con- 
gested ;  at  the  same  time  dizziness  and  precordial  distress  are 
experienced.  The  same  phenomena  occur  in  certain  persons 
after  eating  palmito  salad  or  the  tender  central  portion  of  the 
bonga  and  of  other  palms. 

The  flowers  are  eaten  in  salad  like  the  above-mentioned 
palmito.  The  seed  is  astringent  and  tsenifuge  ;  for  the  latter 
purpose  it  is  given  internally  as  a  powder  in  a  dose  of  from  16 
to  24  grams.  Its  action  is  uncertain.  The  catechu  which  is 
obtained  in  India  from  the  Bonga  differs  from  that  obtained 
from  the  Acacia  Catechu  and  is  a  tonic  analogous  to  rhatany 
and  cinchona. 

The  seeds  contain  about  14^>  of  a  fatty  crystalline  material 
which  melts  at  39°,  and  after  saponification  yields  a  crystalline, 
fatty  acid  that  may  be  regarded  as  a  mixture  of  lauric  and 
muriatic  acids.  They  also  contain  about  14^  of  a  red,  amor- 
phous tonic  material  which,  after  drying,  is  but  slightly  soluble 
in  cold  or  hot  water. 

The  lower  part  of  the  petiole  of  the  leaves  is  thin  and  broad, 
ensheathing  the  trunk,  is  as  tough  as  pasteboard  when  dry  and 
is  used  in  the  Philippines  as  wrapping  paper ;  Dr.  Bholanauth 
Bose  and  other  physicians  of  India  use  it  as  a  material  for 
splints  in  fractures,  a  practice  which  might  well  be  imitated  in 
Manila  and  especially  in  the  country. 


236          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  well-known  palm  with  slender 
stem,  surrounded  by  many  circles  ;  it  grows  to  about  the  same 
height  as  the  coco-nut  palm  or  less.  The  flowers  spring  in 
bunches  of  long,  thread-like  spikes  from  the  trunk  a  little  be- 
low the  crown  of  leaves  at  the  base  of  the  long,  smooth,  green, 
sheath-like  petioles  which  clasp  the  trunk ;  each  spike  bears 
many  staminate  and  a  few  pistillate  flowers.  The  fruit  is  about 
the  size  and  shape  of  a  hen's  egg,  the  husk  tow-like  or  filamen- 
tose,  the  kernel  pinkish  or  light  red. 

HABITAT. — Grows  throughout  the  islands. 

Cocos  nucifera,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Coco,  Sp.-Fil.;  Niog,  Tag.;  Coco-nut  Palm, 
Eng. 

USES. — This  plant  is,  perhaps,  the  most  useful  in  the  Phil- 
ippines. Without  it  and  the  bamboo  plant  the  people  of  the 
Archipelago  would  not  know  how  to  live.  It  produces  vine- 
gar, an  alcoholic  drink  called  tuba  or  coco-wine,  an  oil,  an 
edible  nut,  and  its  leaves  are  used  instead  of  nipa  to  roof  the 
huts. 

Tuba  is  an  opaline,  slightly  sweet  liquid,  with  an  agreeable 
taste,  which  rapidly  becomes  acid  under  the  influence  of  the 
heat.  A  flowering  or  fruit-bearing  stalk,  which  has  not  been 
incised  before,  is  chosen  and  encircled  with  several  rings  of 
rope  or  rattan.  The  stalk  is  then  cut  and  a  bamboo  vessel 
called  a  bombon  is  hung  to  receive  the  sap  which  escapes  during 
the  night.  This  liquid  is  valuable  as  a  drink  for  those  who  are 
debilitated,  suffering  from  pulmonary  catarrh,  and  even  for 
consumptives,  who  are  accustomed  to  drink  it  every  morning, 
sometimes  with  marvelous  results,  according  to  reports.  The 
heat  of  the  day  rapidly  ferments  the  tuba,  converting  it  into  a 
mild  vinegar,  which  is  widely  used  for  domestic  purposes  in  the 
Philippines.  When  fermented  and  distilled  it  produces  a  weak 
alcohol  of  disagreeable  taste  called  coco-wine. 


COCOS    NUCIFERA  237 

The  ripe  fruit  contains  a  rather  soft  and  savory  meat  which 
is  generally  eaten  mixed  with  the  clear,  sweet  coco-nut  milk. 
Later  the  meat  becomes  firmer  and  is  used  as  a  food  and  an  oil 
much  used  in  the  islands  is  extracted  from  it.  To  extract  the 
oil  the  meat  is  grated  and  pressed  until  all  the  juice  is  ex- 
tracted. This  is  called  the  milk  and  when  boiled  is  converted 
almost  completely  into  oil.  Cocoanut  milk  has  an  agreeable 
taste  and  may  in  some  cases  take  the  place  of  cow's  milk.  It 
is  apt  to  produce  diarrhoea,  however,  which  action  may  be  bad 
for  some  but  on  the  other  hand  good  for  others,  such  as  the 
habitually  constipated.  Both  the  meat  and  the  milk  are  widely 
used  by  the  natives  in  making  sweets. 

In  the  greater  part  of  the  islands  it  is  the  only  oil  used  for 
illumination.  As  a  medicine  it  is  employed  internally  as  a 
purgative  and  externally  in  the  treatment  of  scores  of  troubles 
in  which  the  good  results  obtained  are  due,  not  to  the  oil  but 
to  the  massage  used  in  rubbing  it  in.  It  has  the  reputation  of 
stimulating  the  growth  of  the  hair  and  all  the  natives  and  some 
Europeans  use  it  lavishly  as  a  hair  ointment.  When  fresh  its 
odor  is  agreeable,  but  it  easily  becomes  rancid  and  assumes  a 
most  disagreeable  odor.  In  the  Visayan  Islands  they  make  an 
oil  of  a  nauseous  odor  which  they  call  in  Manila  Caracoa.  It 
is  used  only  for  illumination  and  by  the  poor. 

At  a  temperature  of  20°  or  more  the  oil  remains  liquid ;  it 
is  colorless  when  fresh  and  properly  extracted.  It  solidifies  at 
18°  and  two  kinds  of  soap  are  made  of  it;  one  soft  and  ex- 
ceedingly cheap  called  "  Quiapo  "  ;  the  other  hard,  white,  of  a 
high  quality,  but  as  a  rule  containing  an  excess  of  lime  which 
in  time  is  deposited  in  a  fluorescent  film  on  its  surface. 

In  India  the  root  is  employed  in  the  treatment  of  dysentery. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  tree  most  familiar  to  every 
one. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  all  parts  of  the  Archipelago. 


238         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Nipa  fruticans,  Wurmb. 

NOM.  VULG. — Nipa,  Sp.-Fil. ;  Sasa,  Tag. 

USES. — The  dry  leaves  of  this  palm  are  generally  used  in 
the  villages  of  Manila  Province,  Pampanag,  Bulacan  and  other 
provinces  in  the  construction  of  roofs  and  walls  of  houses, 
which  are  therefore  called  "  nipa  houses."  The  decoction  of 
the  fresh  leaves  is  used  as  a  lotion  for  indolent  ulcers,  and  a 
popular  preserve  is  made  from  the  fruit. 

Like  the  coco  and  following  the  same  process  the  nipa  yields 
a  liquid  also  called  tuba  and  possessing  properties  identical 
with  those  of  the  former  plant.  The  weak  alcohol  distilled 
from  it  has  some  repute  in  the  treatment  of  conjunctivitis,  for 
which  purpose  a  few  drops  are  mixed  with  a  small  quantity  of 
water  and  the  eyes  are  washed  with  it  several  times  a  day. 
This  alcohol,  improperly  called  wine  of  nipa,  has  a  character- 
istically unpleasant  odor  which  makes  it  impracticable  for 
medicinal  or  industrial  use.  Several  chemists  have  attempted 
to  remove  the  characteristic  odor  from  nipa  alcohol,  but  their 
results  had  always  been  negative  because  the  odorous  principle 
was  distilled  over  at  the  same  temperature  as  the  alcohol. 
Finally  a  distinguished  Filipino  chemist,  D.  Anacleto  del 
Rosario,  perfected  a  process  of  producing  from  the  nipa  tuba 
an  absolute  alcohol  perfectly  free  from  the  characteristic  odor ; 
an  alcohol,  in  fact,  possessing  all  the  qualities  of  chemically 
pure  alcohol,  and  of  such  a  high  grade  that  it  was  awarded  the 
first  prize  at  the  last  World's  Fair  in  Paris. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — A  palm  about  6°  high  with 
long,  pinnate  leaves  with  leaflets  which  separate,  at  maturity, 
like  those  of  the  coco  palm.  Flowers  monoecious,  in  a  spathe. 
Fruit,  many  pyramidal  drupes  joined  together,  but  easily  sepa- 
rable. The  outer  covering  of  each  drupe  is  hard,  the  inner  part 
tow-like ;  seed  enveloped  in  a  sort  of  fleshy  white  meat. 

HABITAT. — Salt  water  marshes,  especially  in  Pampanga  and 
the  Yisayan  Islands. 


CYPEKUS    ROTUNDUS  239 

CYPERACE^E. 

Sedge  Family. 
Cyperus  rotundus,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Mutha,  Tag.;  Botobotones,  Vis.;  Mota,  Malaa- 
polid,  Sursur,  Onoran,  Kusug,  Omadiug,  Galonalpas,  Pam.; 
Nutgrass  or  Coco-grass,  Eng. 

USES. — The  root  possesses  stimulant,  diaphoretic,  diuretic 
and  emmenagogue  properties.  In  the  Philippines  it  is  used  in- 
ternally for  dysentery,  and  in  India  for  the  same  purpose  and 
as  a  vermifuge.  It  is  given  as  a  tonic  in  gastro-intestinal 
diseases,  and  General  Hardwick  has  reported  good  results  with 
it  in  cholera  ;  as  he  reported  only  two  cases,  his  testimony  is 
not  of  much  value. 

The  Chinese  use  the  dry  or  roasted  root,  especially  in  inflam- 
mation of  the  viscera  and  uterine  diseases.  They  also  attribute 
to  it  diuretic,  emmenagogue  and  anthelmintic  properties.  In 
Java  and  India  they  use  it  for  gonorrhoea,  and  in  Mauritius  as 
a  diaphoretic  and  astringent.  In  the  Philippines  the  bruised 
root  is  applied  to  the  face  for  toothache. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — The  root  is  ovoid,  ranging  in 
size  from  that  of  a  hazel-nut  to  that  of  a  walnut,  composed  of 
a  white,  spongy  substance.  Leaves  sword-shaped,  ensheathing 
the  stem.  Flowers  in  a  compound  umbel  on  the  end  of  the 
stalk  which  is  naked,  long  and  triangular.  The  umbellets  are 
alternate,  awl-shaped,  with  distinct  flowers.  Calyx  universal, 
with  2  sword-shaped  leaflets.  Calyx  proper,  a  very  small, 
ridged  scale.  Corolla  none.  Stamens  3.  Filaments  long, 
inserted  on  the  base  of  the  ovary.  Anthers  long  and  straight. 
Style  1.  Stigmas  3,  simple,  re  volute.  Fruit  1.  Seed  ob- 
long, 3-sided,  glabrous. 

HABITAT. — Common  in  Luzon  and  Panay.  Blooms  in 
June  and  July. 


240        THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

GRAMINE.E. 

Grass  Family. 
Zea  Mays,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Mate,  Sp.;  Maize,  Corn,  Eng. 

USES. — Corn  is  an  extensive  article  of  diet  in  the  Philippines, 
bat  has  the  reputation  of  being  indigestible.  This  is  true  when 
it  is  eaten  in  the  grain,  but  in  the  form  of  meal  it  is  easily 
digested  and  highly  nutritious.  The  tassels  have  been  used  in 
the  Philippines  from  time  immemorial  in  decoction  as  a  diuretic, 
for  which  property  they  received  notice  in  the  Medical  World 
of  Paris  about  the  year  1876.  The  entire  plant  is  diuretic  and 
the  natives  give  the  decoction  of  the  stalk  for  various  diseases 
of  the  bladder  and  kidneys.  An  extract  of  the  tassels  has  been 
put  on  the  market,  but  it  is  better  to  administer  a  decoction 
made  from  20  grams  of  tassel  to  1  liter  of  water  to  be  taken  at 
will  during  the  day.  Rademaker  and  Fischer  give  the  follow- 
ing chemical  composition : 

Fixed  oil 5.25 

Resin,  crystalline  matter  and  chlorophyl 3.25 

Maizenic  acid 2.25 

Sugar  and  gum 19.50 

Albuminoids , 3.50 

Salts  and  extracts 5.50 

Cellulose 37.00 

Water 20.00 

The  fixed  oil  is  bright  yellow,  saponifiable  by  potash,  soluble 
in  chloroform  and  ether,  insoluble  in  alcohol,  solidifies  at  10°. 
HABITAT.- — Very  common  in  all  parts  of  the  islands. 

Andropogon  Schoenanthes,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Salay,  Taglad,  Tag. ;  Paja  de  Meca,  Sp.-Fil. ; 
Baliyoko,  Vis. ;  ^  Geranium  Grass,  Eng. 


SACCHARUM    OFFICINARUM  241 

. — The  Filipino  women  use  the  leaves  to  perfume  their 
gogo  hair-wash.  The  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  internally 
as  a  diuretic  (10  grams  to  a  liter  of  water)  and  also  to  bathe 
pregnant  women.  The  roots  also  are  diuretic. 

A  Manila  pharmacist,  D.  Eosendo  Garcia,  has  obtained  a 
good  quality  of  the  fixed  oil  of  this  plant.  In  India  they  call 
this  essence  rusa,  geranium  and  gin-gembre  (nimar  oil,  Eng.) ; 
the  annual  export  from  Bombay  is  over  40,000  English 
pounds.  It  is  dextrogyrous  and  its  formula  is  C5H4. 

Another  species,  the  A.  nardus,  L.,  commonly  called  "  raiz 
de  mora  "  (mulberry  root),  "  citronella,"  Eng.,  possesses  the 
same  therapeutic  properties  as  the  former.  It  also  possesses 
an  agreeable  perfume  and  yields  an  essential  oil,  which,  like 
rusa,  is  used  to  adulterate  Attar  of  Roses. 

The  dried  root  is  widely  used  in  the  Philippines  and  in 
Europe  as  well,  to  preserve  clothing  from  moths  and  other  de- 
structive insects,  at  the  same  time  giving  them  a  sweet  odor. 
In  India  the  decoction  is  used  internally,  10  grams  to  a  liter  of 
water,  in  the  treatment  of  rheumatism  and  as  a  diuretic. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — An  indigenous  grass  with  sword- 
shaped  leaves  about  4°  high,  tapering  at  the  base,  possessing  a 
sweet  odor.  Root  thick,  irregular,  rough,  formed  by  the  union 
of  several  small  rootlets. 

Saccharum  officinarum,  L. 

NOM.  YULG. — Canamiel,  Cana  de  azucar,  Cana  dulc,  Sp. ; 
Tubo,  Tag. ;  Sugar  Cane,  Eng. 

USES. — The  Filipinos  are  very  fond  of  the  fresh  cane. 
The  juice,  which  is  extracted  by  means  of  primitive  wooden 
presses,  is  used  as  a  drink  mixed  with  lemon  juice  or  vino  and 
is  sold  in  markets  and  public  places  as  a  popular  beverage  on 
hot  days.  A  tepid  juice,  extracted  from  heated  cane  is  given 
for  catarrhal  troubles.  This  use  of  the  juice  is  the  only  one 
peculiar  to  the  Philippines.  Its  general  use  and  properties 


242          THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

are  universally  familiar  and  are  amply  treated  in  the  materia 
medica. 

BOTANICAL  DESCRIPTION. — This  plant  is  so  universally  fa- 
miliar that  it  is  unnecessary  to  describe  it.  More  than  20 
varieties  are  found  in  the  Philippines. 

HABITAT. — Throughout  the  islands,  especially  in  the  Island 
of  Negros  and  the  Luzon  Provinces  of  Pampanga,  Bulacan  and 
Nueva  Ecija. 

Oriza,  L. 

NOM.  VULG. — Arroz,  Sp. ;  Palay,  Tag.  (the  plant  and  the 
uuhusked  rice)  ;  Bigas,  Tag.  (the  husked  rice) ;  Rice,  Eng. 

USES. — All  the  people  of  Indo-China,  China,  Japan  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  eat  rice  as  Europeans 
do  bread. 

In  the  Philippines  an  immense  variety  of  rice  grows  and  in 
the  World's  Fair  at  Paris,  in  1889,  Senor  D.  Eegino  Garcia,  of 
Manila,  presented  a  unique  collection  of  147  varieties.  The 
rice  grown  in  high  lands  above  irrigation  is  called  "  arroz  de 
secano"  and  mountain  rice,  and  that  grown  in  low  and  irrigated 
land  is  called  "  arroz  de  sementera "  and  swamp  rice.  The 
two  kinds  are  equally  valuable  as  food. 

The  proportion  of  starch  in  rice  is  large,  but  it  contains  but 
a  small  amount  of  gluten,  and  therefore  a  large  amount  must 
be  eaten  in  order  to  obtain  sufficient  nutritive  elements. 

Water 5,00 

Starch 85.07 

Parenchyma 4.80 

Nitrogenous  matter '  3.68 

Crystallizable  sugar 0.29 

Gummy  matter 1.71 

Oil 0.13 

Phosphate  of  lime 0.40 

Chloride  of  potash,  phosphate  of  potash,  acetic 
acid,  calcareous  vegetable  salt,  salt  of  potash, 
sulphur Traces. 


BAMBUSE^E 

In  the  Filipino  therapeutics  rice  has  an  extensive  use,  es- 
pecially in  the  form  of  a  decoction  called  cange,  which  is  com- 
monly given  in  the  treatment  of  diarrhoea  and  dysentery,  with 
good  results.  Cooked  as  a  sort  of  mush  it  may  be  used  as  a 
substitute  for  linseed  poultices  and  has  the  great  advantage  of 
not  becoming  rancid.  Roasted  and  powdered  it  is  dusted  upon 
wounds  or  abrasions  of  the  skin  and  forms  a  dry  and  absorbent 
covering  under  which  they  heal  rapidly. 

It  has  lately  been  claimed  that  beriberi  is  due  to  a  micro- 
organism found  in  rice  under  certain  abnormal  conditions ;  this 
claim  is  not  yet  firmly  established  and  beriberi  is  still  one  of 
the  many  problems  in  medicine  which  are  awaiting  solution. 

HABITAT. — All  parts  of  the  Archipelago. 

BAMBUSEJE. 

Bamboo  Family. 

NOM.  VuLG.-r-Cam,  Sp.;  Bamboo,  Eng. 

Linnaeus  and  Blanco  include  in  the  genus  Bambus  all  the 
different  species  of  bamboo  to  which  the  Spaniards  have  given 
the  general  name  of  cana.  The  plant  is  of  incomparable  value 
to  the  natives  of  the  Philippines  ;  they  build  their  houses  of  it, 
make  agricultural  and  industrial  instruments  of  it,  use  it  in  all 
the  varied  apparatus  of  their  fisheries  and  for  a  multitude  of 
household  utensils  and  furniture. 

The  variety  B.  arundinacea,  Retz.  (B.  wundo,  Blanco), 
Kawayag-totoOj  Tag.,  is  the  largest  and  most  generally  employed 
in  making  houses  and  furniture.  The  tender  shoots  prepared 
in  lime  water  are  edible  but  have  the  deserved  reputation  of 
being  difficult  of  digestion. 

The  variety  Schizostaehyum  acutiflorum,  Munro  (B.  diffusa, 
Blanco),  Osiw,  Bokawy,  Tag.,  is  less  used.  The  shoots  are 
used  to  treat  opacity  of  the  cornea,  for  which  purpose  they  are 
cut  when  about  a  palm  in  height,  the  outer  leaves  removed, 


244         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

and  the  center  soaked  over  night  with  a  little  sugar  candy. 
The  following  day  the  water  in  the  bottom  of  the  jar  is  col- 
lected and  used  to  paint  the  cornea. 

The  variety  Dendroealamus  sericcns,  Munro  (B.  mitis,  Blanco), 
Taywanak,  Tag.,  is  also  used  in  medicine.  Its  abundant  sap  is 
given  internally  in  the  treatment  of  phthisis. 

All  of  the  above  species  and  the  Dendroealamus  flagelli/er, 
Munro  (B.  levis,  Blanco),  BoJio,  Tag.,  produce  at  their  joints  a 
hard  porcelain-like  substance,  friable,  of  opaline  color,  called 
"bamboo  stone "  or  "tabashir"  in  India,  where,  as  well  as  in 
the  Philippines  and  Indo-China,  it  has  great  repute  among  the 
popular  remedies.  It  is  given  in  venereal  diseases,  hiccough, 
hemorrhage,  fevers  and  other  diseases.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  it 
is  an  almost  inert  substance,  the  imaginary  virtues  of  which 
originated,  doubtless,  in  the  apparently  remarkable  fact  that  a 
stone  (?)  was  produced  inside  of  a  vegetable. 

The  analysis  of  M.  Guibourt-is  as  follows: 

Silicon 96.04 

Water 2.94 

Lime  and  potassium 0.13 

Organic  material Traces. 


INDEX  OF  PLANTS 

ACCORDING   TO   THERAPEUTIC   PROPERTIES. 


Alteratives. — Anona  muricata. — Tinospora  crispa.  — Raphanus 
sativus. — Bombax  malabaricus. — Oxalis  corniculata. — Citrus  acida 
and  C.  Bigaradia. — Mangifera  Indica. — Pongamia  glabra. — Lawsonia 
alba. — Hydrocotyle  Asiatica. — Alangium  Lamarkii.  —  Oldenlandia 
corymbosa. — Calotropis  gigantea. — Ehretia  buxifolia. — Solanum 
nigrum. — Cassytha  filiformis — Euphorbia  Tirucalli. — Phyllanthus  re- 
ticulatus. 

Anthelmintics.1  —  Cleome  viscosa.  —  Pangium  edule.  —  Ruta 
graveolens. — Melia  Azedarach.  — DysoxylumBlancoi. — Mangifera  In- 
dica.— Anacardium  oecidentale. — Mucuna  pruriens. — Quisqualis  In- 
dica.— Punica  Granatum.2 — Jussise'a  suftruticosa. — Carica  Papaya. — 
Trichosanthes  anguinaand  T.  cucumerina. — Lagenaria. — Momordica. 
—Hydrocotyle  Asiatica.—  Sphseran thus  Indicus. — Calotropis  gigantea. 
— Tectona  grandis. — Clerodendron  infortunatum.— Chenopodium 
ambrosioides.  — Echinus  Philippinensis.  — Cyperus  rotundus.  — Rhina- 
canthus  communis. 

Antispasmodics. — Si  da  carpinifolia. — Hibiscus  Abelmoschus. — 
Ruta  graveolens. — Citrus  acida  and  C.  Bigaradia. — Cedrela  Toona. — 
Celastrus  paniculata. — Cassia  occidentalis. — Carum  copticum. — 
Blumea  balsamifera. — Artemisia  vulgaris. — Solanum  nigrum. — Da- 
tura alba. — Nicotiana  Tabacum. — Adhatoda  vasica. — Chenopodium 
ambrosioides.  — Chloranthus  officinalis. 

Antiseptics. — Ruta  graveolens. — Citrus  acida  and  C.  Bigaradia.— 
Mangifera  Indica. — Anacardium  occidentale. — Erythrina  Indica. — 
Pongamia  glabra. — Entada  scandens. — Coffea  Arabica. — Blumea  bal- 
samifera.— Spilanthes  Acmella. — Nerium  odorum. — Solanum  nigrum. 
— Nicotiana  Tabacum. — Tectona  grandis. — Ocimum. — Piper  Betle. 
— Cinnamomum. — Acalypha  Indica. — Curcuma  longa. — Areca  Cate- 
chu.— Nipa  fruticans. 

1  Including  tsenifuges. 

2  Names  in  italics  are  considered  of  especial  importance  by  the  author. 

245 


246         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Astringents. — Tetracera  macrophylla. — Michelia  Champaca. — 
Anona  squamosa,  A.  reticulata  and  A.  muricata. — Nelumbium  nu- 
cifera. — Bixa  Orellana. — Garciniamangostana,  G.  Cambogia. — Ochro- 
carpus  pentapetalus. — Sida  carpinifolia. — Thespesia  populnea. — 
Bombax  malabaricus. — Sterculia  foetida. — Murraya  exotica. — ^Egle 
decandra. — Feronia  elephantum. — Melia  Azedarach.— Sandoricum 
Indicum. — Caropa  Moluccensis. — Rhamnus  Wightii. — Mangifera  In- 
dica. — Odina  Wodier. — Pterocarpus. — Csesalpinia  Sappan. — Acacia 
Farnesiana. — Terminalia  Catappa  and  T.  Chebula. — Psidium  pomif- 
erum. — Melastoma  malabatrichum. — Punica  Granatum. — Hymeno- 
dictyon  Indicum. — Tectona  grandis. — Achyranthes  obtusifolia.  — 
Artocarpus  integrifolia. — Casuarina  Sumatrana. — Areca  Catechu. — 
Cyperus  rotimdus. 

Acids  or  Refrigerants. — Oxalis  corniculata. — Averrhoa  Bilimbi  and 
A .  Carambola. — Citrus  acida  and  C.  Bigaradia.  — Feronia  elephantum.  — 
Amaranthus  spinosus.  — Phyllanthus  reticulatus. — Tamarindus  Indica. 

Balsams. — Calophyllum  Inophyllum. — Dipterocarpus  turbinatus. 
Garuga  pinnata. — Canarium  commune. 

Carminatives. — Illicium  anisatum. — Cleome  viscosa. — Helicteres 
Isoara. — Abroma  fastuosa. — Feronia  elephantum. — Terminalia  Che- 
bula.—  Carum  copticum. — Foeniculum  vulgare.  —  Plumbago  Zey- 
lanica. — Coleus  aromaticus.  — Rosmarinus  officinalis. — Aristolochia 
Indica. — Zingiber  officinale. — Curcuma  longa. — Elettaria  Cardamo- 
mum. 

Convulsives. — Strychnos  Ignatii. 

Cosmetics. — Eriodendrum  anfractaosum. — Cocos  nucifera. 

Diaphoretics. — Cissampelos  Pareira. — Sida  carpinifolia. — Hibiscus 
Rosa-Sinensis. — Gossypium  herbaceum. — Ruta  graveolens. — Xan- 
thoxylum  oxyphyllum.— Celastrus  paniculata.  — Hy  drocotyle  Asiatica. 
Eupatorium  Ayapana. — Blumea  balsamifera. — Plumbago  Zeylanica, 
Calotropis  gigantea. — Tylophora  asthmatica. — Oroxylum  Indicum. — 
Barleria  Prionitis. — Justicia  Gendarussa. — Ocimum.  —  Anisomeles 
ovata. — Crinum  Asiaticum. — Cyperus  rotimdus. — Andropogon  Schoe- 
nanthus  and  A.  nardus. 

Digestives. — Carica  Papaya. 

Diuretics. — Cissampelos  Pareira. — Abutilon  Indicum. — Anacar- 
dium  occidentale. — Abrus  precatorius. — Erythrina  Indica. — Clitoria 
ternata.  — Cassia  occidentals.  — Hy  drocotyle  Asiatica. — Prederia 
foetida. — SpilanthesAcmella. — Achras  Sapota. — Ipomoeapes-caprse. — 
Solanum  nigrum. — Limnophila  Menthastrum. — Sesamum  Indicum. — 


INDEX    OF    PLANTS  247 

Lippia  nodiflora. — Tectona  grandis. — Vitex. — Amaranthus  spinosa. 
— Achyranthes  obtusifolia. — Chenopodium  ambrosioides. — Phyllanthus 
reticulatus  and  P.  Niruri. — Allium  Cepa. — Cyperus  rotundus. — Zea 
Mays.  — Andropogon  Schoenanthus. 

Emmenagogues. — Michelia  Chainpaca. — Artabotrys  odoratissimus. 
Anamirta  Cocculus. — Cissampelos  Pareira. — Hibiscus  Rosa  Sinensis. 
— Gossypiumherbaceum. — Abromafastuosa. — Rutagraveolens. — Dy- 
soxyluni  Blancoi. — Csesalpinia  Sappanand  C.  pulcherrima. — Citrullus 
Colocynthis.  — Morinda  citrifolia. — Blumea  balsamifera. — Artemisia 
vulgaris. — Plumbago  Zeylanica. — Plumeria  acutifolia. — Sesamum  In- 
dicum. — Vitex. — Chenopodium  ambrosioides. — Aristolochialndica.— 
Casuarina  Sumatrana. — Aloes  Barbadensis. — Cyperus  rotundus. 

Emetics. — Hibiscus  tiliaceus.  —  Dysoxylum  Blancoi.  —  Moringa 
pterygosperma. —  Clitoria  ternatea.  —  Entada  scandens.  —  Trichos- 
anthes  anguina. — Lagenaria. — Alangium  Lamarkii. — Randia  dume- 
torum. — Psederia  foetida. — Allamanda  cathartica. — Thevetia  nerii- 
folia. — Cerbera  Odallam. — Calatropis  gigantea. — Tylophora  asth- 
matica. — Justicia  Gendarussa. — Acalyplia  Indica. — Crinum  Asiati* 
cum. 

Emollients. — Sida  carpinifolia. — Abutilon  Indicum.  —  Urena  sin- 
uata. —  Hibiscus  Rosa-Sinensis. — Gossypium  herbaceum.  — Erioden- 
dron  anfractuosum. — Helicteres  Ixora. — Biophytum  sensitivum. — 
Zizyphus  Jujuba. — Abrus  precatorius. — Clitoria  ternata. — Csesalpinia 
pulcherrima. — Lawsonia  alba. — Luffa  ^Egyptiaca. — Ipomoea  pes- 
capra3. — Sesamum  Indicum. — Acanthus  ilicifolius. — Lippia  nodiflora. 
— Plantago  erosa. — Musa  paradisiaca  and  M.  sapientum.  —  Curcuma 
longa. — Allium  Cepa. — Cocos  nucifera. — Ori/a. 

Stimulants. — Illicium  anisatum.  —  Artabotrys  odoratissimus.  — 
Brassica  juncea. — Raphanus  sativus. — Mesua  ferrea. — Hibiscus 
Abelmoschus. — Helicteres  Ixora. — Ruta  graveolens. — Xanthoxylum 
oxyphyllum. — Citrus  acida. — Celastrus  paniculata. — Moringa  ptery- 
gosperma.— Csesalpinia  pulcherrima. — Hydrocotyle  Asiatica.  — Carum 
copticum.  —  Fceniculum  vulgare.  —  Coffea  Arabica.  —  Eupatorium 
Ayapana. — Blumea  balsamifera. — Sphseranthus  Indicus. — Spilanthes 
Acmella.  —  Artemisia  vulgaris.  —  Mimusops  Elengi.  —  Jasminum 
Sambac. — Capsicum  fastigiatum. — Ocimum.  — Rosmarinus  officinalis. 
— Chenopodium  ambrosioides. — Piper  Betle  and  P.  nigrum. — Chloran- 
thus  officinalis. — Cinnamomum. — Zingiber  officinale. — Curcuma  longa. 
— Allium  sativum  and  A.  Cepa. — Cyperus  rotundus. — Andropogon 
Schoenanthus  and  A.  nardus. 


248         THE    MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Expectorants. — Hibiscus  Kosa-Sinensis. — Biophytum  sensitivum. 
—  Trichosanthes  cucumerina.  —  Bluniea  balsamifera.  —  Tylophora 
asthmatica.  — Acanthus  ilicifolius. — Barleria  Prionitis. — Adhatoda 
vasica. — Vitex. — Ocimum. — Acalypha  Indica. — Crinum  Asiaticum. 

Febrifuges. — Michelia  Champaca. — Tinospora  crispa. — Anamirta 
Cocculus. — Sida  carpinifolia. — Melia  Azedarach. — Dysoxylum  Blan- 
coi. — Carapa  Moluccensis. — Cedrela  Toona. — Erythrina  Indica. — 
CsesalpiniaBonducellaandC.pulcherrima.— Cassia  occidentalis.—Am- 
mannia  vesicatoria.  — Trichosanthes  cucumerina. — Hymenodictyoii 
excelsum. — Ixora  coccinea. — Morinda  citrifolia. — Achras  Sapota. 
— Mimusops  Elengi. — Thevetia  neriifolia. — Plumeria  acutifolia. — 
Alstonia  scholaris. — Vitex. — Clerodendron  infortunatum. — Aniso- 
meles  ovata.  —  Aristolochia  Indica. — Piper  nigrum. — Chloranthus 
officinalis. 

Galactagogues. — Gossypium  herbaceum. 

Antigalactagogues. — Jasminum  Sambac. — Piper  Betle. 

Hemostatics. — Portulaca  oleracea. —  Tetracera  rnacrophylla.  — 
Mangifera  Indica. — Pterocarpus. — Csesalpinia  Sappan. — Euphorbia 
pilulifera. 

Narcotics  (sedatives  and  anodynes). — Anamirta  Cocculus. — Arge- 
mone  Mexicana. — Pangium  edule. — Cassia  occidentals. — Solanum 
nigrum. — Datura  alba. — Mcotiana  Tabacum. — Vitex. 

Nutritive  Plants. — Anona  squamosa,  A.  reticulata  and  A.  muricata. 
— Nelumbium  nucifera. — Pangium  edule. — Portulaca  oleracea. — Gar- 
cinia  mangostana  and  G.  Cambogia. — Sterculia  foetida. — Theobroma 
Cacao. — Averrhoa  Silimbi,  A.  Carambola. — Feronia  elephantum. — 
Garuga  pinnata. — Canarium  commune. — Sandoricum  Indicum.— 
Zizyphus  Jujuba. — Mangifera  Indica. — Anacardium  occidentale. — 
Moringa  pterygosperma. — Agati  grandiflora. — Tamarindus  Indica. — 
Bauhinia  malabarica. — Parkia  Roxburghii. — Psidium  pomiferum. — 
Eugenia  Jambolana.  — Trichosanthes.  — Lagenaria. — Momordica. — 
Achras  Sapota. — Solanum  nigrum. — Sesamum  Indicum.  — Artocarpus 
integrifolia.—  Musa  paradisiaca  and  M.  sapientum. — Areca  Catechu. 
— Cocos  nucifera. — Zea  Mays. — Saccharum  officinarum. — Oriza. — Bam- 
busese. 

Purgatives. — Argemone  Mexicana. — Garcinia  Morella. — Mesua 
ferrea. — Agati  grandiflora. — Erythrina  Indica. — Clitoria  ternatea. — 
Ca3salpinia  pulcherrima. — Cassia  fistula  and  C.  alata. — Tamarindus 
Indica. — Entada  scandens. — Terminalia  Chebula. — Jussisea  suffruti- 
cosa. — Carica  Papaya. — Trichosanthes  anguina  and  T.  cucumerina. — 


INDEX   OF   PLANTS  249 

Lagenaria.  — Luffa  ^Egyptiaca.  — Momordica. — CitruUus  Colocynthis.  — 
Trianthema  monogyna. — Morinda  citrifolia. — Spilanthes  Acmella. — 
Carthamus  tinctorius. — Allamanda  cathartica. — Cerbera  Odallam. — 
Plumeria  acutifolia. — Calotropis  gigantea. — Ipomoea  hederacea.— 
Ipoinoea  Turpethum. — Solanum  nigrum. — Sesamum  Indicum. — Tec- 
tona  grandis. — Samadera  Indica. — Mirabilis  Jalapa. — Amaranthus 
spinosus. — Euphorbia  neriifolia. — Euphorbia  Tirucalli. — Jatropa  Cur- 
cas. — Aleurites  moluccana. — Croton  Tiglium. — Acalypha  Indiea. — 
Ricinus  communis. — Aloes  Barbadensis. 

Sialagogues. — Carum  copticum. 

Bitter  Tonics.  —  Michelia  Champaca. — Tinospora  crispa. — Cis- 
sampelos  Pareira. — Crateeva  religiosa. — Mesua  ferrea — .Sida  carpini- 
folia. — Murraya  exotica. — Citrus  Bigaradia. — Samadera  Indica. — 
Melia  Azedarach. — Rhamnus  Wightii. — Agati  grandiflora. — Csesal- 
pinia  Bonducella. — Cassia  occidentals. — Terminalia  Chebula. — Tri- 
chosanthes  cucumerina.  — Moinordica.  — Hymenodicty on  excelsnm .  — 
Morinda  citrifolia. — Spha3ranthus  Indicus. — Achras  Sapota.  —  Mimu- 
sops  Elengi. — Alstonia  scholaris. — Calotropis  gigantea.  —  Strychnos 
Ignatii. — Limnophila  Menthastrum. — Oroxylum  Indicum. — Vitex. — 
Clerodendron  infortunatum. — Anisomeles  ovata. — Phyllanthus  Ni- 
ruri. — Aloes  Barbadensis. — Areca  Catechu. — Nerium  odorum  (cardiac). 

Aromatic  Tonics. — Feronia  elephantum. — Sandoricum  Indicum. 
— Fceniculum. — Coffea  Arabica. — Eupatorium  Ayapana. — Artemisia 
vulgaris. — Chenopodium  ambrosioides,  Cinnamomum. — Zingiber  offi- 
cinale. 

Vesicants. — Anacardium  occidentale. — Moringa  pterygosperma. — 
Ammannia  vesicatoria. — Plumbago  Zeylanica. — Calotropis  gigantea, 
— Euphorbia  Tirucalli. 

Rubefacients  or  Revulsives. — Moringa  pterygosperma. — Plumeria 
acutifolia. — Croton  Tiglium. — Jatropha  Curcas. — Allium  sativum. 

Stimulants. — Sterculia  urens. — Argemone  Mexicana.  — Kleinhovia 
hospitata. — Celastrus  paniculata.— Pongamia  glabra. — Cassia  alata. 
— Entada  scanclens.  —  Kalanchoe  laciniata. — Elettaria  Cardamomum. 

Antiherpetics,  etc. — Sterculia  foetida. — Canarium  commune. — Tri- 
chosanthes  palmata. 


21 


INDEX  OF  PLANTS 

ACCORDING   TO   SPECIAL   DISEASES. 


Aphthae,  Stomatitis,  Glossitis.1 — Tetraceramacrophylla. — Feronia 
elephantum. — Pterocarpus  santalinus,  Indicus  and  erinaceus. — Me- 
lastoma  malabatrichuni. — Punica  Granatum. — Mimusops  Elengi.— 
Calotropis  gigantea. — Tectona  grandis. — Ocimum. — Achyranthes  ob- 
tusifolia.  — Phyllanthus  reticulatus . 

Hemorrhoids. — Mesua  ferrea. — Thespesia  populnea. — Terniinalia 
Chebula. — Punica  Granatum. — Plumbago  Zeylanica. — Capsicum  fas- 
tigiatum. — Sesamum  Indicum.— Aloes  Barbadensis  (for  inducing  the 
hemorrhoids). 

Amenorrhcea  and  Dysmenorrhoaa. — Abroma  fastuosa. — Dysoxy- 
lum  Blancoi. — Csesalpinia  Sappan. — Csesalpinia  pulcherrima. — Blu- 
mea  balsamifera. — Artemisia  vulgaris. — Plumeria  acutifolia. — Sesa- 
mum Indicum. — Chenopodium  ambrosioides. — Casuarina  Sumatrana. 
— Aloes  Barbadensis. 

Anasarca.— Plumbago  Zeylanicum. — Coffea  Arabica. — Plumeria 
acutifolia. — Calotropis  gigantea. — Ipomoea  pes-caprse. — Solanum  ni- 
grum .  —  Barlonia  Prionitis.  —  Achyranthes  obtusifolia.  —  Euphorbia 
neriifolia. — Phyllanthus  Niruri. — Cissampelos  Pareira. 

Anal  Fistula. — Pterocarpus. 

Asthma. — Gossypium  herbaceum. — Garuga  pinnata. — Dysoxylum 
Blancoi.  —  Erythrina  Indica.  —  Csesalpinia  pulcherrima.  —  Entada 
scandens.  —  Trichosanthes  palmata.  —  Coffea  Arabica.  — Tylophora 
asthmatica. — Datura  alba. — Acanthus  ilicifolius. — Adhatoda  vasica. 
Coleus  aromaticus. — Euphorbia  pilulifera. — Euphorbia  Tirucalli. — 
Euphorbia  neriifolia. — Phyllanthus  Niruri. 

Spleen,  Affections  of. — Ammannia  vesicatoria. — Lawsonia  alba.— 
Momordica. 

Beriberi. — Celastrus  paniculata. — Vitex. 

1 1  do  not  join  these  diseases  because  I  consider  them  identical  or  due  to  the 
same  pathogenic  agent  but  because  the  plants  that  follow  are  used  indifferently 
for  the  diseases. 

251 


252        THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF   THE   PHILIPPINES 

Blenorrhoea,  Gonorrhoea,  Urethritis.--Nymph8ea  Lotus.— Argemone 
Mexicana. — Dipterocarpus  turbinatus. — Sterculia  foetida.  — Clitoria 
ternata. — Pterocarpus.  — Trichosanthes  palmata. — Mimusops  Elengi. 
— Plumeria  acutifolia. — Lippia  nodiflora.  — Ocimum. — Amaranihus 
spinosus. — Cassytha  filiformis. — Cyperus  rotundus. 

Bronchi  and  Lungs,  Diseases  of. — Anona  nmricata. — Calophyllum 
Inophyllum. — Dipterocarpus  turbinatus. — Canarium  commune.— 
Zizyphus  Jujuba. — Abrus  precatorius. — Erythrina  Indica. — Csesal- 
pinia  pulcherrima. — Trichosanthes  cucumerina.  — Lagenaria. — Ixora 
coccinea. — Blumea  balsamifera. — Tylophora  asthmatica. — Sesamum 
Indicum. — Barleria  Prionitis. — Adhatodavasica. — Vitex.  — Coleus  aro- 
maticus.  — Anisomeles  ovata. — Chenopodium  ambrosioides. — Euphorbia 
pilulifera. — Acalypha  Indica. — Curcuma  longa. 

Cholera. — Artabotrys  odoratissimus. — Samadera  Indica. — Carum 
copticum. — Eupatorium  Ayapana. — Zingiber  officinale. — Cyperus  ro- 
tundus. 

Colic, — (a)  Flatulent:  Illicium  anisatum. — Argemone"  Mexicana.— 
Cleome  viscosa. — Helicteres  Ixora. — Dysoxylum  Blancoi. — Termi- 
nalia  Chebula.  — Carum  copticum. — Fceniculum. — Plumbago  Zeylanica. 
— Ipomcea  pes-caprse. — Ocimum. — Coleus  aromaticus. — Rosmarinus 
officinalis. — Aristolochia  Indica. — Piper  Betle. — Elettaria  Cardamo- 
mum. 

(b)  Lead :  Allamanda  cathartica. 

Contusions. — Samadera  Indica. — Plumeria  acutifolia. — Aloes  Bar- 
badensis.  — Casuarina  sumatrana. 

Heart,  Diseases  of.  —  Helicteres  Ixora. — Coffea  Arabica. — Cin- 
namomum. 

Coryza  (rhinitis,  nasal  catarrh,  ozwna). — Agati  grandiflora. — Oci- 
mum.— Curcuma  longa. 

Diabetes. — Eugenia  Jambolana. 

Diarrhoea,  Dysentery. — Anona  squamosa. — AnonareticulataandA. 
muricata. — Nelumbium  nucifera. — Bixa  Orellana. — Garcinia  mangos- 
tana. — Ochrocarpus  pentapetalus.  — Thespesia  populnea. — Gossypium 
herbaceum. — Bombax  malabaricum. — Averrhoa  Bilimbi. — Averrhoa 
Carambola. — Murraya  exotica. — JEgle  decandra. — Feronia  elephan- 
tum. — Sandoricum  Indicum.  —  Carapa  Moluccensis. — Cedrela  Toona. 
Rhamnus  Wightii. — Mangifera  Indica. — Pterocarpus. — Caesalpinia 
Bonducella. — Bauhinia  malabarica. — Kalanchoe  laciniata. — Termin- 
alia  Catappa. — Psidium  pomiferum. — Eugenia  Jambolana. — Punica 
Granatum.  — Jussisea  suffruticosa. — Carica  Papaya.  — Carum  copticum. 


INDEX   OF   PLANTS  253 

Randia  dumetorum. — Ixora  coccinea.  —  Morinda  citrifolia* — Sphseran- 
thus  Indicus. — Plumbago  Zeylanica. — Mimusops  Elengi. — Plumeria 
acutifolia. — Calotropis  gigantea. — Tylophora  asthmatica. — Oroxylum 
Indicum. — Anisomeles  ovata. — Aristolochia  Indica. — Piper  Betle. — 
Phyllanthus  Niruri. — Casuarina  Sumatrana. — Zingiber  officinale. — 
Cyperus  rotundus. — Oriza. 

Dyspepsia. — Illicium  anisatum. — Sida  carpinifolia. — JEgle  decan- 
dra. — Samadera  Indica. — Sandoricum  Indicum. — Rhamnus  Wightii. 
— Agati  grandiflora. — Csesalpinia  Bonducella. — Cassia  occidentalis. — 
Terminalia  Chebula. — Carica  Papaya. — Trichosanthes  cucumerina. — 
Momordica. — Carum  copticum.  —  Eupatorium  Ayapana. — Blumea 
balsamifera. — Sphseranthus  Indicus. — Artemisia  vulgaris. — Alstonia 
scholaris. — Strychnos  Ignatii. — Capsicum  fastigiatum. — Acanthus  ilici- 
folius.  — Lippia  nodiflora.  — Tectona  grandis.  —  Ocimum. — Kosmarinus 
officinalis. — Anisomeles  ovata. — Chenopodium  ambrosioides. — Aris- 
tolochia Indica. — Piper  Betle. — Zingiber  officinale. — Elettaria  Car- 
damomum.  — Aloes  Barbadensis. 

Gingivitis,  Hemorrhage,  etc.  —  Feronia  elephantum. — Tectona 
grandis. — Plantago  erosa. — Phyllanthus  reticulatus.  (See  "Sore- 
throat.") 

Scorbutics. — Anona  muricata. — Raphanus  sativus. — Oxalis  cornicu- 
lata. — Phyllanthus  reticulatus. — Musa  paradisiaca  and  M.  sapientum. 

Spermatorrhoea. — Sida  carpinifolia. — Lawsonia  alba. 

Constipation. — ^Egle  decandra. — Helicteres  Isora.  — Nicotiana  Ta- 
bacum. — Sesamum  Indicum. — Musa  paradisiaca  and  M.  sapientum. 
(See  "  Purgatives.") 

Fevers.  —  Michelia  Champaca.  —  Sida  carpinifolia.  —  Tinospora 
crispa. — Anamirta  Cocculus. — Samadera  Indica. — Melia  Azedarach. 
— Dysoxylum  Blancoi. — Carapa  moluccensis. — Cedrela  Toona. — Ery- 
thrina  Indica.  —  Cassia  occidentalis  (malarial). — Ammannia  vesica- 
toria. — Trichosanthes  cucumerina. — Hymenodictyon  excelsum. — 
Morinda  citrifolia. — Psederia  foetida. — Plumbago  Zeylanica. — Mimu- 
sops Elengi. — Alstonia  scholaris. 

Fracture. — Sterculia  urens. 

Throat,  Diseases  of  (anginas,  amygdalitis,  pharyngitis}. — Feronia 
elephantum. — Mangifera  Indica. — Odina  Wodier. — Melastoma  mala- 
batrichum. — Punica  Granatum. — Mimusops  Elengi. 

Gout. — Celastrus  paniculata. — Momordica. 

Hemorrhage. — Bixa  Orellana. — Bombax  malabaricum. — Mangifera 
Indica. — Pterocarpus. — Csesalpinia  Sappan. 


254         THE   MEDICINAL    PLANTS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

Hemoptysis.  —  Tetracera  macrophylla.  —  Portulaca  oleracea.  — 
Caesalpinia  Sappan. — Casuarina  Sumatrana. — Curcuma  longa. 

Hernias. — Nicotiana  Tabacum. 

Liver,  Diseases  of. — Anona  muricata. — Kalanchoelaciniata. — Law- 
sonia  alba. — Lagenaria. — Momordica. — Oldenlandia  corymbosa. — 
Sphseranthus  Indicus. — Carthamus  tinctorius. — Solatium  nigrum. 

Cephalalgia. — Portulaca  oleracea. — Coffea  Arabica. — Blumea  bal- 
samifera. — Vitex. — Coins  aromaticus. — Acalypha  Indica. 

Laryngitis. — Mangifera  Indica. — Capsicum  fastigiatum. 

Leucorrhoea.  —  Garcinia  mangostana.  —  Sandoricum  Indicum. — 
Mangifera  Indica. — Pterocarpus. — Acacia  Farnesiana. — Terminal ia 
Chebula. — Punica  Granatum. 

Bloody  Flux. — Artocarpus  integrifolia. 

Menorrhagia,  Metrorrhagia.     See  * '  Hemorrhages. ' ' 

Bites  of  Insects  and  Poisonous  Animals. — Ferouia  elephantum.— 
Carapa  moluccensis. — Eupatorium  Ayapana. — Tylophora  asthmatica. 
— Rhinocanthus  communis. — Coleus  aromaticus. — Leucas  aspera. — 
Aristolochia  Indica. — Euphorbia  nerii/olia. — Acalypha  Indica. — Al- 
lium  sativum. 

Nervous  Diseases  (chorea,  epilepsy,  convulsions,  hysteria,  etc.). — Sida 
carpinifolia. — Ruta  graveolens.  — Blumea  balsamifera,  — Artemisia 
vulgaris. — Solanum  nigrum. — Datura  alba. — Nicotiana  Tabacum. — 
Coleus  aromaticus. — Chenopodium  ambrosioides. 

Neuralgia. — Coffea  Arabica. — Acanthus  ilicifolius. 

Odontalgia. — Murraya  exotica  and  M.  Koenigi. — Pterocarpus. — 
Calotropis  gigantea.  —  Plantago  erosa.  —  Cyperus  rotundus.  (See 
"Ears.") 

Intestinal  Obstruction.  —  Nicotiana  Tabacum.  (See  "Purga- 
tives.") 

Ears,  Affections  of. — Cleome  viscosa. — Hibiscus  tiliaceus. — Helic- 
teres  Isora. — Crinum  Asiaticum.  (See  "  Odontalgia.") 

Eyes,  Affections  of. — Argemone  Mexicana. — Portulaca  oleracea. 
— Calophyllum  Inophyllum. — Garuga  pinnata. — Abrus  precatorius. 
— Erythrina  Indica. — Jasminum  Sambac. — Rosmarinus  officinalis. — 
Curcuma  longa. 

Orchitis. — Calophyllum  Inophyllum. — Sterculia  urens. — Vitex. 

Paralysis. — Celastrus  paniculata. — Acanthus  ilicifolius. — Ocimum. 
— Rosmarinus  officinalis. 

Parasites  (pediculi,  etc.). — Anona  squamosa. — Anamirta  Cocculus. 

Skin,  Affections  of  (lepra,  itch,  eczema,  psoriasis). — Argemone  Mex- 


INDEX    OF   PLANTS  255 

icana.  —  Pangium  edule. — Portulaca  oleracea. — Urena  sinuata. — 
Thespesia  populnea. — Sterculia  foetida. — Kleinhovia  hospitata. — 
Helicteres  Isora. — Canarium  commune. — Celastrus  paniculata. — 
Mangifera  Indica. — Anacardium  occidentale. — Odina  Wodier. — 
Pongamia  glabra  (itch). — Cassia  fistula. — Cassia  alata  (herpes). — 
Entada  scandens. — Psidium  pomiferum. — Melastoma  malabatrichum. 
— Lawsonia  alba. — Carica  Papaya. — Momordica. — Hydrocotyle  Asi- 
atica. — Alangium  Lamarkii. — Oldenlandia  corymbosa. — Ixora  coc- 
cinea. — Spilanthes  Acmella. — Plumbago  Zeylanica. — Plumeria  acuti- 
folia. — Nerium  odorum. — Calotropis  gigantea. — Solanum  nigrum. — 
Rhinacanthus  communis. — Tectona  grandis. — Leucas  aspera. — Ama- 
ranthus  spinosus. — Echinus  Philippinensis. — Curcuma  longa. 

Burns. — Eriodendron  anfractuosum. — Lawsonia  alba. 

Rectum,  Prolapsed. — Pterocarpus. — Acacia  Farnesiana. — Psidium 
pomiferum. 

Rheumatism. — Tinospora  crispa. — Crataeva  religiosa. — Ochrocar- 
pus  pentapetalus. — Mesua  ferrea. — Sida  carpinifolia. — Samadera 
Indica.  — Celastrus  paniculata.  — Erythrina  Indica.  — Pongamia  glabra. 
— Momordica. — Alangium  Lamarkii. — Psederia  foetida. — Blumeabal- 
samifera. — Spilanthes  Acmella. —  Plumeria  acutifolia. — Calotropis 
gigantea. — Ipomoea  pes-capra3. — Datura  alba. — Oroxylum  Indicum. 
— Acanthus  ilicifolius. — Justicia  Gendarussa. — Vitex. — Ocimum. — 
Rosmarinus  officinalis. — Anisomeles  ovata. — Euphorbia  Tirucalli. — 
Zingiber  officinale. — Allium  sativum. — Andropogon  Schoenanthus 
and  A.  nardus. 

Kidneys,  Affections  of. — Sida  carpinifolia. — Zea  Mays. 

Syphilis. — Tinospora  crispa. — Erythrina  Indica. — Hydrocotyle  Asi- 
atica. — Alangium  Lamarkii. — Nerium  odorum. — Calotropis  gigantea. 
— Ehretia  buxifolia. — Cassytha  filiformis. — Euphorbia  Tirucalli. — 
Acalypha  Indica. 

Taeniae.     (See  "  Anthelmintics.") 

Phthisis. — Garaga  pinnata. 

Tumors. — Trichosanthes  palmata. — SphaBranthus  Indicus. — Ipo- 
moea  pes-caprse. 

Ulcers,  Wounds,  Sores,  etc. — Tinospora  crispa. — Dipterocarpus 
turbinatus. — Hibiscus  tiliaceus. — Sterculia  foetida. — Canarium  com- 
mune.— Melia  Azedarach. — Cedrela  Toona. — Mangifera  Indica. — An- 
acardium occidentale.— Odina  Wodier.— Erythrina  Indica.— Pongamia 
glabra. — Kalanchoe  laciniata. — Terminalia  Catappa  and  T.  Chebula. 
— Psidium  pomiferum. — Melastoma  malabatrichum. — Hydrocotyle 


256        THE  MEDICINAL  PLANTS  OF  THE  PHILIPPINES 

Asiatica. — Morinda  citri folia.— Eupatorium  Ayapana. — Blumea  bal- 
samifera.  — Spilanthes  Acmella. — Artemisia  vulgaris. — Mimusops 
Elengi. — Ipomoea  pes-capra3. — Solanum  nigrum. —  Nicotiana  Ta- 
bacum. — Tectonagrandis. — Phyllanthus  Niruri. — Acalyphalndica. — 
Ricinus  communis. — Artocarpus  integrifolia. — Casuarina  Sumatrana. 
— Nipa  fruticans. — Carica  Papaya. 

Urticaria. — Phyllanthus  reticulatus. 

Bladder,  Affections  of. — Cissampelos  Pareira. — Portulaca  oleracea. 
— Dipterocarpus  turbinatus. — Urena  sinuata. — Abrus  precatorius. — 
Clitoria  ternata. — Pterocarpus. — Lawsonia  alba. —  Psederia  foetida. 
— Spilanthus  Acmella. — Allium  sativum. — Zea  Mays. 

Vermes.     (See  "  Anthelmintics.") 


ALPHABETICAL  INDEX 


OF  SYSTEMATIC  AND  COMMON  NAMES  OF  PLANTS 


Abdgabag,  183 

Abilo,  73 

Abroma  angulata,  55 

augusta,  55 

communis,  55 

fastuosa,  55 
Abrus  precatorius,  88 
Abutilon  Indicum,  43 
Acacia  Arabica,  108 

Catechu,  235 

Farnesiana,  108 

Indica,  108 
Acalypha  Caroliniana,  219 

hispida,  220 

Indica,  219 
Acanthacese,  185 
Acanthus  ilicifolius,  185 
Acapuko,  102 
Achiote,  achuete,  32 
Achras  Sapota,  156 
Achuiti,  32 
Achyranthes  aspera,  201 

obtusifolia,  201 
Aconituin  heterophyllum,  155 
Add/a,  165 
Adhatoda  vasica,  188 
Adiantum  lunulatum,  142 
jEgle  decandra,  67 

Marmelos,  70 
Agati  grandiflora,  88 
Agay,  229 
Agt,  177 
Agiw,  76 
Agoho,  agoo,  225 
Agonoy,  152 
Aguason,  171 
Ajengibre,  228 
Ajp,  233 
Ajonjoli,  184 
Alag-ilug  Sonson,  20 
Alayitgit,  173 

22 


Alangium  decapetalum,  138 

hexapetalum,  138 

Lamarkii,  138 

tomentosum,  138 
Albahaca,  195 
AWohol,  176 
Aleurites  Molucca  na,  217 

triloba,  217 
Algodon,  48 
Alibagbag,  105 
AMwn,  150 

Allamanda  cathartica,  159 
Allium  Cepa,  233 

sativum,  233 
Almendro,  110 
Almond,  Indian,  110 

tree,  Java,  73 
Aloes,  232 

Barbadensis,  232 

humilis,  232 

Indica,  232 

vera,  232 

vulgaris,  232 
Alpasotes,  202 
Alstonia  scholaris,  163 
Althaea  officinalis,  45 
Alusiman,  134 
Amaranth,  thorny,  200 
Amaranthacese,  200 
Amaranthus  spinosus,  200,  201 
Amargoso,  132 
Amaryllidaceee,  231 
Ammannia  baccifera,  117 

blistering,  117 

debilis,  117 

Indica,  117 

vesicatoria,  117 
Ammi  copticum,  136 

glaucifolium,  136 
Ainomum  zingiber,  228 
Ampalaya,  ampaka,  132 

257 


258 


INDEX 


Amugis,  86 
Anabo,  55 
Anacardiaceoe,  82 
Anacardium  occidentale,  84 
Anamirta  Cocculus,  24 
Ananagtag,  76 
Andropogon  nardus,  241 

Schoenanthes,  240 
Anethum  foeniculum,  137 
Angod,  201 
Anibog,  55 
Anis,  137 

estrellado,  18 
Anise,  star,  18 
Anisomeles  ovata,  198 
Annatto,  32 
Anona  muricata,  22 

reticulata,  21 

squamosa,  20 

tuberosa,  20 
Anonaceae,  20 
Anonag,  21 
Avonas,  21 
Apalia,  132 
Apalit,  93 
Apalot,  148 
Apamarga,  201 
Apana,  149 
Apariagua,  224 
Apasotis,  202 
Apocynacese,  159 
Apoyapoyan,  31 
Apple,  balsam,  132 

bitter,  133 
Areca,  234 

Catechu,  234 
Argemone  Mexicana,  29 
Aristolochia  Indica,  203 

Serpentaria,  207 
Aristolochia ceee,  203 
Aro,  225 
Arodayday,  175 
Aroganan,  46 
Aroma,  108 
Arroz,  242 
Artabotrys  hamatus,  20 

odoratissimus,  20 

soaveolens,  20 
Artemisia  Indica,  153 

vulgaris,  153 

Artocarpus  integrifolia,  223 
Asana,  93 
Asclepiadacese,  167 
Asclepias  asthmatica,  169 
gigantea,  167 


Ates,  20 
Atsuiti,  32 
Averrhoa  Bilimbi,  60 

Carambola,  60 
Ay  am,  134 
Ayantoto,  200 
Ayapan,  149 
Ayapana,  149 
Ayo,  58 
Ayoban,  150 
Azafrdn,  229 

de  la  tierra,  154 

Babebabe,  112 

Babuy  gubat,  47 

Badiana,  18 

Bael  fruit  tree,  67 

Bagar,  51 

Bagasoa,  175 

Bagati,  bagati  gikosgikos,  88 

Bagbag,  155 

Bagkuro,  148 

.Baft,  212 

J?a£o</,  231 

Bakugan,  76 

Balabalanoyan,  31 

Baladri,  165 

Balanoy,  195 

Bafasin,  24 

Balay-namuk,  32 

Balibago,  46 

Balikbalik,  95 

Balimbin,  60 

Baliyoko,  240 

J?afo#o,  106 

Balotagaso,  100 

Baloyog,  99 

Balsamina,  132 

Bamboo,  243 

Bambus  arundinacea,  243 

arundo,  243 

diffusa,  243 

levis,  244 

mitis,  244 
Bambuseae,  243 
Banana,  227 
Banato,  220 
Banilad,  52 
Banilak,  110 
Bankundo,  148 

Barbadoes  flower-fence,  98 
Barleria  Prionitis,  186 
Barreliera  Prionitis,  186 
Basil,  sacred,  195 

sweet,  195 


INDEX 


259 


Basiloag,  76 
Batobatonis,  210 
Bauhinia  malabarica,  105 

tomentosa,  105 
Bayabas,  113 
Bayag-bayag,  200 
Bayag-,  Bayan-kambig,  96 
Bayati,  24 
Bayno,  28 
Bayogo,  106 
J?at«i0,  233 
Belgaum,  217 
Bentikohol,  228 
Bergera  Koenigi,  65 
Betel-nut  palm,  234 
Betel  pepper,  204 
Bias  pogo,  117 
Bigas,  242 
Bignonia  Indica,  183 

quadripinnata,  183 
Bignoniacese,  183 
BUimbin,  60 
Bilogo,  80 
Binukaw,  36 
Biophytum  cumiagianum,  59 

sensitivum,  59 
Biri,  154 

Birthwort,  Indian,  203 
Bitanhol,  38 
Bitaog,  38 
Bitnog,  53 
Bixa  Orellana,  32 
Bixinea?,  32 

Blumea  balsamifera,  150 
Boboy,  50 
Bobuy-gubat,  50 
J?o£a,  234 
Boho,  244 
Bokawy,  243 
Bolagtob,  176 
Bolobotones,  210 
Bombax  Ceiba,  50 

malabaricum,  50,  183 

pentandrum,  50 
J?owa&,  195 
Bonduc  seeds,  96 
Boraginacese,  173 
Botobotones,  239 
Bowi,  210 
Brassica  juncea,  30 
Brea  blanm,  73 
Bryophyllum  serratum,  109 
Buas,  220 

Bucida  cuminata,  111 
Bugayon,  88 


72 
,  220 

jBw/aA;,  48 

to^i/a,  50 
no,  bundok,  49 
wa  totoo,  49 

Bugulag,  228 

Bulakan,  47,  174 

.Btmfaw,  187 

Burseraoese,  72 

^%to^,  95 

Butterfly  pea,  92 

Butuan,  228 

Buyayawa,  210 

^wyo,  204 

Bu'yok-buyok,  128 


Cabalonga,  171 

Cabalkro,  98 

Cbcoo,  55 

Oi/e,  144 

C%e/,  66 

Csesalpinia  Bonduc,  96 

Bonducella,  96 

pulcherrima,  98 

Sappan,  97 
Calabash,  129 
Calabaza  blanca,  130 

de  peregrino,  129 
Calachuche,  162 
Calophyllum  apetalum,  39 

Calaba,  39 

Inophyllum,  38 
Calotrops  gigantea,  167 
Calyptranthes  Jambolana,  114 
Cambogia  binucao,  36 

venulosa,  36 
Campanelo,  159 
Camphire,  118 
Canarium  album,  73 

commune,  73,  110 

Luzonicum,  73 
Cana,  243 

de  azucar,  241 

dulc,  241 
Oanamiel,  241 
Canafistula,  99 
Capparidacese,  31 
Capsicum,  177 

annuum,  178 

fastigiatum,  177 

minimum,  177 
Carapa  Moluccensis,  78 

Guianensis,  78 
Caraway,  136 


260 


INDEX 


Cardamon,  230 
Carica  Papaya,  123 
Carmonea  heterophylla,  173 
Carpopogon  pruriens,  90 
Carthamus  tinctorius,  154 
Carum  ajowan,  136 

copticum,  136 
Cashew  nut,  84 
Cassia,  208 

alata,  102 

fistula,  99 

lignea,  208 

occidental  is,  99 

purging,  99 

sophera,  103 

tora,  103 

Cassie  flower,  108 
Cassuvium  reniforme,  84 
Cassytha  filiformis,  209 
Castor  oil  plant,  222 
Casuarina  equisetifolia,  225 

Sumatrana,  225 
Casuarinese,  225 
Cavallium  urens,  52 
Ceanothus  Wightiana,  82 
Cebolla,  233 
Cedrela  odorata,  79 

Toona,  79,  207 
Celastracese,  80 
Celastrus  alnifolia,  80 

paniculata,  80 

Rothiana,  80 
Celosia  mana,  117 
Cerbera  manghas,  161 

Odallam,  161 

Thevetia,  159 
Ckachachachahan,  190 
Champaca,  19 
Chavica  auriculata,  204 

Betle,  204 
Chenopodiaceae,  202 
Chenopodium  ambrosioides,  202 
Chico,  chiko,  156 
Chili  picante,  177 
China  tree,  75 
Chinchaochinchauan,  26 
Chinchona  excelsa,  140 
Chloranthacese,  207 
Chloranthus  inconspicuus,  207 

Indicus,  207 

officinalis,  207 

Chondrodendron  tomentosum,  26 
Cica  decandra,  214 
Cinamomo  del  pais,  118 
Cinnamomum  Culilowan,  207 


Cinnamomum  pauciflorum,  208 

tamala,  208 

Cissampelos  Pareira,  26,  155 
Citrullus  Colocynthis,  133 
Citrus  acida,  65 

aurantiura,  66 

Bigaradia,  66 

Decumana,  67 

notissima,  65 

reticulata,  67 

vulgaris,  66 
Cleoine  alliacea,  31 

alliodora,  31 

icosandra,  31 

pentaphylla,  31 

viscosa,  31 
Clerodendron  fortunatum,  194 

infortunatum,  194 
Clitoria  ternatea,  92 
Clompanus  major,  51 
Cocas  de  Levante,  24 
Cocculus  crispus,  22 

lacunosus,  24 

suberosus,  24 
Coco,  236 
Coco-grass,  239 
Coconut,  236 
Cocos  nucifera,  236 
Coffea  Arabica,  144 
Coffee,  144 

Negro,  100 
Coleus  aromaticus,  196 

atropurpureus,  197 

grandifolius,  197 

suganda,  196 
Colocynth,  133 
Coloquintida,  133 
Colosanthes  Indica,  183 
Combretacese,  110 
Cominos^  137 
Composite,  149 
Connarus  foetens,  64 

santaloides,  64 
Consuelda,  213 
Convolvulacese,  174 
Convolvulus  maximus,  176 

nil,  174 

pes-caprse,  175 

Turpethum.  176 
Conyza  balsamifera,  150 
Coral  tree,  Indian,  91 
Coriander,  137 
Coriandrum  sativum,  137 
Corn,  240 
Cornaceae,  138 


INDEX 


261 


Cotton,  48 

Cotyledon  laciniata,  109 
Crassulaceae,  109 
Cratseva  religiosa,  32 
Crinum  Asiaticum,  231 

giganteum,  231 
Croton  glandulosum,  218 

muricatum,  218 

Philippense,  220 

purging,  218 

Tiglium,  218 
Crucifene,  30 
Cucumis  Colocynthis,  133 
Cucurbita  lagenaria  oblonga,  129 

villosa,  130 
Cucurbitacese,  127 
Culantro,  137 
Cuminum  cynimum,  137 
Curcuma  longa,  229 
Custard  apple,  20 
Cyamus  mysticus,  28 

Nelumbo,  28 
Cyperacese,  239 
Cyperus  rotundus,  239 

Dalaw,  229 
Dallopaiven,  163 
Dalondon,  190 
Dalugdug,  96 
Dcdupan,  45 
Damoghiya,  59 
Damoro,  136 
Dangla,  192 
Dankagi,  171 
Dankalan,  38 
Dapdap,  91 
Daraput,  71 
Darasig,  58 
Daripay,  175 
Datura  alba,  178 

fastuosa,  179 

Metel,  178 

Stramonium,  178 
Daucus  anisodorus,  136 

copticus,  136 
Dayap,  65 
Daytanag,  93 
Dendrocalamus  flagellifer,  244 

sericens,  244 
Dhatura,  178 
Dianthera  subserrata,  187 
Dicotyledonous,  Gamopetalous,  140 

Polypetalous,  17 
Diglas,  diglas,  111 
Dilag  boaya,  232 


j  229 
Diliwariw,  185 
Dilleniaceae,  17 
Dinkalin,  38 
Diosma  serrata,  80 
Dipterocarpese,  40 
Dipterocarpus  alatus,  40 

incanus,  40 

Indicus,  40 

Mayapis,  40 

trinervis,  40 

turbinatus,  40 
Dita,  163 

tree,  163 
Dokotdekot,  201 
Dddol,  50 

Dolichos  pruriens,  90 
Dolo-ariw,  185 
Dool,  86 

Duhat,  duat,  114 
.Dukum,  45 
Dulawari,  185 
Dulupag,  43 
Dysoxylum  Blancoi,  76 

salutare,  76 

schizochitoides,  77 

Echinus  Philippinensis,  220 
Echites  scholans,  163 
Ehretia  buxifolia,  173 
Elemi,  East  Indian,  73 
Elettaria  Cardamomum,  230 
Entada  Purssetha,  106 

scandens,  106 

Eriodendron  anfractuosum,  50 
Erythrina  carnea,  91 

corallodendron,  91 

Indica,  91 
Eskobayhaba,  42 
Eugenia  Jambolana,  114 
Eupatorium  Ayapana,  149,  182 
Euphorbia  capitata,  210 

hirta,  210 

ligularia,  212 

neriifolia,  212 

pentagona,  212 

pilulifera,  210 

Tirucalli,  213 
Euphorbiaceae,  210 
Exile,  the,  159 
Exostema  Philippicum,  140 

Fagara  piperita,  63 
Fennel,  137 
Fever  nut,  96 


262 


INDEX 


Foeniculum  panmorium,  137 

officinale,  137 

vulgare,  137 
Feronia  elephantum,  69 

ternata,  67 
Ficoidese,  134 
Flares  y  Rosas  Caballero,  98 
Four  o'clock,  199 

Gabuen,  150 
Gadelupa  maculata,  95 
Galonalpas,  239 
Gamagamatisan,  176 
Gamboge  tree,  136 
Gamut  sa  buni,  102 
Gandarussa  vulgaris,  187 
Gapasgapas,  192 
Garcinia  Cambogia,  36 

Hanburii,  37 

mangostana,  35 

morella,  36 

pedicellata,  36 

venulosa,  36 
Gardenia  spinosa,  142 
Garlic,  233 
Garuga  floribunda,  72 

Madagascarensis,  72 

pinnata,  72 
Gatasan  puld,  36 
Gatasgatas,  210 
Gaway-gaway,  27 
Geraniacese,  58 
Geranium  grass,  240 
Gikosgikos,  88 
Gilalas,  199 
Gilw-giliyan,  43 
Gilla  nuts,  106 
Ginger,  228 
Gintingintin,  150 
Gogo,  106 
Gohog  bakay,  106 
Golondrina,  210 
Gossypium  arboreum,  49 

Earbadense,  48 

Capas,  48 

herbaceum,  48 

Indicum,  48 
Gourd,  bottle,  129 

common,  129 

pilgrim's,  129 

white,  130 
Goyabano,  guyabano,  22 
Graminese,  240 
Granada,  120 
Granatis,  116 


Guanabano,  22 

Guava,  113 

Guayabas,  113 

Gubat,  194 

Guilandina  Bonducella,  96 

Moringa,  86 
Gumamila,  46 
Gurjun,  40 
Guttiferse,  35 
Gynandropsis  pentaphylla,  31 

Jfagonog,  152 

Halahafa,  128 

Hamitanago,  53 

Hamlibon,  150 

Hangor,  201 

Hangot,  201 

Helicteres  clirysocalyx,  54 

Ixora,  54 

Roxburgh!!,  54 

Hemp,  perennial  Indian,  55 
Hibiscus  Abelmoschus,  45 

Rosa-Sinensis,  46 

tiliaceus,  46 
Hierba  de  San  Pablo,  de  San  Pedro,  214 

mora,  176 
Higo,  228 
Higotbaktto,  42 
Himamaw,  77 
Hitam,  110 
Hojas  de  buyo,  204 
Horse  radish  tree,  86 
Huligaga,  140 
Hydnocarpus  inebrians,  132 

polyandra,  33 

Hydrocotyle  Asiatica,  134,  142 
Hymenodictyon  excelsum,  140 

Horsfieldii,  140 

Ibabaw,  99 
Icica  Abilo,  72 
Igasud,  171 
Iffiw,  76 
Ignatia  amara,  171 

Philippinea,  171 
Hay-Hay  de  China,  20 
lllicium  anisatum,  18 
Ipomcea  hederacea,  174 

nil,  174 

pes-caprse,  175 

Turpethem,  176 
Itmo,  204 
Ixora  bandhuca,  143 

coccinea,  143 


INDEX 


263 


Jalap,  Indian,  176 
Jambul,  114 
Jasmine,  Arabian,  158 

Jasmium  Sambac,  158 
Jatropha  Curcas,  215 

multifida,  216 
Jengibre,  228 
Jequirity,  88 
Jujube  tree,  81 
Jussisea  erecta,  122 

suffruticosa,  122 

yillosa,  122 
Justicia  adhatoda,  188 

Gendarussa,  187 

nasuta,  189 

Kabalogan,  171 
Kabattii,  82 
Kahili,  157 
Kabrab,  91 
Kahel,  kaJitt,  66 
Kala-danah,  174 
Kalambibit,  96 
Kalamias,  60 
Kalanchoe  laciniata.  109 
KalanUis,  79 
Kalasmi,  162 
Kalatsutsi,  162 
Kalawaga,  229 
Kalayati,  190 
Kaligag,  208 
Kalisay,  110 
Xalitis,  200 
Kalugay,  86 
Kalumpag,  51 
sa  lati,  78 
Kamala,  220 
Kamalagi,  104 
Kamalugay,  86 
Ka-Maria,  153 
Kamela,  220 
Kamias,  60 
Kamigag,  175 
Kamot-kabag,  96 
Kamunig,  64 
Kanaasaga,  88 
Kanbil,  220 
Kandaroma,  208 
Kanlara,  171 
Kantutce,  Kantutan,  149 
Kanyin,  40 
Kapal-kapal,  167 
Kapanitulot,  187 
A^i/t,  217 
Karambauaya,  212 


JTaro,  225 
Karukansoli,  199 
Kasabba,  154 
Kasindik,  91 
Kasltas,  102 
JTas/a,  215 
Kastio,  kastiogan,  45 
Kastuli,  45 
Rastumba,  154 
Kasubha,  154 
Kasubhag-dso,  29 
Kasupagit,  194 
Kasuy,  84 
Katagkatag,  175 
Katdkatakd,  109 
Kataloga,  171 
^Tatowrfd,  102 
Katbologan,  171 
Katsumba,  154 
Katuray,  88 
Katwit,  213 
^aya^a,  46 
Kayutana,  63 
Kawayag-totoo,  243 
Kilingiwa,  60 
^7^is,  200 
Kinamboy,  229 
Kleinhovia  hospitata,  53 
Kokogmanok,  186 
Kolasiman,  34 
Kolokantig,  kohkatig,  92 
Kolonkogon,  195 
-Kbn^i,  58 
Konty,  176 
^Topa^,  107 
Kuakuakohan,  43 
Kuanton,  200 
Kukubttan,  128 
Kulanta,  186 
^w/i<,  148 

Kulutan,  ktdutkulutan,  44 
Kuragda,  128 

,  239 
,  176 


Labiate,  195 
Lagayray,  175 
Lagenaria  clavata,  130 

courgourda,  129 

Gourda,  129 
^vulgaris,  129 
Lag  is,  184 
Lagiwlagiw,  185 
Lagkawas,  230 
Ldgkuas,  230 


264 


INDEX 


Lago,  154 

Lagpakon,  176 

Lagundi,  192 

Lagundig  gayag,  192 

La'kadbulan,  150 

La-katan,  228 

Lakbanbulan,  150 

Zayfcta</,  24 

Lalakdan,  150 

Lambayog,  175 

Lampayog,  175 

Lamudio,  136 

Lanigpa,  •  79 

.Lanfa,  24 

Lantin,  llanten,  199 

Laportea  Gaudichaudiana,  224 

Lasuna,  233 

Lauracese,  208 

Laurus  culilaban,  208 

Lawas,  27 

Lawsonia  alba,  118 

inermis,  118 

spinosa,  118 
£a?/a,  228 

Leadwort,  white-flowered,  155 
Leguminosse,  Cesalpinacese,  96 

Mimosese,  106 

Papilionacese,  88 
Lemon,  65 
Lengua  de  perro,  212 
Letondag,  228 
Leucas  aspera,  199 
Libdy,  201 
Ligd,  184 
Ligaton,  224 
Ligasina,  222 
it^a^,  24 
Liliaceffi,  232 
ii/ifan,  149 

Limnophila  menthastrum,  182 
Isimon,  65 
Linatoganak,  71 
iiwo,  148 
Lintag  bagin,  24 
I0po,  224 
Lipagdoton,  224 
Lipay,  90 

Lippia  nodiflora,  190 
Live-for-ever,  109 
io</d,  184 
Loganiacese,  171 
Lokoloko,  195 
Lombayog,  99 
Lomboy,  114 
Lotus,  sacred,  28 


Lubilubi,  176 

Luffa  ^Egyptiaca,  131 

pentandra,  131 

petola,  131 
Zrtt^ro,  110 
Lukban,  67 
Lumban,  217 
iw/a,  228 
Lythracese,  11.7 

Magatas,  210 
Magnoliacese,  18 
Magit,173 
Mahihiin,  59 
3/<m,  240 
Maize,  240 
Makabuhay,  22 
Makahiya,  59 
Makaligag,  208 
Makasili,  76 
MalaapoM,  239 
Malabagaw,  76 
Malabago,  46 
Malabalugbug-dagis,  58 
Malabohok,  209,  225 
Malabukbuk,  39 
Malakabuyaiv,  67 
Malakatmon,  17 
Malapoko,  122 
Malaubi,  203 
Malawin,  192 
Malinta,  214 
JfaKs,  43 
Maliaa,  206 
MaMsmalis,  210 
Mallotus  Philippensis,  220 
Malugay,  86 
Malugil,  86 
Malvaceae,  42 
Jfafeas  de  Castitta,  43 
Mamalis,  42 
Mambog,  148 
Mamin,  204 
Mamon,  204 
Jfana,  216 
Mananaog,  171 
Jfan^a,  82 

Mangifera  Indica,  82 
Mangostdn,  35 
Mangosteen,  35 
Maniinanihan,  103 
Manungal,  manunagl,  71 
Manungala  pendula,  71 
Manzanitas,  81 
Marapoto,  45 


INDEX 


•265 


MaravilUus,  199 
Marikum,  marukum,  45 
Marjoram,  196 
Marsh  mallow,  45 
Marvel  of  Peru,  199 
Mayana,  197 
May  apis,  40 
Melastomacese,  116 
Melastoma  aspera,  116 

malabatrichum,  116 

obvoluta,  116 

obvolutum,  116 
Melia  Azedarach,  75 
Meliacese,  75 
Menispermacese,  22 
Menispermum  Cocculus,  22 

crispum,  24 

lacunosum,  24 

rimosum,  22 
Mesua  ferrea,  39,  143 
Michelia  Champaca,  19 
Migi,  78 
Mimosa  Farnesiana,  108 

peregrina,  107 
Mimusops  Elengi,  157 
Mirabilis  Jalapa,  199 

longiflora,  199 
Molawin,  194 
Molopolo,  44 
Momordica  balsamina,  132 

Charanta,  132 

cylindrica,  132 

muricata,  132 

operculata,  131 
Monkey-face  tree,  220 
Monocotyledons,  227 
Morado,  228 
Morinda  bracteata,  148 

citrifolia,  148 

ligulata,  148 

Koyoc,  148 

tinctoria,  149 
Moringa  oleifera,  86 

poligona,  86 

pterigosperma,  86 
Moringese.  86 
Mostaza,  30 
Mota,  239 
Mucuma  pruriens,  90 

prurita,  90 

utilis,  90 
Mudar,  167 
Mulberry,  Indian,  148 
Murraya  exotica,  64 

Koenigi,  65 

23 


Murraya  odorata,  69 

paniculata,  64 
Musa  paradisiaca,  227 

sapientum,  227 
Musaceae,  227 
Musla-saraul,  50 
Mustard,  30 

wild,  31 
Mutha,  239 
Myrobalans,  111 
Myrtacese,  113 

Naga,  93 

Nagamulli,  189 

Nagesur,  Nag-kasar,  40 

Nagka,  223 

Namakpakan,  38 

Naranjas,  67 

Naranjas  del  pais,  66 

Naranjita,  67 

Naira,  93 

Nato,  110 

Nelumbium  Asiaticum,  28 

nucifera,  28 

speciosum,  28 
Nerium  odorum,  165 

oleander,  165 
Nicotiana  Tabacum,  180 
Nightshade,  black  or  commoD,  176 
Nigi,  78 
Nino,  148 
Niog,  236 
Niogniogan,  112 
Niota  tetrapela,  71 
Nipa,  238 

fruticans,  238 
Nipay,  90 
Nutgrass,  239 
Nyctaginacese,  199 
Nyctanthes  Sambac,  158 
Nymphaea  Lotus,  27 
Nymphseacese,  27 

Obispo,  228 

Ochrocarpus  pentapetalus,  38 

Ocimum  Americanum,  195 

basilicum,  195 

flexuosum,  195 

gratissimum,  195 

sanctum,  195 

virgatum,  195 
Odina  Wodier,  86 
Olasiman,  34 
Oldenlandia  biflora,  141 

burmaniana,  141 


266 


Oldenlandia  corymbosa,   141 

herbacea,  141 

ramosa,  141 

scabrida,  141 
Oleacese,  158 
Oleander,  sweet-scented,  165 

Yellow,  159 
Omadmg,  239 
Onagracese,  122 
Onion,  233 
Onoran,  239 
Onty,  176 

Ophelia  chirata,  194 
Opo,  130 
Orange,  66 
Orayi,  200 
Oregano,  196 
Oriza,  242 

Oroxylum  Indicum,  183 
Osiw,  243 
Oxalis  Acetosella,  58 

corniculata,  58 

sensitivum,  59 

Psederia  foetida,  149 

sessiflora,  149 
Paja  de  Meca,  240 
Pakaymnkon-kastila,  102 
Pakupis,  128 
Palagarium,  71 
Pa%,  242 
Palmse,  234 
Palo  del  Brasil,  97 

Maria,  38 
Palunay,  152 
Pamalis,  42 
Paminta,  206 
Pamunoan,  69 
Panampat,  53 
Pandnn,  110 
Pangaguason,  171 
Pan#?:,  33 

Pangium  edule,  33 
Pankundo,  148 
Panoan,  69 
Pansipansi,   199 
Papaveracese,  29 
Papaw,  123 

Papaya,  123 
Paraiso,  75 
Pareira  brava,  26 
Parta,  132 
Parkia  biglobosa,  107 

Brunonis,  107 

Roxburgh!!,  107 


J'axofis,  202 

Passifloraceae,  123 

Paypaysi,  199 

Pedaliacese,  184 

Pennywort,  Indian,  134 

Pepito,  171 

sa  katbalogan,  171 
sa  katbologan,  171 

Pepper,  black,  206 
red,  177 

Pernambuko,  49 
Phlomis  alba,  198 

Zeylanica,  199 
Phyllanthus  Niruri,  214 

reticulatus,  214 

urinaria,  214 

Physic  nuts,  English,  96 
Pias,  60 

Picrorrhiza  kurroa,  155 
Pili,  pilis,  43,  73 
Pimienta,  206 
Pinkapinka,  183 
Pinkapinkahan,  183 
Piper  Betel,  204 

Betle,  204 

nigrum,  206 
Piperacese,  204 
Plantaginacese,  199 
Plantago  crenata,  199 

erosa,  199 

media,  199 
Plantain,  199 
Platano,  227 
Plum,  black,  114 
Plumbaginese,  155 
Plumbago  viscosa,  155 

Zeylanica,  155 
Plumeria  acutifolia,  162 

alba,  162 

Poinciana  pulcherrima,  98 
Polanisia  viscosa,  31 
Pomegranate,  120 

Pongamia  glabra,  95 
Poppy,  Mexican,  29 
Portulaca  axiflora,  134 

oleracea,  34 

toston,  134 
Portulacese,  34 
Prayerbeads,  88 
Pride  of  India,  75 
Psidium  aromaticum,  113 

pomiferum,  113 

pyriferum,  113 
Pterocarpus  echinatus,  93 

erinaceus,  93 


INDEX 


267 


Pterocarpus  Indicus,  93 

marsupium,  94 

pallidus,  93 

santalinus,  93 
Pukingag,  92 
Pukopukot,  128 
Punica  Granatum,  120 
Purslane,  34 

Quisqualis  Indica,  112 
spinosa,  112 
villosa,  112 

Rdbano,  30 
Rabasa,  134 

Radish,  30 

Rciiz  de  mom,  241 
Randia  aculeata,  142 

dumetorum,  54,  142 

longispina,  142 

stipulosa,  142 
Raphanus  sativus,  30 
Rhamnacese,  81 
Rharanus  Carolinianus,  81 

Jujuba,  81 

Wightii,  82 

Rhinacanthus  communis,  189 
Rice,  242 
Ricinus  communis,  222 

microcarpus,  222 

Subpurpurascens,  223 

viridis,  223 
Robinia  mills,  95 
Romero,  197 
Rosas- CabaUero,  116 
Rose  of  China,  46 
Rosemary,  197 
Rosmarinus  officinalis,  197 
Rottlera  tinctoria,  220 
Rubiacese,  140 
Ruda,  61 
Rue,  61 
Ruta  angustifolia,  61 

graveolens,  61 
Rutacese,  61 

Sabd,  228 

Sabila,   232 

Saccharum  officinarum,  241 

Sacred  lotus,  28 

Safflower,  dyer's,  154 

Saffron,  bastard,  154 

Saga,  88 

Sagamamin,  88 

Sagdib't,  155 


ig,  227 
Sage,  Jerusalem,  198 

Sagki,  18 

St.  Ignatius'  bean,  171 

Sdladay,  63 

Salagsalag,  128 

Scday,  63,  240 

Saligbobag,  32 

Salig^wok,  194 

Salimpokot,  128 

Samadera  Indica,  71 

Samat,  204 

Sambak,  104 

Sambog-gala,  151 

Samb<m,  150 

Sampaga,  158 

Sampaguitas,  158 

Sampaka,  19 

Sampalok,  104 

Samphire,  118 

Sandalwood  tree,  red,  93 

Sandoricum  Indicum,  77 

Sansawsansawan,  26 

Santa  Maria,  153 

Santalum  rubrum,  93 

Santan,  143 

Santol,  77 

Sapag,  97 

Sapotacese,  156 

Sappan  wood,  97 

Sasa,  238 

Saunders,  red,  93 

Sayikan,  210 

Scnizostachyum  acutiflorum,  243 

Screw  tree,  Indian,  54 

Senna,  western,  100 

Sesame,  184 

Sesamum  Indicum,  184 

Sesbania  grandiflora,  88 

Sibukao,  97 

Sibuyas,  233 

Sida  acuta,  42 

carpinifolia,  42 

frutescens,  42 

Indica,  43 

stipulata,  42 
Siempreviva,  109 
Sili,  177 

Simarubacese,  71 
Sinampaga,  142 
Sinapis  alba,  30 

juncea,  30 

nigra,  30 
Sisiwhan,  210 
Sobsob,  150 


268 


INDEX 


Solanum  Dulcamara,  177 

nigrum,  176 
Solasi,  195 
Solasolasian,  1W 
Sontig,  suntig,  102 
Sorog-sorog,  sorosoro,  212 

Sorrel,  Indian,  58 
Sphceranthus  hirtus,  151 

Indicus,  151 

mollis,  151 

Spilanthes  Acmella,  152,  228 
Star  anise,  18 
Sterouliacese,  51 
Sterculia  cordifolia,  52 

foetida,  51 

polyphilla,  51 

urens,  52 
Slrychnos  Ignatii,  171 

Philippensis,  171 
Sudda,  213 
Suganda,   196 
Sugar  cane,  241 
Sugot-olag,  214 
Suha,  67 
Sukaw,  28 
Sulbag,  91 
6'wma,  24 
Sumalagi,  104 
Sursur,  239 
Susog  damulog,  20 
Susokayoli,  58 
Suspiros,  199 
Swallow- wort,  167 
Swertia  Chirata,  128 
Syzygium  Jarnbolanum,  114 

Tabaco,  180 
Tabayag,   129 
Tabig,  43 
Tabigi,  78 
Tabobog,128 
Tabog,  67 
Tacamahaca,  39 
Tce-tce,,  149 
Tagaktayak,  189 
Tagaraw,  112 
Tagaray,  175 
Taghilaw,  183 
Taglinaw,  50 
Tagantagan,  222 

na  morado,  223 
Ta^/arf,  240 
Tagudin,  38 
Taiwan  dogd,  58 


),  17S 
/,  134 

«MSO,    134 

Taklay-anak,  36 
^bA^ws^  148 
Takurayan,  46 
Tafa,  182 

odorata,  182 
Talatala,  182 
Talamponay,  178 

wa  lYim,  179 
Talankaiv,  155 
Ta%/o,  27 
Taliantar,  148 
Taliatan,  76 
Taligharap,   198 
Ta/isay,  110 
'/'afoftt,  50 
Tamarind,  104 
Tamarindo,  104 
Tamarindus  Indica,  104 
Tamawian,  38 
Tambalisa,  101 
I'ampuhig,  228 
2ana#,  53 
Tangoton,  112 
Tapulaya,  46 
Taramhampam,   182 
Taratora,  182 
Tartar  aw,  112 
Tawatawa,  215 
Tawatawasiga,  222 
Tawawa,  210 
Tayabas,  113 
Taywanak,  244 
Tea,  Mexican,  202 
Teak  tree,  190 
2'eca,  190 

Tectona  grandis,  190 
Terminalia  Catappa,  110 

Chebula,  111,  115,  127,  155 

mauriciana,  110 

rnoluccana,  110 

reticulata,  111 
Tetracera  Assa,  17 

macrophylla,  17 

monocarpa,  17 

Rheedi,  17 

sarmentosa,  17 
Tlieobroma  (Jacao,  55 
Thespesia  populnea,  47 
Thevetia  nerifolia,  159 
Tiyhiman,  100 
,  185 
190 


INDEX 


269 


Tilites,  200 
Timbagan,  203 
Tinntinaan,  214 
Tindag-bayag,  171 
Tinisas,  153 
Tinospora  cordifolia,  23 

crispa,  22 
Tintatintahan,  214 
Titiw,  185 
Tobacco,  180 
Toktok-kalo,  161 
Tortmjas,  67 
Tostow,  134 

Tovomita  pentapetala,  38 
Tree,  alstonia  or  dita,  163 

Black  Myrobalan,  111 

Jack  fruit,  223 
Trianthema  monogyna,  134 

obcordata,  134* 
Trichosanthes  amara,  128 

anguina,  128 

cucumerina,  128 

lucioniana,  127 

palmata,  127 

tricuspis,  127 
Tsampaka,  19 
Tsatsatsatsahan,  190 
Tsiku,  156 
Tuba,  24,  215 

kamaisa,  218 
Tubo,  241 
Tumbogaso,  148 
Tumboug  aso,  kapay,  148 
Tunas,  27 

Turmeric  plant,  229 
Turpeth  root,  216 
Turroea  octandra,  77 

virens,  76 
Tylophora  asthmatica,  169 

Umbellifers?,  134 


Unona  uncinata,  20 
Urena  morifolia,  44 

multifida,  44 

muricata,  44 

sinuata,  44 
Urticacese,  223 
Urtica  ferox,  224 

umbellata,  224 
Uvaria  Sinensis,  20 

Verbena  capitata,  190 

nodiflora,  190 
Verbenaceae,  190 
Verdolagas,  34 
Vitex  Leucoxylon,  192 

Negundo,  192 

repens,  192 

trifolia,  192 
Vuas,  220 

Walnut,  Indian,  217 
Wars,  220 
Water  lily,  27 
Wawalisan,  42 
Weed,  styptic,  100 
Wood  apple,  69 
Wormseed,  American,  202 
Wormwood,  Indian,  153 

Xanthoxylum  oxyphyllum,  63 

violaceum,  63 
Xylocarpus  granatum,  78 

Yate,  190 
Yayo,  58 

Zea  Mays,  240 
Zingiberaceae,  228 
Zingiber  officinale,  228 
Zizypbus  Jujuba,  81 
*  Mauritania,  81 


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